ETHICAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES IN SOCIAL RESEARCH BAD BLOOD• In 1932 until 1972, nearly 400 black men were injected with syphilis.The researchers wanted to see how long it took syphilis to kill so none of themen were treated• By 1972, 128 were dead and many of their family members wereinfected.• The ethical issues are the concerns, dilemmas, and conflicts that ariseover the proper way to conduct research.• Ethics define what is or is not legitimate to do, or what “moral”research procedures involve.• Many ethical issues involve a balance between two values: the pursuit ofscientific knowledge and the rights of those being studied or of others insociety.• Potential benefits such as advancing our understanding of social life,improving decision making, or helping research participants must be weighedagainst potential costs such as loss of dignity, self-esteem, privacy, ordemocratic freedoms. The Individual Researcher• Ethics begins and ends with the researcher.• Before, during, and after conducting a study, a researcher hasopportunities to, and should, reflect on research actions and consult his/herconscience.• Ethical research depends on the integrity of the individual researcherand his/her values Why Be Ethical?• Ethical Behavior arises from a sensitivity to ethical concerns thatresearchers internalize during their professional training, from a professionalrole, and from contact with other researchers.• Norms on scientific community reinforce ethical behavior with anemphasis on honesty and openness. Scientific Misconduct• occurs when a researcher falsifies or distorts the data or the methods ofdata collection, or plagiarizes the work of others.
• Research fraud occurs when a researchers fakes or invents data thatwere not really collected, or falsely reports how research was conducted.• Plagiarism is fraud that occurs when a researcher steals the ideas orwritings of another or uses them without citing the source. Unethical But Legal• Behavior may be unethical but not break the law.e.g. The American Sociological Association documented than a 1988 book without footnotes by a dean from Eastern New Mexico contained large sections of a 1978 dissertation written by a sociology professor at Tufts New Mexico.The copying was not illegal; it did not violate copyright law because the sociologist’s dissertation did not have a copyright filed with the U.S. government Typology of Legal and Moral Actions in Research Ethical Power• The relationship between the researcher and subjects or employee-assistant involves power and trust• The researcher’s authority to conduct research, granted by professionalcommunities and the larger society is accompanied by a responsibility to guide,protect, and oversee the interests of people being studied. ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVING RESEARCH SUBJECTS• Ethical research requires balancing the value of advancing knowledgeagainst the value of noninterference in the lives of others. Physical Harm Psychological Abuse, Stress, or Loss of Self-Esteem• Stanley Milgram’s obedience study attempted to discover how thehorrors of the holocaust under the Nazis could have occurred by examining thestrength of social pressure to obey authority. Participants were told that somewould be teachers who would teach lists of words to others, the learners. Theteachers were told to administer increasingly severe shocks every time thelearners made an error.Subjects were observed to to sweat, tremble, stutter, bite their lips, groan and dig their fingernails into their flesh. Legal Harm
• A researcher is responsible for protecting subjects from increased risk ofarrest.A researcher must evaluate each case, weigh potential harm against potential benefits, and bear the responsibility for the decision. Deception• Never force anyone to participate in research, and do not lie unless it isrequired for legitimate research reasons.• Deception is acceptable if there is a specific methodological purpose forit, and even then, it should be used only to the minimal degree necessary. Informed Consent• Never coerce anyone into participating; participation must be voluntary.• Signed informed consent statements are optional for most survey, field,and secondary data research, but are often mandated for experimentalresearch. Special Population• Vulnerable persons, not capable of giving true informed consent. Who are the Vulnerable Persons? Creating Inequalities• A type of harm occurs when one group of subjects is denied some serviceor benefit as a result of participation in a research project. Privacy, Anonymity, and Confidentiality• Survey researchers invade a person’s privacy when they probe intobeliefs, backgrounds, and behaviors in away that reveals intimate privatedetails.• Researchers protect privacy by not disclosing a subject’s identity afterinformation is gathered• Even if anonymity is not possible, researchers should protectconfidentiality.• Anonymity protect the identity of specific individuals from being known.• Confidentiality means that information may have names attached to itbut the researchers holds it in confidence or keeps it secret from the public. ETHICS AND THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY
• Professional social science association have codes of ethics.• The codes state proper and improper behavior and represent a consensusof professionals on ethics.• Codes of research can be traced to the Nuremberg code, which wasadopted during the Nuremberg Military Tribunal on Nazi war crimes held by theallied Powers immediately after World War II.• The code, developed as a response to the cruelty of concentration campexperiments, outlines ethical principles and rights of human subjects.• Similar codes of human rights such as the 1948 Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights by the United Nations and the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki alsohave implications for social researchers. Basic Principles of Ethical Social Research• Ethical responsibility rests with the individual researchers.• Do not exploit subjects or students for personal gain• Some form of informed consent is highly recommended or required.• Honor all guarantees of privacy, confidentiality, and anonymity• Do not coerce or humiliate subjects.• Use deception only if needed, and always accompany it with debriefing.• Use the research method that is appropriate to a topic.• Detect and remove undesirable consequences to research subjects.• Anticipate repercussions of the research or publication of results.• Identify the sponsor who funded the research.• Cooperate with host nations when doing comparative research.• Release the details of the study design with the results.• Make interpretations of results consistent with the data.• Use high methodological standards and strive for accuracy.• Do not conduct secret research.