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Dialogo 2015 proceedings 1

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Dialogo 2015 proceedings 1

  1. 1. Volume2-Issue1-November 2015 Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology „See the unseen” DIA LOGO
  2. 2. Proceedings of the annual Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology Journal of RCDST (Research Center on the Dialogue between Science & Theology), Ovidius University of Constanta, Romania DIALOGO
  3. 3. Journal indexed in international Databases
  4. 4. volume 2 - issue 1 : The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology. Organized by the RCDST - Romania in collaboration with other Institutions from Slovakia - Pakistan - Switzerland - Poland - India - Egypt - Uganda - Jordan - Turkey - Argentina - USA - Canada - Germany held from 5 to 11 November, 2015 at DIALOGO CONF 2015
  5. 5. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of RCDST. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of RCDST concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries. Disclaimer: All abstracts and titles of presentations were only formatted into the correct font, size and paragraph style and texts were not language and grammatical edited. The abstracts were reprinted as submitted by their authors. The editors accept no responsibility for any language, grammar or spelling mistake. The authors of individual papers are responsible for technical, content and linguistic correctness. *All published papers underwent blind peer review. *All published papers are in English language only. Each paper was assigned to 3 reviewers and went through two-level approval process. Open Access Online archive is available at: (proceedings will be available online one month after the publication release). In case of any questions, notes or complaints, please contact us at: info(at)dialogo-conf. com. Warning: Copyright © 2014, RCDST (Research Center on the Dialogue between Science & Theology), Romania. All rights reserved. Reproduction or publication of this material, even partial, is allowed only with the editor’s permission. Unauthorized duplication is a violation of applicable laws. Publication Series: Description: ISSN (CD-ROM): ISSN (ONLINE): ISSN (PRINT): ISSN-L: Editors: Series Publisher: 2nd Volum Title: subtitle: ISBN: DOI: Published by: (DOI issuer) Pages: Printed on: Year of publication: DIALOGO (Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology) 2392 – 9928 2393 – 1744 2457 – 9297 2392 – 9928 Fr. lecturer Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN, PhD (Romania) and Ing. Stefan BADURA, Ph.D. (Slovak Republic) RCDST (Research Center on the Dialogue between Science & Theology), from Ovidius Univesity of Constanta. Romania The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology. Dialogo Conf 2015 978-80-554-1131-6 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 EDIS - Publishing Institution of the University of Zilina Univerzitna 1; 01026 Zilina - Slovak Republic 326 100 copies 2015
  6. 6. Research Center on the Dialogue between Science & Theology (Slovakia) Ovidius University of Con- stanta (UOC/Romania) University of the Punjab (Lahore) Maritime University of Constanta (UMC/Romania) “Mircea cel Batran” Naval Academy (ANMB/Romania) The Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi (UAIC/Romania) “Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad (UVVG/Romania) Global Ethics (Geneva/Switzerland) The Institute for the Study of Christi- anity in an Age of Science and Tech- nology (ISCAST/Australia) Faculty of Educational Sciences (WNP) Nicolaus Copernicus Univer- sity in Torun, Poland Action-research in Contempo- rary Culture and Education – Prac- tice & Theory (ACCEPT/Poland) Centre for Research and social, psy- chological and pedagogical eval- uation (CCEPPS/Romania) Research and Science Today Horizon Research Publish- ing, HRPUB - USA Conference Sponsors and Parteners Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology November, 5 - 11 2015 The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 - 5-
  7. 7. Faculty of Theology in UOC, Romania Faculty of Medicine in UOC, Romania Faculty of Orthodox Theology in UAIC, Romania Faculty of Theology in UAB, Romania Faculty of Psychology and Scienc- es of Education in UOC, Romania Faculty of Psychology and Scienc- es of Education in UAIC, Romania Faculty of Applied Science and En- gineering in UOC, Romania Centre of Inter - Religious Research and Christian Psychopedagogy Alba Iulia - Saint Serge (CCIRPC) Faculty of Natural and Agricultur- al Sciences in UAIC, Romania EDIS Publishing Institution of the University of Zilina Univerzitna 1 01026 Zilina Slovak Republic RCDST Research Center on the Dialogue between Science & Theology Ovidius University of Constanta Romania Second Volume published by Conference Sponsors and Parteners Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology November, 5 - 11 2015 DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 - 6-
  8. 8. International Scientific Committee, Reviewers and Contributers Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology November, 5 - 11 2015 DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology 7- doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 Christoph STUECKELBERGER Executive Director and Founder; Prof. PhD. (Switzerland) Maria Isabel Maldonado GARCIA Directorate External Linkages/Institute of Language University of the Punjab; Head of Spanish Dpt. / Assistant Professor (Pakistan) Dagna DEJNA NCU Faculty of Educational Sciences (Poland) Lucian TURCESCU Department of Theological Studies - Concordia University; Professor and Chair (Canada) Francesco FIORENTINO Dipartimento di Filosofia, Letteratura e Scienze Sociali; Universita degli Studi di Bari «Aldo Moro»; Researcher in Storia della Filosofia (Italy) Filip NALASKOWSKI Faculty of Educational Sciences - Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun; Dr. (Poland) Panagiotis STEFANIDES Emeritus Honoured Member of the Technical Chamber of Greece HELLENIC AEROSPACE IND. S.A. - Lead engineer; MSc Eur Ing (Greece) Wade Clark ROOF J.F. Rowny Professor of Religion and Society; Emeritus and Research Professor WalterH.CappsCenterfortheStudyofEthics,Religion,andPublicLife;Director Department of Religious Studies - University of California at Santa Barbara (United States of America) Cristiana OPREA European Physical Society; member Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics; Scientific Project Leader (Russia) Gheorghe ISTODOR Faculty of Orthodox Theology - “Ovidius” University of Constanta; Prof. PhD. (Romania) Nasili VAKA’UTA Trinity Methodist Theological College University of Auckland; Ranston Lecturer PhD. (New Zealand) Dilshad MAHABBAT University of Gujrat (Pakistan) Adrian NICULCEA Faculty of Orthodox Theology, “Ovidius” University of Constanta; Prof. PhD. (Romania) Tarnue Marwolo BONGOLEE Hope for the Future; Executive Director (Liberia) Ahmed KYEYUNE Islamic University in Uganda Ahmed USMAN University of the Punjab (Pakistan) Mihai Valentin VLADIMIRESCU Faculty of Orthodox Theology, University of Craiova; Professor PhD. (Romania) Mohammad Ayaz AHMAD University of Tabuk; Assistant Professor PhD (Saudi Arabia) IPS Teodosie PETRESCU Archbichop of Tomis disctrict; Faculty of Orthodox Theology; “Ovidius” University of Constanta; Prof. PhD. (Romania) Edward Ioan MUNTEAN FacultyofFoodSciencesandTechnology-UniversityofAgriculturalScienc- es and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj–Napoca; Assoc. Professor PhD. (Romania) Altaf QADIR University of Peshawar (Pakistan) Eugenia Simona ANTOFI “Dunarea de Jos” University (Romania) Coli NDZABANDZABA Rhodes University (South Africa) D. Liqaa RAFFEE Jordan UNiversity of Science and Technology (Jordan) George ENACHE Faculty of History, Philosophy and Theology „DunareadeJos”UniversityofGalati;AssociateprofessorPhD.(Romania) Ahed Jumah Mahmoud AL-KHATIB Faculty of Medicine - Department of Neuroscience University of Science and Technology; Researcher PhD (Jordan) Ioan-Gheorghe ROTARU ‘Timotheus’ Brethren Theological Institute of Bucharest (Romania) Akhtar Hussain SANDHU DepartmentofHistory,UniversityofthePunjab;AssociateprofessorPhD.(Pakistan) Richard WOESLER European University press, PhD. (Germany) Riffat MUNAWAR University of the Punjab; Dr. PhD. (Pakistan) Hassan IMAM Aligarh University, PhD. (India) Ioan G. POP Emanuel University of Oradea; PhD. (Romania) Farzana BALOCH University of Sindh Associate professor PhD. (Pakistan) Petru BORDEI Faculty of Medicine - “Ovidius” University of Constanta; Prof. PhD. (Romania)
  9. 9. DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology November, 5 - 11 2015 International Scientific Committee, Reviewers and Contributers Khalil AHMAD University of the Punjab; Prof. PhD. (Pakistan) Maciej LASKOWSKI Politechnika Lubelska; Prof. PhD. (Poland) Muhammad HAFEEZ University of the Punjab; Prof. PhD. (Pakistan) Muhammad Shahid HABIB International Islamic University; Lecturer Ph.D. (Pakistan) Muhammad Zakria ZAKAR University of the Punjab; Prof. PhD. (Pakistan) R S Ajin GeoVin Solutions Pvt. Ltd.; PhD. (India) Mustfeez Ahmad ALVI Lahore Leads University; Prof. PhD. (Pakistan) Radu NICULESCU Ovidius University of Constanta; PhD. (Romania) Fermin De La FUENTE-CALVO De La Fuente Consulting (Corporative Intelligence) B.Sc. Physics and Professor PhD. (United States of America) Kelli COLEMAN MOORE University of California at Santa Barbara (United States of America) Osman Murat DENIZ Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi; Associate Professor PhD. (Turkey) Daniel MUNTEANU The International Journal of Orthodox Theology (Canada) Dragos HUTULEAC Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava; Assistant Lecturer, PhD candidate (Romania) Shiva KHALILI Faculty of psychology and education - Tehran University; Associate Pro- fessor PhD. (Iran) Mihai HIMCINSKI Faculty of Orthodox Theology - „1 December 1918” University of Alba Iulia; Prof. PhD. (Romania) Richard Willem GIJSBERS The Institute for the Study of Christianity in an Age of Science and Technol- ogy - ISCAST (Australia) Flavius Cristian MARCAU Constantin Brancusi” University of Targu Jiu; Phd. Candidate (Romania) Stanley KRIPPNER AssociationforHumanisticPsychology,theParapsychologicalAssociation; President; Prof. PhD. (United States of America) Fouzia SALEEM University of the Punjab, Dr. PhD. (Pakistan) Mihai CIUREA University of Craiova, PhD. (Romania) Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad University of Tabuk, Assistant Professor PhD. (Saudi Arabia) Mirosaw Zientarski Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru, PhD. (Poland) Manisha MATHUR G.N.Khalsa College; University of Mumbai; Assistant Professor (India) Pratibha GRAMANN Saybrook University of San Francisco, California (United States of America) Adrian GOREA Concordia University, Montreal (Canada) Richard Alan MILLER Navy Intel (Seal Corp. and then MRU); Dr. in Alternative Agriculture, Phys- ics, and Metaphysics (United States of America) Maria CIOCAN “Mircea cel Batran” Naval Academy; teacher PhD. (Romania) Sorin Gabriel ANTON Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi; PhD. (Romania) Sultan MUBARIZ University of Gujrat; PhD. (Pakistan) Gheorghe PETRARU Faculty of Orthodox Theology, Iasi; Prof. PhD. (Romania) Rania Ahmed Abd El-Wahab Mohamed Plant Protection Research Institute; PhD. (Egypt) Rubeena ZAKAR University of the Punjab; Prof. PhD. (Pakistan) Mihai GIRTU The Research Center on the Dialogue between Science & Theology (RCDST); President Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering - “Ovidius” University of Con- stanta; Prof. PhD. (Romania) Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN TheResearchCenterontheDialoguebetweenScience&Theology(RCDST); Executive Director Faculty of Orthodox Theology - “Ovidius” University of Constanta; Lecturer PhD. (Romania) The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology - 8-
