OBG GLOSSARIESPREPARED AND PRESENTED BYDr . S. ANUKRISHNAN,VICE PRINCIPAL CUM HOD OBG NURSING,P.D.BHARATESH COLLEGE OF NURSING,HALAGA, BELGAUM.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP): Substanceproduced by the unborn baby as it growsinside the uterus.Amino acids: Substances that act asbuilding blocks in the developing embryoand fetus.Amniocentesis: Removal of amnioticfluid from the amniotic sac. Fluid is testedfor some genetic defects
Anovulatory: Lack of or cessation ofovulation.Areola: Pigmented or colored ringsurrounding the nipple of the breast.
Arrhythmia: Irregular or missedheartbeat.Aspiration: Swallowing or sucking aforeign body or fluid, such as vomit, intoan airway.Auto antibodies: Antibodies that attackparts of your body or your own tissues.
Chorionic villus sampling: Diagnostictest done early in pregnancy. A biopsy oftissue is taken from inside the uterusthrough the cervical opening to determineabnormalities of pregnancy.Colostrum: Thin, yellow fluid, which isthe first milk to come from the breast.
Dysplasia: Abnormal, precancerouschanges in the cells of the cervix.Dysuria: Difficulty or pain urinating.
EDC (estimated date of confinement):Anticipated due date for delivery of thebaby. Calculated from the first day of thelast menstrual period.Eclampsia: Convulsions and coma in awoman with pre-eclampsia. Not related toepilepsy.
Ectodermal germ layer: Layer in thedeveloping embryo that gives rise todeveloping structures in the fetus. Theseinclude skin, teeth and glands of themouth, the nervous system and thepituitary gland.
Endodermal germ layer: Area of tissuein early development of the embryo thatgives rise to other structures. Theseinclude the digestive tract, respiratoryorgans, vagina, bladder and urethra.Also called endoderm or entoderm.
Endometrial cycle: Regulardevelopment of the mucous membranelining the inside of the uterus. It beginswith the preparation for acceptance of apregnancy and ends with the shedding ofthe lining during a menstrual period.
Endometrium: Mucous membrane thatlines inside of the uterine wall.
Fallopian tube: Tube that leads from thecavity of the uterus to the area of theovary. Also called uterine tube.False labor: Tightening of uterus withoutdilatation of the cervix.Fasting blood sugar: Blood test toevaluate the amount of sugar in the bloodfollowing a time period of fasting.
Fertilization ageDating a pregnancy from the time offertilization. 2 weeks earlier than thegestational age.
Fetal anomaly: Fetal malformation orabnormal development.Fetal goiter: Enlargement of the thyroidin the fetus.
Fetal-growth retardation (IUGR)Inadequategrowth of thefetus during thelast stages ofpregnancy.
Fetal monitor: Device used before orduring labor to listen to and record thefetal heartbeat. Can be externalmonitoring (through maternal abdomen)or internal monitoring (through maternalvagina) of the baby inside the uterus.
Heartburn: Discomfort or pain thatoccurs in the chest. Often occurs aftereating.Hematocrit: Determines the proportion ofblood cells to plasma. Important indiagnosing anemia.Hemoglobin: Pigment in red blood cellthat carries oxygen to body tissues.
Hydrocephalus:Excessiveaccumulation offluid around thebrain of the baby.Sometimes calledwater on the brain.
Hyperbilirubinemia: Extremely highlevel of bilirubin in the blood.Hyperemesis gravidarum: Severenausea, dehydration and vomiting duringpregnancy. Occurs most frequentlyduring the first trimester.Hyperglycemia: Increased blood sugar.
Hypertension: Pregnancy-induced-highblood pressure that occurs duringpregnancy. Defined by an increase in thediastolic and/or systolic blood pressure.Hyperthyroidism: Elevation of thethyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
Hypoplasia: Defective or incompletedevelopment or formation of tissue.Hypotension: Low blood pressure.Hypothyroidism: Low or inadequatelevels of thyroid hormone in thebloodstream
Immune globulin preparation:Substance used to protect againstinfection with certain diseases, such ashepatitis or measles.In utero: Within the uterus.
Incompetent cervix : Cervix that isunable to remain closed until pregnancyreaches term because of a mechanicaldefect in the cervix resulting in thedilatation and effacement usually secondor early third trimester of pregnancy.
Inevitable abortion: Pregnancycomplicated with bleeding andcramping. Usually results inmiscarriage.
Insulin: Peptide hormone made by thepancreas. It promotes the use ofglucose.Invasive squamous-cell carcinoma:Cancer of the cervix that extends beyondthe cervix into surrounding tissues ordeeper layers.
Iron-deficiency anemia: Anemiaproduced by lack of iron in the diet. Oftenseen in pregnancy.
Isoimmunization: Development ofspecific antibody directed at the redblood cells of another individual, suchas a baby in utero. Often occurs whenan Rh-negative woman carries an Rh-positive baby or is given Rh-positiveblood.
