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Ecuador history


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Ecuador history

  1. 1. Ecuador History Antonio Martín
  2. 2. History Timelines
  3. 3. Ecuador History • The History of Ecuador extends over a 8,000-year period. During this time a variety of cultures and territories influenced what has become the Republic of Ecuador. The history can be divided into five eras: Pre-Columbian, the Conquest, the Colonial Period, the War of Independence and the Republican Era. • The beginning of the history is represented by a variety of cultures and finishes with the Incan invasion. The Incas were followed closely by the arrival of the conquistadors, the Spanish conquerors. The Spanish founded modern day Quito and Guayaquil as part of the political-administration era which lasted until the war of independence, the rise of Gran Colombia and Simón Bolívar to the final separation of his vision into what is known today as the Republic of Ecuador.
  4. 4. The First Inhabitants
  5. 5. The First Inhabitants • Paleo-Indians are agreed to have originated from Central Asia, crossing the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska. Humans lived throughout the Americas by the end of the last glacial period, or more specifically what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 16,000 — 13,000 years before present.The details of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the American continent, including the dates and the routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. • Dates for Paleo-Indian migration out of Beringia are a matter of current debate. Estimates range from 40,000 to around 16,500 years ago.
  6. 6. • The routes of migration are also debated. The traditional theory is that these early migrants moved when sea levels were significantly lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation, following herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific Northwest coast to South America as far as Chile. Any archaeological evidence of coastal occupation during the last Ice Age would now have been covered by the sea level rise, up to a hundred meters since then.
  7. 7. The First Inhabitants • Ecuador's culture and history mirrors the diversity of its landscape. Like much of South America, Ecuadorian culture blends the influences of Spanish colonialism with the resilient traditions of pre-Columbian peoples. • Archaeologists trace the first inhabitants as far back as 10,000 BC, when hunters and gatherers established settlements on the southern coast and in the central highlands. By 3,200 BC three distinct agricultural-based civilizations had emerged, producing some of the hemisphere's oldest known pottery. They developed trade routes with nearby Peru, Brazil, and Amazonian tribes.
  8. 8. Hunters and Gatherers
  9. 9. Hunters and Gatherers • A hunter-gatherer or forager society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunter- gatherers are a type of nomad. • Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo. As The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunter-Gatherers says: "Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Until 12,000 years ago, all humans lived this way.“ Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers have been displaced by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, and many supplement, sometimes extensively, their foraging activity with farming and/or keeping animals.
  10. 10. Stone Materials
  11. 11. Arrowhead
  12. 12. Buril
  13. 13. Fishtail Tips
  14. 14. Sheet Form
  15. 15. Scraper
  16. 16. Sources: • • dor • omo_sapiens.svg • grations#Americas •