  10. 10. Organizing Committee The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology - 9- doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 Proceedings of the Conferences on the Dialogue between Science and Theology November, 5 - 11 2015 DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN - SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME OFFICER RCDST Executive Director and Founder; Lect. ThD. Faculty of orthodox theology, Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania) Mihai GIRTU RCDST President and Founder; Professor PhD. Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering , Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania) RESPONSIBLES FOR SESSION 1. ART and LITERATURE Mihai Valentin VLADIMIRESCU University of Craiova; Prof., PhD (Romania) Radu NICULESCU Ovidius University of Constanta; Assist. Prof., PhD (Romania) RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 2. EARTH SCIENCES, ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT Cristiana OPREA Dzelepov Laboratory for Nuclear Problems (DLPN) - JINR Dubna, Professor PhD (Russia) RESPONSIBLES FOR SESSION 3. SOCIAL SCIENCES, CULTURE, LIFESTYLE CHOICES Maria Isabel MALDONADO GARCIA University of the Punjab; Assist. Prof., PhD (Pakistan) Miguel ALGRANTI, PHD (ARGENTINA) Instituto Universitario Nacional del Arte, Universidad Favaloro; Lecturer PhD (Argentina) Mariana MITRA - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 4. LAW AND POLITICAL SCIENCE Faculty of Law, Ovidius University of Constanta; Assoc. Prof . PhD. (Romania) Osman Murat DENIZ - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 5. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi - lahiyat Fakültesi; Assoc. Prof . PhD. (Turkey) Ahed Jumah Mahmoud AL-KHATIB - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 6. LIFE SCIENCES University of Science and Technology - Department of Neuroscience; Dr. (Jordan) Christoph STUECKELBERGER - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 10. BIOETHICS University of Basel ; Founder and Executive Director of, Geneva ; Professor PhD. (Switzerland) Valeriu Gheorge CIMPOCA - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 11. ASTRONOMY, ASTRO-PHYSICS “Valahia” University of Targoviste; Professor PhD. (Switzerland) Akhtar Hussain SANDHU - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 12. HISTORY, DEMOGRAPHY, ARCHAEOLOGY University of Gujrat; Professor PhD. (Pakistan) Anton LIESKOVSKY - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 13. MATHEMATICS, TECHNOLOGY, INDUSTRY, NETWORKING Faculty of Management Science and Informatics, University Tomas Bata of Zilina; Ing. PhD. (Slovakia) Teodosie PETRESCU - RESPONSIBLE FOR SESSION 14. GENERAL TOPIC (THEOLOGY) Faculty of orthodox theology , Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania) Stefan BADURA - RESPONSIBLE FOR I.T. Publishing Society of Zilina; Ing. PhD. (Slovakia)
  11. 11. Great minds discuss ideas; Average minds discuss events; Small minds discuss people. Eleanor Rosevelt
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we welcome you to the 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology, jointly organized by the Research Centre for Dialogue between Science and Theology (RCDST) from Ovidius University of Constanta (Romania) along with all our partners from 31 academic institutions, faculties and research centers within 21 countries, made the conference truly international in scope. The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology (Dialogo 2015) was held online at during 5th - 11th November 2015. Reflecting the positioning of this conference at the intersection of different scientific fields with different religions, the call for papers resulted in submissions from a wide variety of viewpoints, but still at the same event. Precise refereed articles were accepted for publication in these proceedings. All articles were thoroughly triple peer-reviewed by the external international Reviewers Committee and Technical Committee. The Reviewers Committee members came from 18 different countries and many different fields of research. In contrast to the first Dialogo event, when we approached this interdisciplinary debates from a triple topic angle - Life, Anthropology and Cosmology -, this year a very useful change was made due to the many requests we have received from former attendees and Dialogo visitors. Therefore, this year we approached this dialogue from a large variety of scientific disciplines, grouped in 13 sessions, to which was added the general section of the subject that has led to the creation of this Conference. During the conference the Section Chairman Committee was established to enhance the discussion, to supervise debates and comments, and not to be left unanswered. The Organizing Committee motivated authors by proposing a financial support (the second paper of each author, aside from coathorship, to be free of charge; the former participants and Scientific Committee to benefit of a discount of 20 % if submitting a single paper). More about Dialogo attendance conditions can be found at conference web page ( A well-received improvement was regarded the endorsement of Dialogo Journal & Conferences accredited by several international Databases that indexed our Journal during 2015. All these facts and many others move this event further, to be acknowledged and valuable for Scientific Community. In conclusion, we all hope that these Proceedings will be fruitful for the current and future Science. Lastly, we would like to express our sincere thanks to all authors and participants. Special thanks belong to all members of Section Chairman Committee and Reviewers Committee, who contribute significantly to the Scientific value of DIALOGO 2015. The annual “DIALOGO” CONFERENCES promote reflection and research on important public issues to which Christian theology can make a constructive contribution and is essential in the relation between science and religion in this era; scientists are also invited to manifest their ideas/ Welcome Address The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology - 11- doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1
  13. 13. theories on the topics in a constructive manner. This virtual conferences series gives you a great new way to participate in the fully fledged, scientific and professional conference without physical participation. Thesuccessoftheconferenceisduetothejointeffortsofmanypeople.Thereforewewould like to thank the Scientific Committee and the Reviewers for their valuable contribution. All accepted paper has been precisely reviewed. Also, we are proud to announce that all these concerted efforts are international endorsed and till the moment of this volume Dialogo Journal of Proceedings received recognision inthe following well-known Databases. Dialogo Journal is indexed in Social Science Research Network (SSRN), The CiteFactor, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Advanced Science Index (ASI), The Philosopher’s Index and the subject for indexing under evaluation in EBSCO, ATLA Religion Database, JSTOR, Religious and Theological Abstracts, SCImago, Summon by ProQuest, Index Copernicus, and Thomson Reuters. Annual DIALOGO Conferences have been supported by Virtual Conferences community, which is located at The goal of this community is to organize Virtual Conferences covering quality research and make a closer cooperation between researchers within and between different scientific disciplines. Among all our partneres in organizing this conference a special role was played by Mr. Anton Lieskovský who initiated this virtual project and was succesfully conducted and then carried on by Ing. Stefan Badura - both deserve all the credit of outstanding organizing the virtual conference platform Dialogo uses. Last but not least, we are grateful to all the participants for their great and important work prepared for and presented in this conference along with many and fruitful debates. See you at DIALOGO 2016 with new, useful multiple events ! Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN RCDST Executive Director and Founder (ROMANIA) The 2nd  Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology - 12- doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1
  14. 14. Table of Contents Table of Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 SECTION1.ArtandLiterature&Religion Union between the word and its sense- thebiblicalexegesisusedinSt.Augustine’swork DesermoneDominiin monte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Anabela Katreničová, PhD MappingNewYorkIrish-AmericanIdentities: . Duality of Spirituality in Elizabeth Cullinan’s Short Story “LifeAfterDeath”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Nicoleta Stanca, PhD SpiritualitythroughTransculturalityinHarryTavitian’sCreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Ruxandra Mirea, PhD Congruenceofritualsandtheatre.Theuseofdramaforreligiousceremony. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN, PhD Biblicalsymbolsandtheirmeanings.54;intheParableoftheSower,accordingtotheAmericanauthorEllen G.Whitevision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Ioan-Gheorghe ROTARU, Associate Professor PhD SECTION2.EarthSciences,Ecology,Environment&Theology EnvironmentImpactAssesmenton FloraandFauna inMadhyaPradesh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Manisha Mathur, Dr. SECTION3.SocialSciences,Culture,LifestyleChoices&Religion IstheInquiryBasedEducationParadigmUsefulnotjustforTeachingSciences,butalsoTheology?. . . 73 1. Prof. Mihai A. GÎRŢU, PhD; 2. Fr. Lecturer Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN, PhD the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1 (2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 - 13- Tabel of Content
  15. 15. AspectsofviolenceintheOldTestament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Adrian Vasile, PhD MuslimeducationinIndia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Beata Pietkiewicz-Pareek, PhD ReconstitutionsoftheevangelicaltextintheMysteriesoftheOrthodoxChurch. . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 1. Nicuşor TUCĂ, Prof. PhD; 2. Dragoş Corneliu BĂLAN, Lecturer PhD TheplaceandroleofyouthintheliturgicallifeoftheChurch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Assist. Prof. Dr. Pr. Iulian ISBĂȘOIU Theuseofdramaforreligiousceremony.Congruenceofritualsandtheatre.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Cosmin Tudor CIOCAN, lecturer PhD SECTION5.PhilosophyofScience&Theology Approachingtherelationshipbetweenreligionandsciencethroughlanguagegames. . . . . . . . . . . 131 Daniela Stănciulescu, PhD Godhood&Mathematics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 H Chris RANSFORD, PhD ThedarksideoftheScientificRevolution.TheBiblicalinterpretationinGalileoGalileiandIsaacNewton.141 Francesco Fiorentino, PhD Creation,itsProcesses,andSignificance.Samkhya-evolutionandinvoluton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Pratibha Gramann, PhD SECTION6.Biology,Medicine,NaturalSciences&Theology MolecularSociology:FurtherInsightsfromBiologicalandEnvironmentalAspects. . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Ahed J Alkhatib, PhD November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL http://dialogo-conf.comTabel of Content - 14-
