Is men’s out-­migration empowering women farmers in rural Nepal?

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Is men’s out-­migration empowering women farmers in rural Nepal?

  1. 1. Is  men’s  out-­‐migra0on  empowering   women  farmers  in  rural   Mohanraj  Adhikari Resources,  Environment  and  Development Crawford  School  of  Public  Policy ANU
  2. 2. Background  
  3. 3. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate
  4. 4. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate
  5. 5. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate Migrants  –  disproporEonately  Men(87%)
  6. 6. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate Migrants  –  disproporEonately  Men(87%)
  7. 7. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate Migrants  –  disproporEonately  Men(87%) Consequences  -­‐  family  leN  behind
  8. 8. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate Migrants  –  disproporEonately  Men(87%) Consequences  -­‐  family  leN  behind
  9. 9. Background   MigraEon  -­‐  livelihoods  strategy  –  disproporEonate Migrants  –  disproporEonately  Men(87%) Consequences  -­‐  family  leN  behind Consequences  on  women  farmers
  10. 10. Consequences • FeminizaEon  of  agriculture
  11. 11. Nepal  IntroducEon
  12. 12. Nepal  IntroducEon
  13. 13. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one
  14. 14. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one
  15. 15. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one • Ecologically  diverse
  16. 16. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one • Ecologically  diverse
  17. 17. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one • Ecologically  diverse • Culturally  diverse
  18. 18. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one • Ecologically  diverse • Culturally  diverse
  19. 19. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one • Ecologically  diverse • Culturally  diverse
  20. 20. Nepal  IntroducEon • 3  countries  in  one • Ecologically  diverse • Culturally  diverse
  21. 21. Study  Area Three  loca*ons  (districts)  
  22. 22. Study  Area Three  loca*ons  (districts)  
  23. 23. Study  Area Three  loca*ons  (districts)  
  24. 24. Study  Area Three  loca*ons  (districts)  
  25. 25. Study  Area Three  loca*ons  (districts)  
  26. 26. Study  Area Three  loca*ons  (districts)  
  27. 27. Sample
  28. 28. Sample • Interview  respondents  -­‐  voter  list  (random)
  29. 29. Sample • Interview  respondents  -­‐  voter  list  (random) • 50%  women  headed  households  selected
  30. 30. Sample • Interview  respondents  -­‐  voter  list  (random) • 50%  women  headed  households  selected • 150  respondents  –  each  district
  31. 31. Sample • • • • Interview  respondents  -­‐  voter  list  (random) 50%  women  headed  households  selected 150  respondents  –  each  district Target  to  include  110  each
  32. 32. Sample • • • • • Interview  respondents  -­‐  voter  list  (random) 50%  women  headed  households  selected 150  respondents  –  each  district Target  to  include  110  each Individual  interview  -­‐326  households  (HHs)
  33. 33. Sample  HHs MigraEon  status Kalikot HHs  having  at  least  one   74 male  migrant  member District Dailekh 71 Bardia Total 59 204 Non  Migrant  HH 35 36 51 122 Total 109 107 110 326 Migrant  HH  percentage Na*onal  average  (%)   (NLSS,  2011) 68 66 54 63 44
  34. 34. Sample  HHs Household  Head  by  Sex   Man Frequency 215 Percent 66.0 Woman 111 34.0 Total 326 100.0
  35. 35. Women  Empowerment  in  Ag  Index
  36. 36. Women  Empowerment  in  Ag  Index • ObjecEvely  measures  Women  empowerment   in  Ag
  37. 37. Women  Empowerment  in  Ag  Index • ObjecEvely  measures  Women  empowerment   in  Ag • Five  domains – Produc*on – Resources   – Income – Leadership – Time
  38. 38. WEAI  Indicators Indicator Input  in  produc*ve  decisions Autonomy  in  produc*on Ownership  of  assets Purchase,  sell  and  transfer  of  assets Access  and  decision  about  credit Control  over  use  of  Income Group  member Speaking  in  public Workload Leisure Weight 1/10 1/10 1/15 1/15 1/15 2/10 1/10 1/10 1/10 1/10
  39. 39. Analysis  and  cutoff • Total  score    range  from  0-­‐10 • 3.5  cutoff  point
  40. 40. Results Index,  by  districts MigraEon  and  empowerment District Kalikot Dailekh Bardia Total Index/MigraEon Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No 0.0  -­‐  3.49 25 14 6 17 17 16 48 47 3.5-­‐7.49 48 21 63 19 40 34 151 74 7.5  -­‐  9.99 1 0 2 0 2 1 5 1 Total 74 35 71 36 59 51 204 122 66 60 92 53 71 69 38 22 Empowered  % Not  Empowered   34 40 8 47 29 31 24 39 %
  41. 41. Results Women  headed  household  Vs  Man  headed Kalikot HH  Head Index/Migra*on 0.0  -­‐  3.49 3.5-­‐7.49 7.5  -­‐  9.99 Total Empowered  % Not  Empowered  % Man Yes 20 38 0 58 66 34 No 11 11 0 22 50 50 Woman Yes No 5 3 10 10 1 0 16 13 69 77 31 23
  42. 42. Results Women  headed  household  Vs  Man  headed Dailekh HH  Head Index/Migra*on 0.0  -­‐  3.49 3.5-­‐7.49 7.5  -­‐  9.99 Total Empowered  % Not  Empowered  % Man Yes 4 39 0 43 91 9 No 12 12 0 24 50 50 Woman Yes No 2 5 24 7 2 0 28 12 93 58 7 42
  43. 43. Results Women  headed  household  Vs  Man  headed Bardia HH  Head Index/Migra*on 0.0  -­‐  3.49 3.5-­‐7.49 7.5  -­‐  9.99 Total Empowered  % Not  Empowered  % Man Yes 12 21 0 33 64 36 No 13 22 0 35 63 37 Woman Yes No 5 3 19 12 2 1 26 16 81 81 19 19
  44. 44. Discussion
  45. 45. Discussion • Not  all  male  migraEon  leads  to  women   headedness  of  the  households.  
  46. 46. Discussion • Not  all  male  migraEon  leads  to  women   headedness  of  the  households.   • The  proporEon  of  empowered  women  is   higher  in  women  headed  households  than  in   men  headed.
  47. 47. Discussion • Not  all  male  migraEon  leads  to  women   headedness  of  the  households.   • The  proporEon  of  empowered  women  is   higher  in  women  headed  households  than  in   men  headed. • Presence  of  men  in  the  households  does  NOT   endanger  women  empowerment
  48. 48. Discussion • Not  all  male  migraEon  leads  to  women   headedness  of  the  households.   • The  proporEon  of  empowered  women  is   higher  in  women  headed  households  than  in   men  headed. • Presence  of  men  in  the  households  does  NOT   endanger  women  empowerment • Longer  term  migraEon  and  relaEvely  higher   economic  acEvity  boost  empowerment
  49. 49. Story
  50. 50. Thank  You

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