Jaundice: Yellow staining of the skin,sclera (eyes) and deeper tissues of thebody. Caused by excessive amounts ofbilirubin. Treated with phototherapy.
Ketones: Breakdown product ofmetabolism found in the blood,particularly in starvation or uncontrolleddiabetes.Kidney stones: Small mass or lesionfound in the kidney or urinary tract. Canblock the flow of urine.
Laaoo: Process of expelling a fetus fromthe uterus.Laparoscopy: Minor surgical procedureperformed for tubal ligation, diagnosis ofpelvic pain or diagnosis of ectopicpregnancy.
Leukorrhea: Vaginal dischargecharacterized by a white or yellowishcolor. Primarily composed of mucus.Lightening: Change in the shape of thepregnant uterus a few weeks beforelabor. Often described as the baby"dropping.“
Lineanigra: Line of increasedpigmentation running down the abdomenfrom the bellybutton to the pubic areaduring pregnancy.
Malignant GTN: Cancerous change ofgestational trophoblastic disease.Mammogram: X-ray study of thebreasts to identify normal and abnormalbreast tissue.
Mask of pregnancy: Increasedpigmentation over the area of the faceunder each eye. Commonly has theappearance of a butterfly.
Meconium: First intestinal discharge ofthe newborn; green or yellow in colour. Itconsists of epithelial or surface cells,mucus and bile. Discharge may occurbefore or during labor or soon after birth.
Melanoma: Pigmented mole or tumor. Itmay or may not be cancerous.Meningomyelocele: Congenital defectof the central nervous system of thebaby. Membranes and the spinal cordprotrude through an opening or defect inthe vertebral column.
Menstruation: Regular or periodic dischargeof a bloody fluid from the uterus.Mesodermal germ layer: Tissue of theembryo that forms connective tissue,muscles, kidneys, ureters and other organs.Metaplasia: Change in the structure of atissue into another type that is not normal forthat tissue.
MicrocephalyAbnormally smalldevelopment ofthe head in thedeveloping fetus.
Miscarriage: Abortion.Missed abortion: Failed pregnancywithout bleeding or cramping. Oftendiagnosed by ultrasound weeks ormonths after a pregnancy fails.
Mittelschmerz: Pain that coincides withrelease of an egg from the ovary.Monilial vulvovaginitis: Infectioncaused by yeast or monilia. Usuallyaffects the vagina and vulva.
Monozygotic twins: Twins conceivedfrom one egg. Often called identicaltwins.Morning sickness: Nausea andvomiting, without ill health, foundprimarily during the first trimester ofpregnancy.
Morula: Cells resulting from the earlydivision of the fertilized egg at thebeginning of pregnancy.Mucus plug: Secretions in cervix; oftenreleased just before labor.Mutations: Change in the character of agene. Passed from one cell division toanother.
Neural-tube defects: Abnormalities inthe development of the spinal cord andbrain in a fetus. Anencephaly;Hydrocephalus; Spina bifida.
OmphalocelePresence ofcongenital out-pouching of theumbilicus containinginternal organs in thefetus or newborninfant.
Organogenesis: Development of theorgan systems in the embryo.Ossification: Bone formation.Ovarian cycle: Regular production ofhormones from the ovary in response tohormonal messages from the brain. Theovarian cycle governs the endometrialcycle.
Ovulation: Cyclical production of anegg from the ovary.Oxytocin: Medication that causesuterine contractions.
Pap smear: A routine screening test thatevaluates the presence of premalignantor cancerous conditions of the cervix.
Para cervical block: Local anesthetic forcervical dilatation.
Placenta accreta: Placenta thatattaches to muscle of uterus.Placenta increta: Placenta that growsinto muscle of uterus.Placenta percreta: Placenta thatpenetrates muscle of uterus.
Placenta previa: Low attachment of theplacenta, covering or very close to thecervix.Placental abruption: Premature separationof the placenta from the uterus.Placentamegaly: Abnormally large growthof the placenta during pregnancy.
Pre-eclampsia: Combination ofsymptoms significant to pregnancy,including high blood pressure, edema,swelling and changes in reflexes.
Premature delivery: Delivery before37 weeks gestation.Presentation: Describes which part ofthe baby comes into the birth canalfirst.
Proteinuria: Protein in urine.Pruritis gravidarum: Itching duringpregnancy.Pubic symphysis: Bony prominence inthe pelvic bone found in the midline.Landmark from which the doctor oftenmeasures during pregnancy to followgrowth of the uterus.
Pyelonephritis: Serious kidneyinfection.Quickening: Feeling the baby moveinside the uterus.
Rh-negative: Absence of rhesusantibody in the blood.RhoGAM: Medication given duringpregnancy and following delivery toprevent isoimmunization.