  16. 16. the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1:112-119(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1 SECTION8.Epistemology,MetaphysicsandCommunicationSciences&Theology CanaPersonBelieveinBothGodandEvolution?WhenNaturalismandCreationismClash:. . . . . 175 Osman Murat DENIZ, PhD Erosinthefirstcentury’sChristiantheology.Pseudo-DionysiustheAreopagite. . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Mircea Adrian MARICA, PhD SECTION9.Management,Marketing,EconomicsandTourism&Religion ThestartofRomanianPilgrimagetotheHolyPlaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Assoc. Prof. PhD. Claudiu Cotan SECTION10.Bioethics-Science-Theology BioethicsinthevisionoftheOrthodoxTheology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Antony – Catalin PĂŞTIN, PhD SECTION12.History,Demography,Archaeology&Religion StarsInfluenceontheEarthatMaya’s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 1. Oprea Emanuel George, PhD 2. Oprea Cristiana, PhD Romanian-BulgarianReligiousRelationsduringtheFirstWorldWar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Assoc. Prof. PhD. Claudiu Cotan DacianTemplesandAncientAstronomicalResearchinSarmizegetusa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 1. Oprea Emanuel George, PhD; 2. Oprea Cristiana, PhD HistoricalandbiblicalfeaturesofthelastfivekingsoftheKingdomofJudah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Ioan-Gheorghe ROTARU, Associate Professor PhD TheChangingNatureofFaithBasedInsurgenceinUgandasince1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Kyeyune Ahmed, PhD Tabel of Content - 15-
  17. 17. SECTION13.Mathematics,Technology,Industry,Networking&Religion Contemporary challenges to the Church Mission from the perspective of post-modern art and technology.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Gheorghe ISTODOR, Professor PhD Assetrevaluationforscientificsupersonic-liketechnique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 1. Kazu-masa Yamada, PhD; 2. Nobuaki Matsuhashi, PhD Longdistancecommunicationwith affordablewirelesssystem,anddiscussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Kazu-masa Yamada SECTION14.GeneralTopic:ScienceandTheologyindialogue NeoNeoPlatonism:CanTheologybeStudiedwiththeScientificAttitude?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Bruno Marchal Contingencyincomplexsystemsandeasterntrinitariandivineactionincreation. . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Arvin M. Gouw, PhD. The Church’s mission in the face of great challenges that come from the sphere of modern and postmodern science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Gheorghe ISTODOR, Professor PhD St.Ap.Thomasandstepsoffaith. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Fr. Asist. Prof. PhD Nicolae Popescu The pastoral care and the priest profile in the study “On the Priesthood” of Saint John Chrysostom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Assist. Prof. Dr. Pr. Iulian ISBĂȘOIU November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL http://dialogo-conf.comTabel of Content - 16-
  18. 18. SECTION 1 Art and Literature & Religion
  19. 19. Abstract: Sermone Domini in monte is the exegetical work written by St. Augustine. In his work St. Augustine treat the interpretation of the Lord’s speech on the mountain taken from the Matthew Gospel. Our paper tries to introduce this work at the backround of the Patristic biblical exegesis. We introduce the main principles of the biblical exegesis form the Patristic period, where we focus on the St. Augustine’s theory of the symbol and allegoric interpretation of the Gospel. Finally we present the interpretation of the Lord’s speech from the view of the beatitudes and from the view of their practical purpose. Keywords: St. Augustine; speech on the mountain; biblical exegesis; Patrology; allegory I. INTRODUCTION There is no doubt that St Augustine is one of the most precious representatives of the Latin Patristic literature. His works strongly influenced whole doctrine of the Catholic Church till nowadays.Inhisnumerousbookswecanfindthe works from various branches of the science – the works purely philosophic, apologetic, dogmatic, polemic, moralistic or exegetic. In the centre of the exegetic writings stand the commentaries of the books from the Old Testament, especially the book of Genesis. The study of St. Augustine concerned the books of New Testament as well, where the main position belongs to the John’s Gospel. The analysis of the other books of Holy Scripture, naturally, does not remain without any interest from the side of St. Augustine1 . In his biblical commentaries St. Augustine has brought the basis of the Christian rhetoric – homily, hermeneutic – exegesis and semiotic to demonstrate how to work with the pagan cultural heritage. In his scriptures he presented 1 St. Augustine is well known also as the very fruitful commentator of the biblical texts. To the biblical exegesis he dedicated many of his books. From the Old Testament we could cite the exegetic writings as: De Genesi ad Litteram libir duodecim, De Genesi ad Litteram imperfectus liber, De Genesi contra Manichaeos libri duo, Locutionum in Heotateuchum libri septem and Quaestionum in Heptateuchom libri septem. The books of the New Testament are interpreted in the following works: Enarrationes in Psalmos, Expositio Epistolae ad Galatas, Expositio quarumdam propositionum ex Epistola ad Romanos, In Epistolam Ioannis ad Parthos tractatus decem, In Evangelium Iannis tractatus centum viginti quatuor, Quaestionum Evangeliorum libri duo and Quaestionum septemdecim in Evangelium secundum Matthaeum liber unus. Union between the word and its sense – the biblical exegesis used in St. Augustine’s work De sermone Domini in monte Anabela Katreničová, PhD DepartmentofRomanceStudiesandClassicalPhilology FacultyofArts,PavolJozefŠafárikUniversity Košice,Slovakia the Dialogue between Science and Theology 1. Art and Literature & Religion eISSN:2393-1744,cdISSN:2392-9928 printISSN:2392-9928 ISBN:978-80-554-1131-6 DIALOGO 2.1:19-26 (2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.1 - 19-
  20. 20. the useful advices for everyone who wants to understand the inspired text of Bible [1]. The biblical exegesis is not an invention of the Christianity and we do not thank for it to St. Augustine neither, as we display in the first part of this paper. It is derived from the pagan theory of literature and philosophy. Nevertheless St. Augustine influenced this branch of the text analysis by his theory of signs developed in his work De doctrina christiana. In this paper we focus on the methods of the biblical analysis presented and used in the St. Augustine’s works, especially in the writing De sermone Domini in monte. II. ST. AUGUSTINE AND THE BIBLICAL EXEGESIS The epoch of Patristic literature represents the decisive point of beginning of the biblical exegesis comprehended as an explanation and analysis of the original Bible text. The analysis of the Holy Scripture leads to the better and deeper understanding of the God’s speech. The origin of biblical exegesis could be derived from the pagan Hellenistic exegesis with remarkable influence of Hebraic exegesis. ThepaganHellenisticexegesiswasdeveloped on the commentaries to the Homer’s epic poem. 2 The Jewish Hebraic analysis, on the other side, is based on the very detailed explanation of Torah – five books of Moshe, called Midrash. The Christian biblical exegesis tried to make union between the two mentioned ways in the text analysis. Allegory and belief that the all texts taken form Old Testament announce the arrival of Jesus Christ that mentions the New Testament became the point of unification. The western Church Fathers, St. Augustine as well, in their exegesis used the hermeneutic key adopting the process based on the allegory and mysticism [2]. These styles of the text analysis were used in that time by all greatest authors of the Bible 2 Just the ancient tradition of the Greek thinking knew the commentaries, which were used to formulate the new ideas. The origin of these commentaries we could find in the epoch of philosophe Plato. For more details see: Canfora, Luciano, Dějiny řecké literatury, (Praha: KLP 2004), p. 624 – 625. commentaries, such as Jerome3 , St. Ambrose4 , Tertullian5 and others. In the Orthodox Church it was Origen6 and John Chrysostom7 . The importance of the biblical exegesis derives mainly from the different options in reading the Bible looking for the various nuances of its meaning. The credibility and the necessity of these analyses are in the following steps justified as suggested Gilbert Dahan in his discussion concerning Bible exegesis [9]. The exegesis of the Alexandrian school established on the interpretation of the Homer’s epic poem just as the works of Filon from Alexandria8 became the principal sources to interpret the Holy Scripture. The Jewish approach to the exegesis and to the interpretation of biblical text is naturally different. It used to analyse the literary style of the text in question (peshat) and its true meaning (derash) [9]. The exegesis in the hand of Christians in the Patristic era follows the similar way dividing the literary meaning of the text form its spiritual and mystical sense. The characteristic sign of the Patristic biblical interpretation is the belief of the Church Fathers that the inspired text of Bible is the real word of God hidden in a human language. The understanding of the biblical text leads to the further interpretations. The goal of the text analysisistofindallinfluencesoftheotherliterary productions that could be incorporated to the text [9]. In the same way, the text understood in this manner could be considerated as the subject of analysis, in which it is possible to apply any technics of interpretation used primary for the other types of literary production. For this reason the biblical text is very often situated into the historical context. The commentators analysing the text considerate the distance 3 See for example Hieronym’s famous work Commentarii, MPL 25, col. 1009 – 1116C. 4 St. Ambrose is well known as the commentator of the John’s Gospel: Expositio evangelii secundum Lucam libris decem comprehensa, MPL 15, col. 1527D – 1850D. 5 Tertullian, he also wrote the commentaries to the book of Genesis. See: Genesis, MPL 2, col. 1097 – 1102A. 6 Origene influenced the bible exegesis by his work: Hexaplorum, MPG 12, col. 185 – 254. 7 See his work: De Maccabeis, MPG 48, col. 345 – 407. 8 See the book: Quaestiones. MPG 87. 1. Art and Literature & Religion November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL - 20-
  21. 21. dividing them form the time of the text origin. Biblical text is then studied from the point of view of its historical context and linguistic character. To identify them the Fathers used the methods taken from the grammar, rhetoric or philosophy. The exegetes had never forgotten the fact that the biblical text contains the God’s message, which is transcendent and impossible to be understood by a man because it differs so much from the manner of human expression. Their effort is for this reason oriented to relieve the profundity of the God’s word hidden in human language [9]. The Latin exegetes used very often not only the hermeneutic method, but also the proceeding derived from the Latin grammar and history. Inos Biffi in his study dedicated to the Middle – Ages exegesis on the page 9 supposes that,eachbiblicaltextwasconsideratedasanunit with the well determinated linguistic structure characteristic with the place and period of its origin [7]. The lack of the exact linguistic and historical method brought the commencement of the various biblical commentaries. The Church Fathers, in addition, thought that the “septem artes liberales”9 merit to be used in the methodology of the Bible analysis. The seven free arts were at the epoch understood as the product of the pagan culture and erudition, but they must be subordinated to the Christianity, which is only way to find the truth. According Yves Congars, the Church fathers, under the influence of St. Augustine, accepted the idea that the profane methodology could have the auxiliary function in the exegesis of the Holy Scripture. “Artes liberales” – the profane and pagan methodology, according St. Augustine, belong to Jesus Christ and must be given back to him. That is the reason for what they must serve God and interpret His word10 . The profane methodology so became the mediator of the 9 The free arts represented the base of the scholar system in the epoch of Antiquity. There are seven branches of the all science: the grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. 