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  • C:\Documents And Settings\Anne Nuckolls\Desktop\Bipolar Disorder

    1. 1. Bipolar Disorder
    2. 2. Definition • defined in the text as “a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania • the "mood swings" between mania and depression can be very abrupt
    3. 3. Manic phase • elevated mood (hyperactivity, increased energy, lack of self-control, racing thoughts) • inflated self-esteem (false beliefs in special abilities) • extreme optimism • agitation or irritation • little need for sleep • over-involvement in activities • poor temper control • reckless behavior (binge eating, drinking, drug use; impaired judgment, sexual promiscuity, spending sprees) • tendency to be easily distracted; poor performance at work at school • rapid speech
    4. 4. Depressed phase • difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions • eating disturbances (weight loss or weight gain) • fatigue or listlessness • feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness and/or guilt • loss of self-esteem • persistent sadness/thoughts of death • sleep disturbances (excessive sleepiness or inability to sleep) • suicidal thoughts • withdrawal from activities once enjoyed/withdrawal from friends • anxiety/guilt • chronic pain without a known cause
    5. 5. Other signs and symptoms • seasonal changes in mood (manic or hypomanic in spring/summer; depressed in fall/winter) *can be reversed • rapid cycling bipolar disorder (rapid mood shifts > 4 or more mood swings within a single year; in some people within just hours) • psychosis (detachment from reality) - delusions or hallucinations • most common symptoms in children: explosive temper, rapid mood shifts, reckless behavior and aggression, changing sleep patterns
    6. 6. Causes • biological differences (physical changes in brains) • neurotransmitters (imbalance seems to play significant role in bipolar and other mood disorders) • hormones (imbalance can trigger bipolar disorder) • inherited traits (more common in people who have a blood relative with condition; researchers trying to find genes) • environment (stress, abuse, significant loss, or other traumatic experiences)
    7. 7. Risk Factors • affects men and women equally • usually appears between ages 15-25 • blood relatives • periods of high stress • drug or alcohol abuse • major life changes (such as death of a loved one)
    8. 8. Types: Bipolar Disorder 1 • at least one fully manic episode with periods of major depression • was called manic depression in the past
    9. 9. Types: Bipolar disorder II • seldom experience full-fledged mania • instead, they experience periods of hypomania (elevated levels of energy and impulsiveness that are not as extreme as the symptoms of mania) • these hypomanic periods alternate with episodes of major depression
    10. 10. Types: Cyclothymia • mild form of bipolar disorder • involves periods of hypomania and mild depression, with less severe mood swings • may by misdiagnosed as having depression alone (same with bipolar disorder II)
    11. 11. Other conditions that commonly occur • anxiety disorders (PTSD, general anxiety disorders) • ADHD (some overlapping symptoms) • addiction or substance abuse • physical health problems
    12. 12. Treatment • manic phase > antipsychotic medications, lithium, and mood stablilizers • depressive phase > antidepressants • anti-anxiety drugs may also help • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) • getting enough sleep helps keep a stable mood in some patients • psychotherapy may be useful during depressive phase • substance abuse treatment/joining a support group
    13. 13. Electroconvulsive therapy • a psychiatric treatment that uses an electrical current to cause a brief seizure of the central nervous system while the patient is under anesthesia • studies have repeatedly found that ECT is the most effective treatment for depression that is not relieved with medications
    14. 14. Creativity • due to mania’s energy and free-flowing thinking • Handel: composed Messiah during three weeks of intensive, creative energy • Schumman: composed 51 musical works during 2 years of mania
    15. 15. Statistics • affects approximately 5.7 million adult Americans (2.6% of the U.S. population) • median age of onset is 25 years • more than 2/3 have at least one close relative with the disorder • results in 9.2 years reduction in expected life span (as many as 1 in 5 commits suicide)