Round-ligament pain: Pain caused bystretching ligament on the sides of theuterus during pregnancy.Rupture of membranes: Loss of fluidfrom the amniotic sac. Also calledbreaking of waters.
Spinabifida: Congenital abnormalitycharacterized by a defect in the vertebralcolumn. Membranes of the spinal cordand the spinal cord protrude outside theprotective bony canal of the spine.Spinal anesthesia: Anesthesia given inthe spinal canal.
Spontaneous abortion: Loss ofpregnancy during the first 20 weeks ofgestation.Surfactant: Phospholipids present in thelungs. Controls surface tension of lungs.Premature babies often lack sufficientamounts of surfactant to breathe withoutassistance.
Syphilis: Sexually transmitted venerealinfection caused by treponema pallidum.Tay-Sachs disease: Inherited diseasecharacterized by mental and physicalretardation, convulsions, enlargement ofthe head and eventually death.
Telangiectasias: Dilatation or swelling ofa small blood vessel. Sometimes calledan angioma. During pregnancy, anothercommon name is a spider angioma.Teratogenic: Causes abnormaldevelopment.
Thalassemia: Group of inheriteddisorders of hemoglobin metabolism,which results in a decrease in the amountof hemoglobin formed.Threatened abortion: Bleeding duringthe first trimester of pregnancy withoutcramping or contractions.Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot(thrombus).
Thrush: Monilial or yeast infectionoccurring in the mouth or mucousmembranes of a newborn infant.Tocolysis: Stopping contractions duringpremature labor.Toxoplasmosis: Infection caused bytoxoplasma gondii.
Transverse lie: Fetus is turned sidewaysin uterus.Trichomonal vaginitis: Venerealinfection caused by trichomonas.Trimester: Method of dividing pregnancyinto three equal time periods of about 13weeks each.
Trophoblast: Cell layer important inearly development of the embryo andfetus. It provides nourishment from themother to the fetus and participates in theformation of the placenta.
Umbilical cord: Cord that connects theplacenta to the developing baby. Itremoves waste products and carbondioxide from the baby and bringsoxygenated blood and nutrients from themother through the placenta to the baby.
Abortion : Termination of pregnancybefore the fetus is viable and capable ofextra uterine existence, usually less than20 weeks of gestation or when the fetusweighs less than 500 g.
Acini cells : Milk producing cells in thebreast.AGA : Appropriate for Gestational Age.Amnioinfusion : Infusion of normal salinewarmed to body temperature through an intrauterine catheter into the uterine cavity in anattempt to increase the fluid around theumbilical cord and prevent compression duringuterine contractions.
Amnionitis : Inflammation of theamnion, occurring most frequently afterearly rupture of membrane.Amniotic fluid embolism : EmbolismResulting from amniotic fluid enteringThe maternal blood stream during laborand birth after rupture of Membranes.
Amniotomy : Artificial rupture of theFetal membranes (AROM).
Cephalopelvic dispropotion : The accuratedefinition of cephalopelvic disproportion(CPD) is when a babys head or body is toolarge to fit through the mother’s pelvisCerclage : Use of non-absorbable suture tokeep an incompetent cervix closed; releasedwhen pregnancy is at term to allow labor tobegin.
Curettage : Scrapping of endometrium liningof the uterus with a curette to remove thecontents of the uterus or to obtain specimensfor diagnosticpurpose.Daily Fetal Movement Counts : Maternalassessment of fetal activity; the number offetal movements within specific time arecounted.
Disparate twins : Twins who aredifferent and distinct from one another.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC) : Pathologic form of coagulation inwhich clotting factors are consumed to anextent that generalized bleeding can occur;associated with Abruptio Placentae,eclampsia, intrauterine fetal demise, amnioticfluid embolism, and hemorrhage.
Dizygotic : Related to or proceeding fromtwo zygotes.Dubowitz assessment : Estimation ofgestational age of a newborn based oncriteria developed for that purpose.
Dysfunctional labor : Abnormal uterinecontractions that prevent normal progressof cervical dilatation and progressDysfunctional Uterine Bleeding :Abnormal bleeding from the uterus forreasons that are not readily established.
Dystocia : Prolonged, painful ordifficult birth because of mechanicalfactors produced by the passenger orthe passage, inadequate powers, ormaternal position.
Gynecology : Study of disease of thefemale, especially of the genital, urinaryand rectal organs.HELLP syndrome : Conditioncharacterized by hemolysis, elevatedliver enzymes, and low platelet count; isa form of severe eclampsia.
Hypotonic uterine dysfunction:Weak,neffective uterine contractions usuallyoccurring in the Active phase of labor; oftenrelated to CPD or Malposition of the fetus.TAH-BSO : Total abdominal hysterectomy andbilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy; removal ofuterus, both tubes and ovaries.
External Cephalic Version (ECV) :Turning the fetus to a vertex position byexertion of pressure on the fetusexternally through the maternalabdomen.