10 See: Congar, Yves, Théologie, coll. 354: „Il Medio evo riceve dai Padri, e soprattutto da sant’Agostino, l’idea che le scienze o le arti profane, le arti liberali, appartengono di dirrito a Cristo e che occorre ridarle al loro vero proprietario, facendole servire a una intelligenza piu approfondita delle Scritture.“ true knowledge – it is the knowledge of the Scripture. The Church fathers proclaimed the perfect acquaintance of the pagan seven free arts because that is the only way to the cognition of the God’s word hidden in the Holy Scripture. The need of “septem artes liberales” defends St. Augustine, as well. In his work De doctrina christiana he explained their use for the better understanding of the Bible [10]. On the other hand, St. Augustine is in his thoughts more radical. He proclaimed that the analysis of the Scripture is the only reason why to study the profane scientific methods. III. THEORY OF SIGNS The theory of signs, adopted form St. Ambrose, as suggested Felix Baffour Asare Assiedu [3], is presented mainly in the second and third book of St. Augustine work De doctrina christiana. The sign is defined as the thing, which causes with its effect on the sense that the substance represented by the sign could enter to the human mind. St. Augustine in the second book, chapter one wrote: “Signum est enim res, praetor speciem quam ingerit sensibus, aliud aliquid ex se faciens in cogitationem venire.” 11 [5]. St. Augustine made a difference between the natural sign and the conventional sign. Thenaturalsignsare,accordingSt.Augustine, those, which lead to the cognition of something else without the inner intention to use them as the signs. In the second book of his De doctrina christiana, chapter 1. 2. we can read about it: “Naturalia sunt quae sine voluntate atque ullo appetite significandi praetor se aliquid aliud ex se cognosci faciunt.”12 [5]. On the other hand, the conventional signs are understood as the expedients ordinated by the men to relieve their meaning. They are characterised by the words of St. Augustine that could be found in the second book of De doctrina christiana, chapter 2. 3.: “Data vero signa sunt quae sibi quaeque viventia 11 In the English translation St. Augustine’s words: “For a sign is a thing which, over and above the impression it makes on the senses, causes something else to come into the mind as a consequence of itself.” 12 The English version of the text: “Natural signs are those which, apart from any intention or desire of using them as signs, do yet lead to the knowledge of something else.” the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1:19-26 (2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.1 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 21-
  22. 22. invicem dant ad demonstrandos quantum possunt motus animi sui, vel sense aut intellect quaelibet. Nec ulla causa est nobis significandi, id est signi dandi, nisi ad depromendum et traiciendum in aterius animum id quod animo gerit is qui signum dat.”13 [5]. The Holy Scripture contains the signs given by God through the men, who had written it down. All signs are done in the form of words. St. Augustine insists to take in consideration this fact in the analysis of the biblical text. It is very common that the signs in the form of words are not so clear and that is the reason why they could hide their true meaning, their true sense. Their understanding opposes two obstacles: the ignorance or the ambivalence of the sign. There are also two types of the signs – the proper sign and the transferred sign. The proper signs express the things, which they were been determinate to express them. The transferred signs are those, which denote the things, which they were not been determinate to express them. St. Augustine described them in the second book of De doctrina christiana, as well, in the chapter 10. 15. using the words: “Sunt autem signa vel propria vel translate. Propria dicuntur, cum his rebus significandis adhibentur, propter quas sunt institute… Translata sunt, cum et ipsae res quas propriis verbis significamus, ad aliquid aliud significandum usurpantur.”14 [5]. The misunderstanding of the language, in which the Bible was written, could cause the ignorance of the proper sign.15 In the case of the transferred sign ignorance came from the 13 See the English translation: “Conventional signs, on the other hand, are those which living beings mutually exchange for the purpose of showing, as well as they can, the feelings of their minds, or their perceptions, or their thoughts. Nor is there any reason for giving a sign except the desire of drawing forth and conveying into another’s mind what the giver of the sign has in his own mind.” 14 In English version we can read following: “Signs are either proper or figurative. They are called proper when they are used to point out the objects they were designed to point out… Signs are figurative when the things themselves which we indicate by the proper names are used to signify something else.” 15 For more details see: Augustinus, Aurelius. De doctrina christiana libri quatuor. MPL 34. II. 11. 6. various facts. Firstly it could be the ignorance of foreign language. In the second position it is the deeper ignorance of the things.16 St. Augustine concretises this ignorance as the ignorance of the natural sciences17 , numbers18 , music, theatre19 , classical culture20 , or magic21 , astronomy22 , pagan mythology23 or religion24 . St. Augustine, in the second book of De doctrina christiana, chapter 25. 40. proclaimed that the men are called to know all these products of the human culture: “Sed haec tota pars humanorum institutorum, quae ad usum vitae necessarium proficient, nequaquam est fugienda Christiano, immo etiam quantum satis est intuenda memoriaque retinenda.”25 [5] In the case of the ambivalence of the words or signs St. Augustine recommends the common instruction, which is to use the rule of the faith having on mind the whole biblical context.26 The ambivalence of the transferred signs could be solved by use of the two rules. The firs one is do not interpret the words literary.27 The second is do not accept the metaphoric explanation of the exact expression. 28 IV. SEVEN TYCONIUS RULES St. Augustine proclaims as the one of the several manner in the biblical exegesis the use of the seven Tyconius rules contained in the work with title Liber regularum. This work could be considerated as the first Latin hermeneutic adopted by St. Augustine [1]. St. Augustine, he 16 Ibidem. II. 16. 23. 17 Ibidem. II. 16. 24. 18 Ibidem. II. 16. 25. 19 Ibidem. II. 16. 26 – 18. 28. 20 Ibidem. II. 19. 29. 21 Ibidem. II. 20. 30. 22 Ibidem. II. 21. 32 – 22. 34. 23 Ibidem. II. 23. 35. 24 Ibidem. II. 23. 36 – 25. 38. 25 The English translation: “This whole class of human arrangements, which are of convenience for the necessary intercourse of life, the Christian is not by any means to neglect, but on the contrary should pay a sufficient degree of attention to them, and keep them in memory.” 26 See: Augustinus. De doctrina christiana. III. 2. 2. 27 Ibidem. III. 5. 9 – 9. 13. 28 Ibidem. III. 10. 14. November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 22-
  23. 23. characterised these rules, in the third book of his work De doctrina christiana, chapter 30. 42, like the keys to open the hidden secrets of Holy Scripture [5]. He does not grant them the absolute significance. He admits, on the other hand, that the seven Tyconius rules could be applied only for some dubious texts of the Bible. But in these cases, he thinks that they could be very useful. In these rules we can find the followings instructions: Rule one is on the Lord and his body. Rule two is called two parts of the Lord’s body. Rule three talks about the promises and law. Tychon’s rule four is on kind and species. Rule five is concerning the time. And the last one, rule seven talks on devil and his body. The first Tyconius rule, on Lord and his body, shows the fact, that Jesus Christ and his Church make together one inseparable body and represent one person. In the case of the second rule, St. Augustine refused the notion of the double Lord’s body because it does not exist any part of the Christ’s body, which could be separated. That is why he suggested the more appropriate name for this rule, in the book three, chapter 32. 45 of his writing De doctrina christiana: “Secunda est De Domini corpore bipertito, quod quidem non ita debuit appellari. Non enim re vera Domini corpus est, quod cum illo non erit in aeternum. Sed dicendum fuit: De Domini corpore vero atque permixto, aut: vero atque simulato, vel quid aliud, quia non solum in aeternum, verum etiam nunc hypocritae non cum illo esse dicendi sunt, quamvis in eius esse videantur Ecclesia. Unde poterat ista regula et sic appellari, ut diceretur: De permixta Ecclesia.”29 [5]. This rule 29 In English translation we can read: “The second rule is about the twofold division of the body of the Lord; but this indeed is not a suitable name, for that is really no part of the body of Christ which will not be with Him in eternity. We ought, therefore, to say that the rule is about the true and the mixed body of the Lord, or the true and the counterfeit, or some such name; because, should be used in case if the biblical text changes the recipients without any remarkable evidence. Then it looks like two different groups make an unity,becausetheywereunifiedbyonecommon presence on the sacraments. 30 St. Augustine changed the name of the third Tyconius rule. He explained his decision by the spirit of the commandments and for this reason he preferred to talk about a mercy and commandments, which are inseparable gifts of God himself. The forth Tyconius rule concerns the kind and species. When we talk about kind, we think on a part of the unity. The species, on the other hand, denotes the unity. This rule could by applied on the other situations in Bible, as well. 31 The fifth Tyconius rule is usually used in the hidden dates in the Bible. As Tyconius himself defines, this rule could be applied in relation to the rhetoric figures or in relation to the true numbers found on the pages of the Holy Scripture. 32 The sixth rule is very often used in the situations, when the Scripture offers the conclusions or short revisions of the events seen as they followed one after other. In reality, these conclusions or revisions represent the return, or recapitulation of the history without made any trace or explanation. 33 At last, the seventh rule concerns the devil and his body. This rule is according St. Augustine very similar to the first one and should by used in the occasion, when the Scripture talk about devil himself. The devil very often cannot be recognised as a person. That is why it must be observed his body. 34 St. Augustine explained how could be used these seven rules by the readers of the Bible. One thing helps to understand the other thing. not to speak of eternity, hypocrites cannot even now be said to be in Him, although they seem to be in His Church. And hence this rule might be designated thus: Concerning the mixed Church.” 30 See: Augustinus. De doctrina christiana. III. 32. 45. 31 Ibidem. III. 34. 47. 32 Ibidem. III. 35. 50. 33 Ibidem. III. 36. 52. 34 Ibidem. III. 37. 55. the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1:19-26 (2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.1 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 23-
