Isaca sql server 2008 r2 security & auditing

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Isaca sql server 2008 r2 security & auditing

  1. 1. Security & Auditing on SQL Server 2008 R2 Antonios Chatzipavlis Software Architect Evangelist, IT Consultant MCT, MCITP, MCPD, MCSD, MCDBA, MCSA, MCTS, MCAD, MCP, OCA MVP on SQL SERVER
  2. 2. 2 • Overview of SQL Server Security • Protecting the Server Scope • Protecting the Database Scope • Managing Keys and Certificates • Auditing Security Objectives
  3. 3. 3 Overview of SQL Server Security Security & Auditing on SQL Server 2008 R2
  4. 4. 4 • SQL Server Security Framework • What Are Principals? • What Are Securables? • SQL Server Permissions Overview of SQL Server Security
  5. 5. 5 Overview of SQL Server Security
  6. 6. 6 SQL Server Security Framework
  7. 7. 7 What Are Principals? Server Role SQL Server Login Windows Group Domain User Account Local User Account SQL Server Database Windows Securables Permissions Principals User Database Role Application Role
  8. 8. 8 What Are Securables? Server Role SQL Server Login Windows Group Domain User Account Local User Account SQL Server Database Windows Files Registry Keys Server Schema Database Securables Permissions Principals User Database Role Application Role
  9. 9. 9 • Server-Level Permissions • Logins • Credentials • Server-Level Roles • Database-Level Permissions • Users • Schemas • Database Level Roles SQL Server Permissions
  10. 10. 10 Protecting the Server Scope Security & Auditing on SQL Server 2008 R2
  11. 11. 12 • What Are SQL Server Authentication Methods? • Password Policies • Server-Level Roles • Managing SQL Server Logins • Server-Scope Permissions Protecting the Server Scope
  12. 12. 13 What Are SQL Server Authentication Methods? Windows Authentication Mixed SQL and Windows Authentication
  13. 13. 14 Password Policies Group Policy Object (GPO) Pa$$w0rd SQL Server Can Leverage Windows Server 2003/2008 Password Policy Mechanism SQL Server Can Manage: • Password Complexity • Password Expiration • Policy Enforcement
  14. 14. 15 Server-Level Roles Role Description sysadmin Perform any activity dbcreator Create and alter databases diskadmin Manage disk files serveradmin Configure server-wide settings securityadmin Manage and audit server logins processadmin Manage SQL Server processes bulkadmin Run the BULK INSERT statement setupadmin Configure replication and linked servers
  15. 15. 16 Managing SQL Server Logins CREATE LOGIN [SERVERXSalesDBUsers] FROM WINDOWS WITH DEFAULT_DATABASE = AdventureWorks2008 CREATE LOGIN Alice WITH Password = 'Pa$$w0rd' CREATE LOGIN login_name { WITH SQL_login_options | FROM WINDOWS [ WITH windows_login_options ] }
  16. 16. 19 Server-Scope Permissions Server permissions Server-scope securable permissions USE master GRANT ALTER ANY DATABASE TO [AdventureWorks2008Holly] USE master GRANT ALTER ON LOGIN :: AWWebApp TO [AdventureWorks2008Holly]
  17. 17. 21 Protecting the Database Scope Security & Auditing on SQL Server 2008 R2
  18. 18. 22 • What Are Database Roles? • What Are Application Roles? • Managing Users • Special Users • Database-Scope Permissions • Schema-Scope Permissions Protecting the Database Scope
  19. 19. 24 What Are Database Roles? Database-Level Roles Application-Level Roles Users
  20. 20. 25 What Are Application Roles? User runs app App connects to db as user App authenticates using sp_setapprole App assumes app role
  21. 21. 26 • Create a login • Create a database scope user • Assign permissions to the user Managing Users Steps to Manage Users
  22. 22. 27 Special Users DBO The sa login and members of sysadmin role are mapped to dbo account Guest This user account allows logins without user accounts to access a database
  23. 23. 28 Database-Scope Permissions Database permissions Database-scope securable permissions USE AdventureWorks2008 GRANT ALTER ANY USER TO HRManager USE AdventureWorks2008 GRANT SELECT ON SCHEMA :: Sales TO SalesUser
  24. 24. 29 Schema-Scope Permissions User-defined type permissions All other schema-scope permissions USE AdventureWorks2008 GRANT EXECUTE ON TYPE :: Person.addressType TO SalesUser USE AdventureWorks2008 GRANT SELECT ON Sales.Order TO SalesUser
  25. 25. 33 Managing Keys and Certificates Security & Auditing on SQL Server 2008 R2
  26. 26. 34 • What Are Keys? • What Are Certificates? • SQL Server Cryptography Architecture • When to Use Keys and Certificates • Transparent Data Encryption Managing Keys and Certificates
  27. 27. 35 What Are Keys? • Symmetric  Same key used to encrypt and decrypt • Asymmetric  Pair of values: public key and private key  One encrypts, the other decrypts Encrypt Decrypt