Kangaroo Care : Skin-to-skin infantcare, especially for preterm infants,which provides warmth to infant. Infantis placed naked or diapered againstmother’s or father’s bare chest and iscovered with parent’s shirt or a warmblanket.
Postdate Birth : Birth of an infant after42 weeks of gestation.Post-mature Infant : Infant born at orafter the beginning of week 43 ofgestation or later and exhibiting signsof dysmaturity.
Precipitous Labor : Rapid or sudden labor ofless 3 hours beginning from onset of cervicalchanges to completed birth of neonate.Preeclampsia : Disease encountered after20 weeks of gestation or early in thepuerperium; a vasospastic disease processcharacterized by increasing hypertension,proteinuria, and hemoconcentration
Pregestational Diabetes : Diabetes mellitustype I or type II that exists before pregnancyPregnancy0Induced Hypertension (PIH) :Hypertensive disorders of pregnancyincluding preeclampsia, eclampsia, andtransient hypertensionPreterm Birth : Birth occurring before 37weeks of gestation.
Preterm Rupture of Membranes :Spontaneous rupture of membranesbefore 37 weeks of gestation.PROM : Premature (before 38 weeksof gestation) rupture of members.
Small for Dates (Small for gestationalage [SGA]) : Refers to inadequategrowth for gestational age.Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes :Rupture of membranes by naturalmeans.
Stillbirth : The birth of a baby after 20weeks of gestation and 1 day or 350 g.(depending on the state code) that does notshow any signs of life.Sub-involution : failure of a part (forexample, the uterus) to reduce to its normalsize and condition after enlargement formfunctional activity (for example, pregnancy).
Tocolytic Drug : Drug used to relax the uterus, tosuppress preterm labor, or for version.TORCH Infections : Infections caused byorganisms that damage the embryo or fetus;acronym for toxoplasmosis, other (for example,syphilis), rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpessimplex.Toxemia : Term previously used for hypertensivestates of pregnancy.
Uteroplacental Insufficiency (UPI) : Declinein placental function-exchange of gases,nutrients and wastes-leading to fetal hypoxiaand acidosis; evidenced by late fetal heartrate decelerations in response to uterinecontractions.Vacuum Curettage : Uterine aspirationmethod of early abortion
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) :Giving birth vaginally after having had aprevious cesarean birth.Vasectomy : Ligation or removal of a segmentof the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally toproduce sterility in the male.Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) : Refers toinfant weighing 1500 g or less at birth.
Viable, Viability : Capable, capability ofliving, as in a fetus that has reached astage of development, usually 22menstrual weeks (20 weeks ofgestation), which will permit it to liveoutside the uterus.
TerminologiesPuberty – It is the period of sexualmaturation accompanied by developmentof secondary sexual characteristics andthe capacity to reproduce.Menarche – Onset of Menstruation
Menstruation – Periodic vaginaldischarge of bloody fluid from the non-pregnant uterus ( From puberty tomenopause )Amenorrhea – Absence ofMenstruationGamete - Reproductive cell
Ovum – Female reproductive cellSperm – Male reproductive cellGametogenesis – Development andMaturation of the sperm and ovumSpermatogenesis – Formation of malegametes in the testesOogenesis – Formation of female gametes inthe ovary
Gonad – Reproductive gland that producesgametes and sex hormonesOvary – Female gonadTestes – Male GonadOvulation – Release of mature ovum from theovaryPregnancy – Period between conceptionthrough complete birth of products ofconception280 days in human9 calendar months/ 10 lunar months
Molding Shaping of the fetal head duringmovement through the birth canal.
Multipara A woman who has given birth after twoor more pregnancies of at least 20 weeks’gestation. Also informally used to describe apregnant woman before the birth of her secondor later child.
Nuchal Cord Umbilical cord around the fetal neck.
Nullipara A woman who has not completed apregnancy to at least 20 weeks’ gestation.
ParaA woman who has given birth after apregnancy of at least 20 weeks’ gestation. Paraalso designate the number of pregnancies thatend after at least 20 weeks of gestation. (Amultifetal gestation, such as twins, isconsidered one birth when calculating parity.)
Position Relation of a fixed reference point on thefetus to the quadrants of the maternal pelvis.
Primipara A woman who has given birth after apregnancy of at least 20 weeks of gestation.The term is also used informally to describe apregnant woman before the birth of her firstchild.
Station Measurement of fetal descent in relationto the ischial spines of the maternal pelvis. Seealso engagement.
Sutures Narrow areas of flexible tissue thatconnect the fetal skull bones, permitting slightmovement during labor.
VBAC Abbreviation for vaginal birth aftercesarean birth.
CONCEPTUS Cells and membranes resulting from fertilization of the ovum at any stage of prenatal development.
CORPUS LUTEUM Graffian follicle cells remaining afterovulation. These cells produce estrogenand progesterone.