  24. 24. So, it means the understanding a metaphoric statement, which obviously presents the situation in a way to become ambiguous. St. Augustine, in the third book of the De doctrina christiana, in chapter 37. 56. has written: “Hae autem omnes regulae, excepta una quae vocatur De promissis et Lege, aliud ex alio faciunt intellegi, quod est proprium tropicae locutionis, quae latius patet quam ut possit, ut mihi videtur, ab aliquot universa comprehendi. Nam ubicumque velut aliud dicitur ut aliud intellegatur, etsi nomen ipsius tropi in loquendi arte non invenitur, tropica locution est.”35 [5]. V. ALLEGORY St. Augustine in the manner how he works with the biblical text mentioned the allegory and paradoxally, he did not write about it in his hermeneutic work De doctrina christiana, but in the autobiographical Confessiones. He started his discussion with the simply statement, that the careful reader of the biblical text could find also the other sens of Scripture, the metaphoric sense. St. Augustine wrote in the twelfth book of his work Confessiones, chapter 18. 27.: “Dum ergo quisque conatur id sentire in Scripturis sanctis, quod in eis sensit ille qui scripsit, quid mali est, si hoc sentiat, quod tu, lux omnium veridicarum mentium, ostendis verum esse, etiamsi non hoc sensit ille, quem legit, cum et ille verum nec tamen hoc senserit.”36 [4]. St. Augustine believed that the Holy 35 The English version of the text: “Now all these rules, except the one about the promises and the law, make one meaning to be understood where another is expressed, which is the peculiarity of figurative diction; and this kind of diction, it seems to me, is too widely spread to be comprehended in its full extent by any one. For, wherever one thing is said with the intention that another should be understood we have a figurative expression, even though the name of the trope is not to be found in the art of rhetoric.” 36 In the English translation we can read following statement: “Since, therefore, each person endeavors to understand in the Holy Scriptures that which the writer understood, what hurt is it if a man understand what Thou, the light of all true-speaking minds, dost show him to be true although he whom he reads understood not this, seeing that he also understood a Truth, not, however, this Truth?” Scripture could be explained in the metaphoric or allegoric manner without the lost of the love of the Truth. He wrote about in the twelfth book of Confessiones, chapter 30. 41. So, the allegory became the proper method of biblical exegesis, whichexplainstheinnersenseofScriptureunited with the secret of the faith, denominated by the term mystical. The statement of this fact we can find in the thirteenth book of Confessiones, chapter 24. 36.: “Verum est enim, nec video, quid impediat ita me sentire dicta figurate Librorum tuorum. Novi enim multipliciter significari per corpus, quod uno modo mente intellegitur, et multipliciter mente intellegi, quod uno mod per corpus significatur.”37 [4]. The man himself cannot reveal this aspect of the text analysis. To find the message veiled in the Bible, man needs absolutely to enter into the dialogue with God, who is the only source and origin of the knowledge. That is why St. Augustine confessed, that the truth could be known only by God’s illumination. In the thirteenth book of Confessiones, chapter 25. 38 he wrote: “Vera enim dicam te mihi inspirante, quod ex eis verbis voluisti ut dicerem. Neque enim alio praetor te inspirante credo me verum dicere, cum tu sis Veritas, omins autem homo mendax. Et ideo qui loquitur mendacium, de suo loquitur. Ergo ut verum loquar, de tuo loquor.”38 [4]. 37 See the English translation of the words: “For it is true, nor do I see what should prevent me from thus understanding the figurative sayings of Your books. For I know a thing may be manifoldly signified by bodily expression which is understood in one manner by the mind; and that that may be manifoldly understood in the mind which is in one manner signified by bodily expression.” 38 The English text: “I would also say, O Lord my God, what the following Scripture reminds me of; yea, I will say it without fear. For I will speak the truth, Thou inspiring me as to what You will that I should say out of these words. For by none other than Your inspiration do I believe that I can speak the truth, since You are the Truth, but every man a liar. And therefore he that “speaks a lie, he speaks of his own;” therefore that I may speak the truth, I will speak of Yours.” November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 24-
  25. 25. VI. THE METHODOLOGY USED IN THE ST. AUGUSTINE WORK – DE SERMONE DOMINI IN MONTE The St. Augustine’s work De sermone Domini in monte is exegesis of the Gospel text written by Matthew. The writing is divided into two books explaining the text form the different point of view. The introduction of the St. Augustine’s exegesis is characterised by the subtitle representing the main idea of whole book. The book one treats the prescriptions, which pertain to the life. The importance of the Lord’s speech on mountain is the perfection of the live of Christians. That is why St. Augustine called this speech the prescriptions of fulfilment of the human life. The book two, in the other hand, contains the beatitudes obtaining by which it is possible to see God. In this part of his work, St. Augustine talked about purity of heart, which could be gained by the prayer and benefaction. In this exegesis, St. Augustine treated the biblical text using primary the allegory. In his proceed he pointed out the plasticity of the situation described in the Matthew Gospel. On the other hand, he specified the allegoric or mystical sense of the single words. So, St. Augustine proposed the double meaning of the word – its allegoric and realistic sense. Each word in Augustine’s interpretation represents the double sense. The allegoric meaning of the word is explained by the various citation of the Bible, all according the rule, that the Bible should be explained by the Bible. From the Tyconius seven rules St. Augustine in this book used the second and third rule without mentioned them. In the book De sermone Domini in monte we can observe two types of text analysis usually used by St. Augustine. On the first place St. Augustine use allegory and double explanation of every single word from the Gospel. In his analysis he proposed two meanings of one word –thefirstsenseexplainsthefunctionoftheword in the Gospel context. For example the word “mountain” according St. Augustine express the upper place, where Jesus presented his speech. But in the figurative sense “mountain” means: “maiora praecepta iustitiae, quia minora errant quae Iudaeis data sunt.” 39 [6]. So, the mountain 39 English translation: “If it is asked what the “mountain” became for St. Augustine the most important prescriptions given to the men. The same kind of text analysis we can see with the word “candelabra”. St. Augustine understood this word in the two senses, as well. In the first meaning it represents for him the body of a man, who gave himself to the service for God and for the Church. The “ candelabra” in the metaphoric meaning is, according St. Augustine, the Christian doctrine, which, from the upper position, could shine to the whole world. 40 The word “house” is presented in the double meaning, as well. St. Augustine explained this word as the place where the men used to live. In the straight meaning is the world. In the allegoric sense it means the whole community of brothers and sisters in united in the name of Jesus Christ.41 The second type of the biblical exegesis used by St. Augustine in this writing is focused not on the interpretation of the single words, but on explaining the sense of the whole expressions or whole sentences. We find this kind of analysis mainly in the second part of St. Augustine’s book De sermone Domini in monte. This manner of the text study shows the intention of St. Augustine to explain basic idea of the biblical narration. In this approach St. Augustine used the rule of the biblical exegesis that consist not in the literary meaning, but in the allegorical explanation. St. Augustine did not want to be lost in the literary meaning, but he always looked for the true practical sense of the Scripture. That is well seen in the St. Augustine’s explanation of the Jesus prayer42 and in the analysis of the eight beatitudes. 43 St. Augustine had always on the mind the practical application of the Holy Scripture messages into the every day life. That is why he means, it may well be understood as meaning the greater precepts of righteousness; for there were lesser ones which were given to the Jews.” 40 For more details see: Augustinus, Aurelius. De sermone Domini in monte secundum Mattheum. MPL 34. I. 6. 17. 41 Ibidem. I.6. 17. 42 Ibidem. II. 4. 16. – 11. 38. 43 Ibidem. 1. 3. – 3. 10. the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2.1:19-26(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.1 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 25-
  26. 26. interpreted the Jesus speech on the mountain in the view of the common live. He put together the first and second part of this work in the exegesis. So, he started to explain the first part of Jesus speech using the second one. St. Augustine so unified the eight beatitudes with the prayer of Jesus. The St. Augustine’s interpretation of this union is the fact that he saw the fulfilment of the eight beatitudes in the seven gift of the Holy Spirit and in the seven virtues. 44 CONCLUSION In this paper we presented the methods of Patristic approach to the biblical exegesis, which leads to the better understanding of the Holy Scripture. Union of the pagan Hellenistic exegesis and the Hebraic Bible analysis using the hermeneutic method created the Patristic exegesis, used in St. Augustine exegetic writings. The hermeneutic text analysis used the symbolism and allegory. St. Augustine in his work did not only used these methods, but he was also father of the analytic theory of signs, which proposed the understanding of the metaphoric meaning in the context of the Bible. REFERENCES [1] Andoková, Marcela, introduction to Sv. Augustín – O kresťanskej náuke, O milosti a slobodnej vôli by St. Augustine (Prešov: Petra, 2004), 21 – 29. [2] Arbesmann, Rudolph. 1958. “The Daemonium meridianum and Greek and Latin Patristic exegesis.” Traditio 14: 17 – 31. [3] Asiedu, Felix Baffour Asare. 2001. “The song of songs and the ascent of the soul: Ambrose, Augustine, and the language of mysticism.” Vigiliae Christianae 55 (3): 299 – 317. [4] Augustinus, Aurelius. Confessiones libri tredecim. MPL 32. [5] Augustinus, Aurelius. De doctrina christinana libri quattuor. MPL 34. [6] Augustinus, Aurelius. De sermone Domini in monte secundum Mattheum. MPL 34. [7] Biffi, Inos. Mirabile medioevo. Milano: Jaca Book, 2009. [8] Canfora, Lucano. Dějiny řecké literatury. Praha: KLP, 2004. 44 Ibidem. II. 11. 38. [9] Dahan, Gilbert. “Esegesi della Bibbia.” In Dizionario enciclopedico del Medioevo, edited by André Vauchez, Catherine Vincent, and Claudio Leonardi, 663 – 667. Roma: Citta Nuova, 1999. [10] Riché, Pierre, Chatillon, Jean, and Verger, Jacques. Lo studio della Bibbia nel Medioevo latino. Brescia: Paideia, 1989. November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 26-