  28. 28. 36 What Are Certificates? • Associates a public key with entity that holds that key • Contents:  The public key of the subject  The identifier information of the subject  The validity period  Issuer identifier information  The digital signature of the issuer
  29. 29. 37 SQL Server Cryptography Architecture
  30. 30. 38 When to Use Keys and Certificates • When to use Certificates • To secure communication in database mirroring • To sign packets • To encrypt data or connections • When to use Keys • To help secure data • To sign plaintext • To secure symmetric keys
  31. 31. 39 Transparent Data Encryption Transparent data encryption performs real-time I/O encryption and decryption of the data and log files • Create a master key • Create or obtain a certificate protected by the master key • Create a database encryption key and protect it by the Certificate • Set the database to use encryption Steps to use Transparent Data Encryption
  32. 32. 40 Transparent data encryption
  33. 33. 41 • Entire database is protected • Applications do not need to explicitly encrypt/decrypt data! • No restrictions with indexes or data types (except FILESTREAM) • Performance cost is small • Backups are unusable without key • Can be used with Extensible Key Management Transparent Database Encryption: More Benefits
  34. 34. 42 • Very simple: • Database pages are encrypted before being written to disk • Page protection (e.g. checksums) applied after encryption • Page protection (e.g. checksums) checked before decryption • Database pages are decrypted when read into memory • When TDE is enabled, initial encryption of existing pages happens as a background process • Similar mechanism for disabling TDE • The process can be monitored using the encryption_state column of sys.dm_database_encryption_keys • Encryption state 2 means the background process has not completed • Encryption state 3 means the database is fully encrypted Transparent Data Encryption: Mechanism
  35. 35. 43 • Create a master key • CREATE MASTER KEY ENCRYPTION BY PASSWORD = '<UseStrongPwdHere>'; • Create or obtain a certificate protected by the master key • CREATE CERTIFICATE MyDEKCert WITH SUBJECT = 'My DEK Certificate'; • Create a database encryption key and protect it by the certificate • CREATE DATABASE ENCRYPTION KEY WITH ALGORITHM = AES_128 ENCRYPTION BY SERVER CERTIFICATE MyDEKCert; • Set the database to use encryption • ALTER DATABASE MyDatabase SET ENCRYPTION ON; Transparent Data Encryption: Enabling
  36. 36. 44 • A backup of a TDE encrypted database is also encrypted using the database encryption key • To restore the backup OR attach the database, the DEK must be available! • There is no way around this – if you lose the DEK, you lose the ability to restore the backup (that’s the point!) • Maintain backups of server certificates too Transparent Data Encryption: Backups
  37. 37. 45 • Database | Tasks | Manage Database Encryption Transparent Data Encryption: Tools Support
  38. 38. 46 Auditing Security Security & Auditing on SQL Server 2008 R2
  39. 39. 47 • What Is Auditing? • Security Auditing with Profiler • Auditing with DDL Triggers • Introducing SQL Server Audit • SQL Server Audit Action Groups and Actions Auditing Security
  40. 40. 48 • What is Auditing? • What auditing options are available in SQL Server? • Have you ever had to audit SQL Server? • If so, how did you do it? • If not, what do you think is the best use of auditing? What Is Auditing?
  41. 41. 49 Security Auditing with Profiler • Using SQL Server Profiler, you can do the following: • Create a trace that is based on a reusable template • Watch the trace results as the trace runs • Store the trace results in a table • Start, stop, pause and modify the trace results • Replay the trace results
  42. 42. 50 Auditing with DDL Triggers • Use DDL triggers when you want to do the following: • Prevent certain changes in your database schema • You want something to occur in the database in response to a change in your database schema • You want to record changes or events in the database schema • Start, stop, pause and modify the trace results • Replay the trace results
  43. 43. 51 Introducing SQL Server Audit • SQL Server Auditing • Tracks and logs events that occur on the system • Can track changes on the server or database level • Can be managed with Transact-SQL
  44. 44. 52 Using SQL Server Audit
  45. 45. 53 Thank you!
  46. 46. 54 Q & A
  47. 47. 55 • For SQL Server and Databases • www.autoexec.gr/blogs/antonch • For .NET & Visual Studio • www.dotnetzone.gr/cs/blogs/antonch My Blogs
  48. 48. 56

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