EJACULATION Expulsion of semen from the penis.
EMBRYO The developing baby from thebeginning of the third week through theeighth week after conception.
FERTILIZATION AGE Prenatal age of the developing baby,calculated from the date of conception.Also called post conceptional age.
FETUS The developing baby from 9 weeksafter conception until birth. In everydaypractice, this term is of ten used todescribe a developing baby duringpregnancy, regardless of age.
GAMETE Reproductive cell: in the female anovum, and in the male a spermatozoon.
GESTATIONAL AGE Prenatal age of the developing baby(measured in weeks) calculated from thefirst day of the woman’s last menstrualperiod. Also called menstrual age, about 2weeks longer than the fertilization age.
GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE A small sac within the ovary. Thegraafian follicle contains the maturingovum.
NIDATION Implantation of the fertilized ovum(Zygote) in the uterine endomertrium.
OOGENESIS Formation of gametes (ova) in thefemale.
OVULATION Release of the mature ovum from theovary.
PLACENTA Fetal structure that providesnourishment, removes wastes from thedeveloping baby, and secrete hormonesnecessary for the pregnancy to continue.
SPERMATOGENESIS Formation of male gametes, or germcells.
ZYGOTECell formed by union of an ovum and sperm.
Terminologies Amniotic fluid embolism : Embolism resulting from amniotic fluid entering the maternal bloodstream during labor and birth after rupture of membranes; this is often fatal to the woman if it is a pulmonary embolism. Attitude: Body posture or position.
Terminologies Bearing-down effort:“Secondary powers”; energy exerted by the woman during contractions to push out the baby. Biparietal diameter :Largest transverse diameter of the fetal head; extends from one parietal bone to the other.
Terminologies Bloody show: Vaginal discharge that originates in the cervix and consists of blood and mucus; increase as cervix dilates during labor. Breech presentation: Presentation in which buttocks or feet are nearest the cervical opening and are born first; occurs in approximately 3% of all births.
Terminologies Caul: Hood of fetal membranes covering fetal head during birth. Cephalic :Pertaining to the head. Crowning: Stage of birth when the top of the fetal head can be seen at the vaginal orifice.
Terminologies Dilatation of cervix: Stretching of the external os from an opening a few millimeters in size to an opening large enough to allow the passage of the infant. Effacement : Thinning and shortening or obliteration of the cervix that occurs during late pregnancy or labor or both.
Terminologies Engagement :In obstetrics, the entrance of the fetal presenting part into the superior pelvic strait and the beginning of the descent through the pelvic canal. Episiotomy : Surgical incision of the perineum at the end of the second stage of labor to facilitate birth and to avoid laceration of the perineum.
Terminologies External cephalic version (ECV): Turning the fetus to a vertex position by exertion of pressure on the fetus externally through the maternal abdomen.. Ferguson’s reflex: Reflex contractions of the uterus after stimulation of the cervix.
Terminologies Fontanel :Broad area, or soft spot, consisting of a strong band of connective tissue continuous with cranial bones and located at the junctions of the bones. Gynecoid pelvis: Pelvis in which the inlet is round instead of oval or blunt; heart shaped. Typical female pelvis.
Terminologies Kangaroo care: Skin-to-skin infant care, especially for preterm infants, which provides warmth to infant. Infant is placed naked or diapered against mother’s or father’s bare chest and is covered with parent’s shirt or a warm blanket. Labor :Series of processes by which the fetus is expelled from the uterus; parturition; childbirth
Terminologies Large for dates (large for gestational age (LGA)):Exhibiting excessive growth for gestational age. Lie: Relationship existing between the long axis of the fetus and the long axis of the mother. In a longitudinal lie, the fetus is lying lengthwise or vertically, whereas in a transverse lie, the fetus is lying crosswise or horizontally in the mother’s uterus.
Terminologies Lightening :Sensation of decreased abdominal distention produced by uterine descent into pelvic cavity as the fetal presenting part settles into the pelvis. It usually occurs 2 weeks before the onset of labor in nulliparas. Lithotomy position :Position in which the woman lies on her back with her knees flexed and with abducted thighs drawn up toward her chest.
Terminologies Low birth weight (LBW): An infant birth weight of less than 2500 g. Molding: Overlapping of cranial bones or shaping of the fetal head to accommodate and conform to the bony and soft parts of the mother’s birth canal during labor. Multigravida: Woman who has been pregnant two or more times.
Terminologies Multipara : Woman who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability, whether they ended in live infants or stillbirths. Nonstress test (NST) : Evaluation of fetal response (fetal heart rate) to natural contractile uterine activity or to an increase in fetal activity. Nuchal cord : Encircling of fetal neck
Terminologies Nulligravida : Woman who has never been pregnant. Nullipara: Woman who has not yet carried a pregnancy to viability. Oligohydramnios: Abnormally small amount or absence of amniotic fluid; often indicative of fetal urinary tract defect.