  27. 27. Abstract: Elizabeth Cullinan’s short story “Life After Death” depicts a day in the life of a young New Yorker, Constance, walking along Lexington Avenue, attending the evening Mass at a Dominican church and visiting the Catholic college where she worked part time to pick up her paycheck. Though the woman is involved with the married Francis Hughes and confronted with the burden of the past and of intricate family dynamics, her voice, which is “the Cullinan narrative voice has become that of one of those sceptical granddaughters grown into a reasonably assured and independent adulthood [...] balanced between then and now, the ethnic and the worldly, and better able to judge self and others because of the doubleness” (Fanning qtd. in Bayor and Meagher 528). Thus, the paper will discuss the manner in which Elizabeth Cullinan maps, in her story, the oscillation of Irish Americans between the ethnic drive and a cosmopolitan individuality gained in New York, with a focus on the value of the duality of consciousness and spirituality, which facilitates enriching and clarifying answers to identity dilemmas. Keywords: Elizabeth Cullinan, Irish-America, New York, identity, duality, ethnicity, Catholicism, city, multiculturalism I. INTRODUCTION Elizabeth Cullinan was born in 1933 in New York City of Irish parents; she received a BA from Marymount College, Manhattan and in between 1955-1964 she worked as a secretary for The New Yorker. The, she travelled in between Ireland and America for a number of years, at present teaching creative writing at Fordham University. Cullinan’s short fiction, republished in two collections, The Time of Adam (1971) and Yellow Roses (1977), has appeared in The New Yorker since the 1960s. Her two novels House of Gold (1970) and A Change of Scene (1982) have also been well received, according to Casey and Rhodes (216). Cullinan’s approach to Irish-American fiction fits the traditional pattern in an intricate manner. ThewritertacklesCatholicismbutatastagewhen the Catholic church no longer serves the primary supporting role for the immigrant in the US. The Irish heritage of family patterns (late marriage, celibacy, children as caretakers, self-sacrificing, demanding mothers and generational conflicts) is also challenged in short stories, such as “Life After Death”. The Irish obsession with security translated in America through occupations in the public domain (police and fire department) and the story of the next generation’s advancement Mapping New York Irish-American Identities: Duality of Spirituality in Elizabeth Cull- inan’s Short Story “Life After Death” Nicoleta Stanca, PhD Departmentof Philology OvidiusUniversityofConstanta Constanța,Romania the Dialogue between Science and Theology 1. Art and Literature & Religion eISSN:2393-1744,cdISSN:2392-9928 printISSN:2392-9928 ISBN:978-80-554-1131-6 DIALOGO 2:27-34(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.2 - 27-
  28. 28. are equally dealt with through stories of young females from Irish backgrounds, who seem to have settled safely in present day New York. The ethnic context is there, without being so visible, as Cullinan probably shares Flannery O’Connor’s view: “I have never been greatly tied emotionally or sentimentally to my own Irish background. The Irish in America are sometimes more Irish then the Irish and I suppose some of my indifference is a reaction against that” (qtd. in Liddy 76). What the writer generally portrays are Irish American Catholics in the city, individuals involved in generational conflicts, young women trapped in affairs and bearing the burden of the past and of complicated family relationships. II. Modern Irish American Short Stories: general characteristics The majority of Irish Americans, the focus of Cullinan’s stories, are descendants of the Catholic,GaelicimmigrantsthatreachedAmerica in large numbers from the nineteenth century to mid 1950s. Between 1854 and 1855, the number of Irish people in the US was around one million and a half and the trend continued so that in 1860, 5.12% population was of Irish origin. Their uprooting had been mainly caused, according to Liddy (75), by racial and political oppression, famine and poverty. Constance, the protagonist in Elizabeth Cullinan’s short story “Life After Death”, comes a long way after the first massive waves of Irish female immigrants that reached New York in the nineteenth century and worked as domestics and factory workers, contributing to what is known as “chain immigration”1 . Later on, as nuns, these women brought their contribution to the American society and when they gained more strength, as teachers and nurses, they gathered in unions and asked for more rights for their kin. Yet, the early Irish women immigrants 1 Sending money back home to Ireland, so that other immigrants, relatives, friends could afford to pay for the journey to America. Guibernau and Rex even mention the network theory related to ethnic migrant groups expansion and they discuss migrant networks as “sets of interpersonal ties that connect migrants, former migrants, and non-migrants in origin and destination areas through ties of kinship, friendship and shared community origin” (316). did not easily move to better skilled jobs as “they were willing to defer or forgo marriage and family”; thus “they worked as live-in servants, and later as schoolteachers who had to remain single” (Diner xvi). The 1980 American Census showed that more than forty million Americans claim some Irish origin. And the kind of jobs the Irish women had access to or embraced, the associations they formed and the families they raised, have shaped the Irish American life for future generations. The Irish in the nineteenth century brought Catholicism to America; back then, the church was seen positively by the immigrants: it bridged the gap between the rural community in Ireland and the new urban neighbourhood in America and the Catholic parish preserved a pervading sense of community. However, the situation changed in the twentieth century, the second generation of immigrants no longer needing this kind of spiritual support. Even in the fiction depicting modern characters, Irish Americans still appear as “cultural Catholics (Hallissy 21), through their ethnic affiliation, which is the case of Cullinan’s stories. Family patterns (complicated mother and father roles, late marriage, long or permanent celibacy, dour parents-children relationships), brought over to the US by the Irish are also extremely influential when it comes to Irish heritage in America. Irish American patterns were also influenced by the way in which a rural population shifted to a predominantly urban population in America. Parents are closer to the Irish past, but sometimes the second generation has to comply with the burden of the past as well. Mothers-daughters and granddaughters often have complicated relationships, with the older generations having especially overbearing personalities. Silences and a certain inability to express feelings are registered among Irish family members and they appear as a topic in Irish American fiction as well. Charles Fanning observes that a recurrent theme in Irish and Irish American fiction consists of “the dutiful self-immolation of children on behalf of their parents” (qtd. in Hallissy 22). At home, maturity was defined by the parents’ death and the inheritance of the property, but that often came so late that the “children” chose to remain single. In America, it seemed that the inheritance 1. Art and Literature & Religion November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL - 28-
  29. 29. problem was replaced by a difficulty to break away with the family, a quandary valid for both sons and daughters and so strange to the American lifestyle. Looking at the work history of the Irish in the US, we come to grasp the occupation and social states of the characters in Irish American fiction. The Famine generations were low skilled and poor but by the beginning of the twentieth century, with the help of unionization, the Irish moved to better positions, better pay and higher skilled occupations. Jobs in the public domain also started being available to a stronger Irish American community thanks to Democratic politics and tight ethnic connections. “Irish Maries” moved up the social ladder and became office workers, “secretaries, stenographers, nurses and schoolteachers” (Hallissy 26). It is more difficult to clearly identify what ethnicity means for later generations as the achievement of middle-class socio-economic status is often opposed to powerful ethnic identification; this was considered to be the case of the “lace curtain Irish” (Rains 213), who moved from the old neighborhood into the suburbs. There were great changes in America in the twentieth century related to social and geographical mobility and the civil rights, thus, critics such as Herbert Gans speak of attenuated ethnicity or “symbolic ethnicity” in the 1970s or the 1980s, acquired through these new forms of social mobility across generations: This symbolic identification as more or less a leisure-time activity. Individuals identify as Irish, for example, on occasions such as Saint Patrick’s Day, on family holidays, or for vacations ... Gans also wonders how such symbolic ethnicity can continue when the actual ethnic collectivity that the individual claims belong to continue to recede. (qtd. in Rains 216) Blending into suburban neighborhoods caused a significant change in terms of the perception of ethnicity; “the bonds of ethnic community [which] were inevitably sundered by suburbanization” (Hallissy 30) by the second and third generation. In spite of this phenomenon, the Irish American community identifies itself as such and proudly produces ethnic culture. Michel Novak, in the study published in 1972, The Rise of Unmeltable Ethnics, sees ethnic identity as cultural values and behaviours, “ethnic identity persists among individuals ... by being passed on in unconscious, tacit ways in their early nurture” (qtd. in Bayor 20). The legacy of ethnic identity is equally tackled by Elliott Barkan in And Still They Come: in varying degrees across the generations, ethnicity has persisted among many groups even among the older ... ones. It could be seen in the private sphere of manners and mores, values, and specific traditional practices. (qtd. in Bayor 20) Richard Alba also locates ethnic identity in the deep structure of the psyche, as explained in Bayor’s study (20). Taking into account the concepts used, i.e. the unconscious, private sphere, the psyche, it is obvious that ethnicity has to be understood from a psychological viewpoint as well, in terms of attitudes towards child rearing, family roles, illnesses, for instance. One example used by Bayor in his study to demonstrate this theory refers to a psychiatry study in the 1960s in New York State, which revealed the patterns of disturbed behavior of Irish American boys because of maternal domination (21). Daniel J. Casey and Robert E. Rhodes published a Modern Irish-American Reader (1989), in which they include names like Finley Peter Dunne, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John O’Hara, Mary McCarthy, Brendan Gill, Mary Doyle Curran, Edwin O’Connor, Flannery O’Connor, J.P. Donleavy, William Kennedy, Maureen Howard, Elizabeth Cullinan, Mark Costello, Pete Hamill, Joe Flaherty and Mary Gordon. These writers themselves and critics have showed different understandings of the idea of Irish American fiction. For instance, interviewed on the topic, William Kenney discussed evolution in the fiction resulting from the social, cultural and political changes of the Irish American community: God knows where I am in all of this, in this evolution, but I know all that came before me. I know that those who came before me helped to show me how to turn experience into literature. I know all that came before in the same way I know that the Irish ascended politically to become Jack Kennedy. After Jack Kennedy, anything was possible. Goddammit, we’ve been president, and you can’t hold us back anymore. (qtd. in Casey and Rhodes 2) the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2:27-34(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.2 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 29-