Terminologies Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetal umbilical vessel is accessed for blood sampling or for transfusions. Position: Relationship of an arbitrarily chosen fetal reference point, such as the occiput, sacrum, chin, or scapula on the presenting part of the fetus to its location in the front, back, or sides of the maternal pelvis.
Terminologies Postdate birth: Birth of an infant after 42 weeks of gestation. Post mature infant: Infant born at or after the beginning of week 43 of gestation or later and exhibiting signs of dysmaturity.
Terminologies Precipitous labor: Rapid or sudden labor of less than 3 hours beginning from onset of cervical changes to completed birth of neonate. Preeclampsia: Disease encountered after 20 weeks of gestation or early in the puerperium; a vasospastic disease process characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, and hemoconcentration.
Terminologies Pregestational diabetes: Diabetes mellitus type I or type II that exists before pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH): Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, eclampsia, and transient hypertension.
Terminologies Presentation: That part of the fetus that first enters the pelvis and lies over the inlet: may be head, face, breech, or shoulder. Presenting part: That part of the fetus that lies closest to the internal os of the cervix Preterm birth : Birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation.
Terminologies Preterm rupture of membranes: Spontaneous rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation Prolapsed cord: Protrusion of the umbilical cord in advance of the presenting part. PROM: Premature (before 38 weeks of gestation) rupture of membranes.
Terminologies Ring of fire: Burning sensation as vagina stretches and fetal head crowns. Ritgen maneuver: Procedure used to control the birth of the head. Second stage: Stage of labor from full dilatation of the cervix to the birth of the baby.
Terminologies Sims’ position: Position in which the client lies on the left side with the right knee and thigh drawn upward toward the chest. Small for dates (small for gestational age (SGA)): Refers to inadequate growth for gestational age. Spontaneous rupture of membranes :Rupture of membranes by natural means.
Terminologies Station : Relationship of the presenting fetal part to an imaginary line drawn between the ischial spines of the pelvis. Stillbirth: The birth of a baby after 20 weeks of gestation and I day or 350 g (depending on the state code) that does not show any signs of life.
Terminologies Subinvolution : Failure of a part (for example, the uterus) to reduce to its normal size and condition after enlargement from functional activity (for example, pregnancy). Suboccipito bregmatic diameter : Smallest diameter of the fetal head-follows a line drawn from the middle of the occipital bone.
Terminologies Third stage : Stage of labor from the birth of the baby to the expulsion of the placenta. Tocolytic drug: Drug used to relax the uterus, to suppress preterm labor, or for version
Terminologies TORCH infections : Infections caused by organisms that damage the embryo or fetus; acronym for toxoplasmosis, other (for example, syphilis), rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex. Toxemia: Term previously used for hypertensive states of pregnancy.
Terminologies Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI): Decline in placental function-exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes-leading to fetal hypoxia and acidosis; evidenced by late fetal heart rate decelerations in response to uterine contractions. Vaccum curettage: Uterine aspiration method of early abortion
Terminologies Vaccum extraction: Birth involving attachment of vaccum cup fetal head and using negative pressure to assist in birth of the fetus. Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC): Giving birth vaginally after having had a previous cesarean birth.
Terminologies Valsalva maneuver : The process of making a forceful attempt at expulsion while holding one’s breath and tightening the abdominal muscles (as in pushing during the second stage of labor). Vasectomy: Ligation or removal of a segment of the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally to produce sterility in the male.
Terminologies Vertex : Crown or top of the head. Very low birth weight (VLBW): Refers to infant weighing 1500 g or less at birth. Viable, viability: Capable, capability of living, as in a fetus that has reached a stage of development, usually 22 menstrual weeks (20 weeks of gestation), which will permit it to live outside the uterus.
Terminologies After Pain – Cramping pain following childbirth , caused by alternating relaxation & contraction of uterine muscles
Atony – Absence or lack of usual muscle tone
Attachment : Development of strong affectional ties as a result of interaction between an infant and a significant other(mother, father, sibling, caretaker).
Catabolism: A destructive process that converts living cells into simpler compounds. Process involved in involution (changes) of the uterus after child birth
Decidua: Term referring to the endometrium during pregnancy. All except the deepest layer is shed after childbirth
Diastasis Recti: Separation of the longitudinal muscles of the abdomen (rectus abdominis) during pregnancy
Dysparenuia: Difficult or painful coitus in women
En Face: Position that allows eye-to-eye contact between the newborn and a parent. Optimal distance is 20 to 22cm ( 8 to 9 inches)
Engorgement: Swelling of the breasts resulting from increased blood flow and the presence of milk
Engrossment: Intense fascination and close face- to-face observation between father and newborn
Episiotomy: Surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening
Involution: Retrogressive changes that return the reproductive organs, particularly the uterus, to their nonpregnant size and condition
Kegel Exercises: Alternate contraction and relaxing of the pelvic muscles
Lactation : Secretion of milk from the breasts The period of time of breast feeding
Lochia alba: Whitish or clear vaginal discharge
Lochia Serosa Pinkish or brown-tinged vaginal discharge
Milk-ejection reflex: Release of milk from the alveoli into the ducts. (letdown reflex)
Oxytocin: Posterior pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions and Milk- ejection reflex
Postpartum Blues: Temporary, self-limiting period of weepiness
Prolactin: anterior pituitary hormone (growth of breast tissue and production of milk)
Puerperium: Period from the end of childbirth until involution of the uterus is complete, approximately 6 weeks
REEDA: Acronym for Redness, Ecchymosis, Edema, Discharge and Approximation
Abdominal Gestation : Implantation of afertilized ovum outside the uterus but inside theperitoneal cavity.Abortion : Termination of pregnancy before thefetus is viable and capable of extrauterineexistence, usually less than 20 weeks of gestationor when the fetus weighs less than 500 g.Abruptio Placentae : Partial or completepremature separation of a normally implantedplacenta
Acini cells : Milk producing cells in thebreast.AGA : Appropriate for Gestational Age.Amniocentesis : Procedure in which needle isinserted through the abdominal and uterine wallsinto the amniotic fluid; used for assessment offetal health and maturity and for therapeuticabortion.
Amnioinfusion : Infusion of normal salinewarmed to body temperature through an intrauterine catheter into the uterine cavity in anattempt to increase the fluid around the umbilicalcord and prevent compression during uterinecontractions.Amnionitis : Inflammation of the amnion,occurring most frequently after early rupture ofmembrane.
Amniotic fluid embolism : Embolism resultingfrom amniotic fluid entering the maternal bloodstream during labor and birth after rupture ofMembranes.Amniotomy : Artificial rupture of the fetalmembranes (AROM).Anencephaly : Congenital deformitycharacterized by the absence of cerebrum,cerebellum, and flat bones of the skull.
Apt test : Differentiation of maternal and fetalBlood when there is vaginal bleeding.Artificial rupture of membrane : Rupture ofmembranes using a plastic amnihook or surgicalclamp.Augmentation of labor : Artificial stimulationof uterine contractions after labor has startedspontaneously but it is not progressingsatisfactorily.
Biophysical profile : Noninvasive assessment ofthe fetus and its environment usingultrasonography and uterine fetal monitoring;includes fetal breathing movements, gross bodymovements, fetal tone, FHR, and qualitativeamniotic fluid volume.Bishop’s score : Rating system to evaluateinducibility of the cervix; a higher scoreincreases the rate of successful induction oflabor.
Breech presentation : Presentation in whichbuttocks or feet or nearest the cervical openingand are born first.Cephalopelvic dispropositionCerclage : Use of nonabsorbable suture to keepan incompetent cervix closed; released whenpregnancy is at term to allow labor to begin.Cesarean Birth : Birth of fetus by an incisionthrough the abdominal wall and uterus.
Chorioamnionitis : Inflammatory reaction infetal membranes to bacteria or viruses in theamniotic fluid, which then become infiltratedwith polymorphonuclear leucocytes.Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) : Removal offetal tissue from placenta for genetic diagnosticstudies.Conjoined twins : Twins who are physicallyunited. Siamese Twins
Curettage : Scrapping of endometrium lining ofthe uterus with a curet to remove the contents ofthe uterus or to obtain specimens for diagnosticpurpose.Daily Fetal Movement Counts : Maternalassessment of fetal activity; the number of fetalmovements within specific time are counted.Dilatation and Curettage (D and C) : Vaginalprocedure in which the cervical canal is stretchedenough to admit passage of an instrument.
Disparate twins : Twins who are different anddistinct from one another.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation(DIC) : Pathologic form of coagulation in whichclotting factors are consumed to an extent thatgeneralized bleeding can occur; associated withAbruptio Placentae, eclampsia, intrauterine fetaldemise, amniotic fluid embolism, andhemorrhage.
Dizygotic : Related to or proceeding from twozygotes.Dizygotic Twins : Twins developed from twoseparate ova fertilized by two separate sperm atthe same time. Fraternal TwinsDubowitz assessment : Estimation ofgestational age of a newborn based on criteriadeveloped for that purpose.Dysfunctional labor : Abnormal uterine contractionsthat prevent normal progress of cervical dilatation and progress
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding : Abnormalbleeding from the uterus for reasons that are notreadily established.Dystocia : Prolonged, painful or difficult birthbecause of mechanical factors produced by thepassenger or the passage, inadequate powers, ormaternal position.