  30. 30. In spite of the changes mentioned by Kenney, there are some traces of a traditional vein preserved in Irish American fiction, such as idyllic images of Ireland, or elements that symbolize the country of origin even for those for which it is no longer their homeland, a sublimated long-distance nationalism, some sense of the past, stubbornly transmitted from generation to generation and an awareness of the Catholic church as a church of immigration and of the ethnic neighbourhood networks. Charles Fanning, before Casey and Rhodes, published in 1987 an anthology of nineteenth century Irish American fiction (The Exiles of Erin), in which he distinguishes three generations of writers: the pre-famine, the practical fiction of the famine stage and the literature of a new middle class. Some themes analysed by Fanning as being of concern to those generations have been transmitted to later generations in one form or another, i.e. Catholicism, success or failureintheNewWorld,nationalismandpolitics. On Irish American fiction in the 1960s, like Kenney, Fanning states that it has been written under the impact of some major events, such as the civil rights and sexual revolutions, the rise and tragedy of the Kennedy family, the breakup of the Irish ethnic neighbourhoods and their move to the suburbs (in Bayor and Meagher 811). This change and energy are reflected in the perspective of liberating doubleness that characterizes much Irish American literature since the 1960s. (Fanning qtd. Bayor and Meagher in 511) In no other place have the Irish been more successful as in New York, which is valid for writers too. Thus, Maureen Howard, Jimmy Breslin, J.P. Donleavy, Alice McDermott, Elizabeth Cullinan and Joe Flaherty are representative of more recent New York Irish American fiction. Many of these writers continue the depiction of everyday family life in the big metropolis, tackled by their predecessors. “In addition, much of this fiction published over the past few years illustrates both the persistence of ethnicity and the phenomenon of ethnicity as liberating doubleness” (Fanning qtd. in Bayor and Meagher 519). III. Elizabeth Cullinan’s “Life After Death”: a dual approach of New York Irish American spirituality The short story “Life After Death” starts with Constance’s thoughts referring to President Kennedy’s sisters. There are two interesting remarks here: one, the allusion to the epitome of Irish success in the US, which is symbolized by President Kennedy, the first Irish president in America, and secondly, the modernity of the narrator’s consciousness rendering images of the street in New York as paper clippings: “Sister of the late President looks in shop window. Sister of slain leader buys magazine. Kennedy kin hails tax on Madison Avenue” (in Casey and Rhodes 27). Thinking in newspaper headlines points to a quality of fragmentation of consciousness of the urban individual. “Newspaper formulas move into a vacuum of authority in West’s disordered, violent urban world” and the situation becomes absurd so that even when people “meet face to face, they talk ‘in headlines’” (Bremer 128). Actually,theprotagonistoftheshortstorythinks in headlines, which shows further internalization of disintegration but she seems to apply this approach to public figures only, as if everything was neatly packaged for public display. The thoughts neatly arrange in the young woman’s head under a headline “LIFE AFTER DEATH”, which could mean after Kennedy’s death, a painful moment that crushed the hopes of many young Americans at the time, or it might hint at a moment of peace evoked by the conclusion Constance will draw at the end of the day analysing her life. A typical Cullinan short story follows this pattern: incisively observed encounters and emotional consequences build in seemingly casual movement to climactic generalizations so appropriate and valid as to be immediately recognizable as wisdom. (Bayor and Meagher 528) It is no wonder that Constance’s thoughts gravitate around Kennedy, whose election as president was considered a major breakthrough for the Irish Americans and it provoked commentaries such as McCaffrey’s: The Irish are even numbered among the so- called beautiful people- part of the Kennedy heritage. On television handsome men, women and children November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 30-
  31. 31. wearing Irish knit sweaters and with Irish names like Kevin, Brian, Sean, Sheila and Maureen sell cars, soap and toothpaste. (qtd. in Rains 215) Representations of Kennedy’s visit in Ireland in 1963, his speech on arrival at Dublin Airport, his speech in the Irish Parliament, all point to the historical relationship between Ireland and American, the importance of the Irish diaspora, Ireland’s struggle for independence, its progress and role in the global economy and politics. According to Kevin Kenny It was in 1960 rather than 1860 that the American Irish finally became ‘white’, if by that term one means full racial and cultural respectability, a final acceptance by white American Protestants of Irish- American Catholics as their equals in all things important. (qtd. in Rains 19) Thus, in the context of the short story, though an element of powerful ethnicity, the Irish American president is seen as a liberating figure. As it is a cold day and the protagonist of the story is warmly dressed thanks to her mother’s advice, this gives the woman a moment to focus on the mother-daughter relationship. The mother is typically Irish: overprotective, self- sacrificing,“hersheercompetence,herstrength, her powers of endurance, her devotedness” (in Casey and Rhodes 219) being revealed in Constance’s meditation on her mother’s relationships with the three daughters (Grace, Rosemary and Constance) and in Constance’s dreams about her mother (in one, though dead, she rises and takes charge of the household and in another one, she is held captive in the house, beaten and suffering without being rescued by her daughters who can witness the ordeal). Grace, the oldest of the sisters, was married with six children and a perfectionist, never satisfied with anything or anyone. The middle sister, Rosemary, aged forty, had lived all her life abroad and was about to get married to a man of a different religion. In the short story, like in the other works by Cullinan we have “single- shot, slowed down moments of life in an Irish New York Matriarchy” (Liddy 83). Conversely, “the fathers peep forward in shadows,breadlosers,happygolucky,financially distressed” (Liddy 83). The protagonists in traditional Irish American writing, young women, are usually affected by their mother’s ambition. Therefore “Life After Death” depicts a cry for evasion. The affection the daughters return to their mother in “Life After Death” is very far from being the self-sacrifice expected by Irish mothers: We have a sense of irony that my mother with the purity of instinct and the passion of innocence sees as a threat to our happiness and thus to hers. Not one of us is someone she has complete confidence in. (in Casey and Rhodes 218) As Constance continues her walk along Lexington Avenue, she remembers the explosion in the always active area (since the mid-1940s busy with commuters around Central Station), which is under construction. Since after WWI, New York has been described as “the first capital of the world” (Chevrillon qtd. in Bremer 114), displaying “more contrasts than any other city in the world” (Mencken qtd. in Bremer 114), as “all the cities” (W.L. George qtd. in Bremer 114), as “the new Cosmopolis” (Hunecker qtd. in Bremer 114), a creative place “where all belong but none is uncontested owner” (Bremer 115). Due to its harbour in the beginning, New York started growing as a center for commerce and communications, then to host international headquarters for banking and stacks, printing and publishing, radio and television. In the context of the busy and noisy city, Constance also recalls Francis’ call among the noise letting her know that they had to postpone their meeting. Francis Hughes was a documentary producer, a married man with four sons, whom Constance was secretly seeing. In her walks, West Fifties is avoided because of the memories of the time when she was working with Francis being around him longer hours: When I’m in that part of the city, the present seems lifeless, drained of all intensity in relation to the lost time when my days were full of Francis, where for hours on end he was close by. (in Casey and Rhodes 222) And another area in New York avoided is Thirty-fourth Street with Third Avenue, where Constance’s uncle owned a restaurant, Flynn’s, a typical Irish family business. Constance’s father, whose memory she treasures, had the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2:27-34(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.2 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 31-
  32. 32. been a manger there for a while and apparently tampered with the books, and, though no charges were pressed, this incident severed the family ties and the young woman avoided that part of the city as much as she could afterwards. From this viewpoint, of memories and lived experience in the urban space, it is interesting to look at New York as a fictional city in Cullinan’s story as a “thirdspace”, described by Soja in his studies Thirdspace (1996) and Postmetropolis (2000). Soja speaks of a “firstspace” in the city as “spatial practices” meant to create concrete forms and patterns of urban lifestyle; the “secondspace” belongs to the mental or ideational realm as a “conceived space of imagination” (Soja 10-11). What the narrator renders through Constance’s walking or avoiding walking in New York is this alternative third dimension of space, “lived space”, “a simultaneously real-and-imagined, actual- and-virtual, locus of structured individual and collective experience and agency” (Soja 11), fed by Constance’s fears and anxieties and the city dynamic with television and Irish pubs at their peak. Soja considers that understanding “lived space” is comparable to writing a biography; this could be one meaning attached to Cullinan’s short story: walking through New York with Constance, a young Irish American in the 70s, we remake, in a nutshell, the evolution of the ethnic community of the Irish in America; we witness the writing of an alternative monograph of New York City. Constance had attended a Catholic college, like many Irish girls and she had a part-time job in the same institution working for the Admission Office. The nuns that are still at the college remind her of the old days of the Catholic school, otherwise the personnel now form a multicultural community, typical of New York City, and which the Irish, once the most dominant immigrant population in the city, adapted to: Yeshi, who comes from Ethiopia, Maggie, a Haitian, Delia, from Puerto Rico, all members of ethnic groups that entered the US in various waves in the twentieth century. In America, and especially in cities like New York, “every individual urban center, from the largest to the smallest, seems increasingly to contain the entire world within it, creating the most culturally heterogeneous2 cityspaces the world has ever seen” (Soja 152). This multicultural milieu constituted by her colleagues gives Constance contradictory feelings. On the one hand, diversity offers a chance for tolerance and reconciliation, as ethnic consciousness implies an acute awareness of other ethnic groups: “I’m half convinced that time is on our side, that nothing is ever lost, that we need only have a little more faith, we need only believe a little more and the endings will be happy” (in Casey and Rhodes 226), i.e. her mother will trust her daughters, Francis will realize how much she loves him and she will walk again confidently on 34th Street. On the other hand, this intricate melange of people may create difficulties in one’s ability to identify oneself, like in the Dominican church Constance attends the Mass in in the evening: Since it’s a city parish, my companions at Mass are diverse – businessmen and students and women in beautiful fur coats side by side with nuns and pious people, the backbone of the congregation. I identify myself among them as someone who must be hard to place. (in Casey and Rhodes 228) Without claiming to be a typically devout Catholic, Constance reveals a high degree of spirituality, her attendance of the Mass causing a powerful meditation on the meaning of life and death, which explains the title of the short-story: During those twenty or so minutes, I feel my own past to be not quite coherent but capable of eventually proving to be that. And if my life, like every other, contains elements of the outrageous, that ceremony of death and transfiguration is a means of reckoning with the outrageousness, as work and study are means of reckoning with time. (in Casey and Rhodes 228) The fact that Constance’s moments of spirituality are not solely Catholic Mass bound is proved by the next meditation on vanity and fleeting life caused by New York City street life: “The street was crowded with people – flesh- and-blood images, living tableaux representing virtue and temptation: greed on one face, faith on another, on another charity or sloth, 2 Appadurai calls them ethnoscapes, cities that have been shaped by global flows of people at an unprecedented level (in Soja 201). November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 32-