Eclampsia : Severe complication of pregnancy,more often in primi gravida, characterized bytonic and clonic convulsions, coma, high BP,albuminuria, and oliguria occurring duringpregnancy or shortly after birth.False labor : Uterine contraction that do notresult in cervical dilatation, are irregular often donot lost more than 20 seconds, and don’t becomelonger and stronger.
Forceps assisted birth : Birth in which twocurved bladed instruments are used to assist indelivery of the fetal head.Gestational Diabetes : Glucose intolerance firstrecognized during pregnancy.Gynecology : Study of disease of the female,especially of the genital, urinary and rectalorgans.
HELLP syndrome : Condition characterized byhemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and lowplatelet count; is a form of severe eclampsia.Hypotonic uterine dysfunction:weak,ineffectiveuterine contractions usually occurring in theActive phase of labor; often related to CPD orMalposition of the fetus.
TAH-BSO : Total abdominal hysterectomy andbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; removal ofuterus, both tubes and ovaries.Incompetent cervix : Cervix that is unable toremain closed until pregnancy reaches termbecause of a mechanical defect in the cervixresulting in the dilatation and effacement usuallysecond or early third trimester of pregnancy.
IUGR : Fetal under growth of any cause, such asdeficient nutrient supply or intrauterineinfection, or associated with congenitalmalformation.Intrauterine resuscitation : Interventionsinitiated when nonreassuring fetal heart ratepatterns are noted and are directed at improvingintrauterine blood flow.
External Cephalic Version (ECV) : Turning the fetus to a vertex position by exertion of pressure on the fetus externally through the maternal abdomen.Kangaroo Care : Skin-to-skin infant care, especially for preterm infants, which provides warmth to infant. Infant is placed naked or diapered against mother’s or father’s bare chest and is covered with parent’s shirt or a warm blanket.
Large for Dates (Large for festational age [LGA]): exhibiting excessive growth for gestational age.Low Birth Weight (LBW) : An infant birth weight of less than 2500 g.Multigravida : Woman who has been pregnant two or more timesMultipara : Women who has carried two or more pregnancies to viability, whether they ended in live infants or stillbirths.
Non-stress Test (NST) : Evaluation of fetal response (fetal heart rate) to natural contractile uterine activity or to an increase in fetal activity.Nulligravida : Women who has never been pregnant.Nullipara : Women who has not yet carried a pregnancy to viability.
Oligohydramnios : Abnormally small amount or absence of amniotic fluid; often indicative of fetal urinary tract defect.Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling (PUBS) : Procedure during which the fetal umbilical vessel is accessed for blood sampling of for transfusions.Postdate Birth : Birth of an infant after 42 weeks of gestation.
Post-mature Infant : Infant born at or after the beginning of week 43 of gestation or later and exhibiting signs of dysmaturity.Precipitous Labor : Rapid or sudden labor of less 3 hours beginning from onset of cervical changes to completed birth of neonate.Preeclampsia : Disease encountered after 20 weeks of gestation or early in the puerperium; a vasospastic disease process characterized by increasing hypertension, proteniuria, and hemoconcentration
Pregestational Diabetes : Diabetes mellitus type I or type II that exists before pregnancyPregnancy0Induced Hypertension (PIH) : Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia, eclampsia, and transient hypertensionPreterm Birth : Birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation.
Preterm Rupture of Membranes : Spontaneous rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation.Prolapsed Cord : Protrusion of the umbilical cord in advance of the presenting part.PROM : Premature (before 38 weeks of gestation) rupture of members.Small for Dates (Small for gestational age [SGA]) : Refers to inadequate growth for gestational age.
Spontaneous Rupture of Membranes : Rupture of membranes by natural means.Stillbirth : The birth of a baby after 20 weeks of gestation and 1 day or 350 g. (depending on the state code) that does not show any signs of life.Sub-involution : failure of a part (for example, the uterus) to reduce to its normal size and condition after enlargement form functional activity (for example, pregnancy).
Tocolytic Drug : Drug used to relax the uterus, to suppress preterm labor, or for version.TORCH Infections : Infections caused by organisms that damage the embryo or fetus; acronym for toxoplasmosis, other (for example, syphilis), rubella, cytomegalovirus and berpes simplex.Toxemia : Term previously used for hypertensive states of pregnancy.
Uteroplacental Insufficiency (UPI) : Decline in placental function-exchange of gases, nutrients and wastes-leading to fetal hypoxia and acidosis; evidenced by late fetal heart rate decelerations in response to uterine contractions.Vacuum Curettage : Uterine aspiration method of early abortion
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) : Giving birth vaginally after having had a previous cesarean birth.Vasectomy : Ligation or removal of a segment of the vas deferens, usually done bilaterally to produce sterility in the male.Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) : Refers to infant weighing 1500 g or less at birth.
Viable, Viability : Capable, capability of living, as in a fetus that has reached a stage of development, usually 22 menstrual weeks (20 weeks of gestation), which will permit it to live outside the uterus.