  33. 33. fortitude, or purity” (in Casey and Rhodes 228). To the crowd, Constance finally adds the image of the new flower seller at the corner of Sixty- eight and the short story serenely concludes on the noble, beautiful and still faces of people from all over the world settling in New York. According to Raymond Williams, the experience of an individual in a large city could go either way “into an affirmation of common humanity, past the barriers of crowded strangeness; or into an emphasis of isolation, of mystery – an ordinary feeling that can become a terror” (qtd. in Tally Jr. 89) or rather to moments of oscillation like in the case of Cullinan’s protagonist. Equally, Walter Benjamin, in “A Berlin Chronicle”, Charles Baudelaire, in “The Painter of Modern Life”, Edgar Allen Poe, in the short story “The Man of the Crowd” and Michel de Certeau, in his “Walking in the City”, discuss this modern figure, the stroller, le flâneur, who covers an “urban island, a sea within the middle of the sea”, a phrase used by the latter to describe Manhattan (qtd. in Tally Jr. 96). The conclusions of these writers’ works interestingly converge to one idea, namely the mental protean phenomenon characterizing an individual’s urban experience, which is an intensification, an “electricity”: “the psychological basis of the metropolitan type of individuality consists in the intensification of nervous stimulation which results from the swift and uninterrupted change of outer stimuli” (Simmel qtd. in Tally Jr. 96). At times, this type of experience creates a state of transition, which may oppress or reinforce any feelings of community. In the case of the young Irish American woman, we have stimuli like, the Kennedy sisters, the explosion on Lexington Avenue, the cold outside, the uncle’s pub, the college, the church and the new flower seller in the corner of the street, which trigger her thoughts and meditation. So, it is the story of a woman stroller, a modern Irish American young girl whose consciousness is bombarded by the urban flux. Conclusion In conclusion, the movement of these Irish American characters, such as Constance in Cullinan’s “Life After Death”, through urban space – New York City, ultimately points at an oscillation between the parochial ethnic neighbourhood - represented by the mother, the uncle’s restaurant, the old college - and the liberating downtown – the streets, the office, the church, which parallels Constance’s ancestors’ migration from rural Ireland to urban America. The story take place within the diaspora discourse, which articulates,orbendstogether,bothrootsandroutes to construct what Gilroy describes as alternate public spheres (1987), forms of community consciousness and solidarity that maintain identifications outside the national time/ space in order to live inside, with a difference. (Guibernau and Rex 325) With Cullinan, the approach to the protagonist’s journey appears as sophisticate and, though alluding to specific ethnic details, applicable to any immigrant in New York, whose experience becomes universally illuminating: ... the doubleness of ethnic consciousness is enriching and clarifying, that the debate cannot really be resolved, and that a refusal to decide between the poles of ethnic community and cosmopolitan individuality can mark the beginning of a rich, varied life. The middle, straddling position, having something to compare everything with – therein lies a valuable source of energy and understanding. (Bayor and Meagher 530) As there is silence in relation to chain migration, re-Irishing, Hibernian activities in the US, and visits to Ireland and encounters with Irish people (Hallissy 30), as strategies of coming to terms with ethnic identity dilemmas to be used by Constance, her only answer remains storytelling. Thus, we learn about Francis, her mother, her father, her uncle’s pub, her office work and colleagues, the church she attends, choices through which she seems to find comfort and peace even in the absence of clear cut verdicts as to her belonging to the Irish American community. The spiritual universe of the protagonist remains ethnic bound, Irish, and cosmopolitan and profoundly humane as well. On the one hand, the presence of president Kennedy’s sister reconnects her to the ethnic community, which was liberated from many viewpoints by the charismatic leader; Constance’s mother is a constant remainder of their attachment to the the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2:27-34(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.2 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 33-
  34. 34. Irishcommunity,yetthegirlchoosestochallenge any family oppression; Flynn’s, her uncle’s pub, is avoided because of the family conflict but Constance longs to return there one day and feel confident about walking in the restaurant; the Catholic college Constance works for, the same she attended as a student, is now multicultural, which can only enrich the spiritual dimension of the protagonist’s consciousness even if at times freedom is offered by the possibility to mask one’s identity, through different clothing, for instance. Finally, both the Dominican church and the streets of New York, as the two facets of existence, the religious one and the lay one, cause very powerful spiritual insights for the young Irish American woman. REFERENCES [1] Bayor, Ronald H. And Timothy Meagher, eds. The New York Irish. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. [2] Bayor, Ronald H. “Another Look at ‘Whiteness’: The Persistence of Ethnicity in American Life.” Journal of American Ethnic History. Vol. 29. No. 1 (Fall, 2009). University of Illinois Press. 13-30. Accessed: 02/05/2013. [3] Bremer, Sidney H. Urban Intersections: Meetings of Life and Literature in United States Cities. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992. [4] Casey, J. Daniel and Robert E. Rhodes. Modern Irish-American Fiction Reader. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1989. [5] Diner, R. Hasia. Erin’s Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983. [6] Guibernau, Montserat and John Rex, eds. The Ethnicity Reader. Cambridge, Polity, 2010. [7] Hallissy, Margaret. Reading Irish-American Fiction: The Hyphenated Self. Gordonville, VA: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2006. [8] Liddy, James. On American Literature and Diasporas. Ed. Eamonn Wall. Dublin: Arlen House, 2013. [9] Rains, Stephanie. The Irish-American in Popular Culture 1945-2000. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2007. [10] Soja, Edward. Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions. Oxford, Malden, MA: Oxford, 2000. [11] Tally Jr., Robert. Spatiality. London and New York: Routledge, 2013. Biography Nicoleta Stanca has been teaching at Ovidius University Constanta since 2003. She has published three book-length studies Mapping Ireland (Essays on Space and Place in Contemporary Irish Poetry), (2014), The Harp and the Pen (Tradition and Novelty in Modern Irish Writing) (2013), Duality of Vision in Seamus Heaney’s Writings (2009), articles in academic journals and book chapters. She has been a co- editor of conference volumes, the most recent being: The American Tradition of Descent/ Dissent: The Underground, the Countercultural, the (Anti)Utopian. A Collection of Essays (2012). She has also been an editor for the International Journal of Cross-Cultural Studies and Environmental Communication. ISSN 2285 – 3324 and she is a member of the Romanian Association for American Studies, the Romanian Society for English and American Studies and of the Ireland-Romania Network. November, 5 - 11 The 2nd Virtual International Conference on the Dialogue between Science and Theology DIALOGO 2(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL 1. Art and Literature & Religion - 34-
  35. 35. Abstract: Harry Tavitian, like any other creator, is in a continuous motion, quest and development, with free mind and spirit. Harry Tavitian was born in Constanta, in 1952, in an Armenian family, who is always in his heart, as he says. The study of the piano was so useful, that, in his late teens, he is already exploring the blues. Before graduating the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory in Bucharest in 1978, the artist founded, with a deliberate enthusiasm, a band called Creative, which would always express itself recreatively, in the spirit of a permanent renewal. His concerts, initially thought with an exigence that shows through the creation, are not repeatable, cannot be quantified with a measure of a weight or linearity, but with one of depth and veracity of the message, of liberty, joy and simplicity. The piano, the one that helps him and us to grow through music is the instrument which comes to support the improvisation and the variations. Thus springs the original esthetics called ethno-jazz, a genre nurtured from the fertile soil of the Romanian folklore, thus building and promoting a valuable South-Eastern European school of jazz. In his language both the avant-garde jazz and the traditional blues are amplified and also supplemented with Romanian and Armenian flavors. The cavalcade of improvisation is defining, Harry Tavitian being spontaneous in the original harmonic lacing in which he always wraps his creations and performances. The aftermath is always the same, an audience that hardly recovers from the dreamy ambience of every concert. Keywords: ethno-jazz, blues, improvization, melody, Armenian, Romanian, harmony, rhythm, creation, piano, percussion, dance I. INTRODUCTION About his personality it is difficult to speak only once, as it is difficult to gather the multitude of information about him until present day, for the simple reason that he is a boundless and free artist. Like any other creator, he is in a continous motion, quest and development, with mind and spirit without borders. Harry Tavitian was born in Constanta, in 1952, in an Armenian family, who is always in his heart, as he says. „My hearth is in Dobrudja for at least four generations. Elsewhere I think I would lose any idea” says Harry Tavitian in an interview[1]. The togetherness with the piano, since he was six years old, gave him the possibility of an unhindered expression and communication, in a language which he would sustain and transform quickly. He confessed in an interview that „one of the big lessons which my parents taught me Spirituality through Transculturality in Harry Tavitian’s Creation Ruxandra Mirea, PhD DepartmentofArts OvidiusUniversityofConstanta Constanța,Romania the Dialogue between Science and Theology 1. Art and Literature & Religion eISSN:2393-1744,cdISSN:2392-9928 printISSN:2392-9928 ISBN:978-80-554-1131-6 DIALOGO 2:35-41(2015) CONFERENCES & JOURNAL doi: 10.18638/dialogo.2015.2.1.3 - 35-