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Internet das Coisas: Tecnologias Atuais e Futuras, e o Papel do Software

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Palestra dada na QCon RIo 2014.

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Internet das Coisas: Tecnologias Atuais e Futuras, e o Papel do Software

  1. 1. © Antônio M. Alberti 2014 Internet das Coisas: Tecnologias Atuais e Futuras, e o Papel do Software Antônio Marcos Alberti ! alberti@inatel.br www.inatel.br/novagenesis/
  2. 2. Outline ‣ Internet of Things (IoT) Definitions ‣ Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ The Current Internet Status ‣ Future Internet (FI) and Internet of Things ‣ European IoT Initiatives ‣ Interrelationships Among IoT and FI Ingredients ‣ NovaGenesis: Convergent Information Architecture
  3. 3. Internet of Things (IoT) Definitions ‣ To make an Internet build of physical “Things”. ‣ To bring the Internet to the “Things”. ‣ To put the “Things” on the Internet. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) ‣ IEEE 802.15.4: ‣ IEEE 802.15.4e (Time Synchronized Channel Hopping) ‣ ZigBee ‣ Wireless Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol (WirelessHART) ‣ IETF: ‣ IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) ‣ IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4e (6TiSCH). ‣ 6TiSCH Operation Sublayer (6top) ‣ IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) ‣ Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) ‣ “Light weight” messaging protocol to run over TCP/IP. ‣ “MQ” comes from IBM's message queuing. ‣ It is not real time - delay of seconds. ‣ Focused on Machine to Server (M2S) scenario. ‣ Follows a publish/subscribe hub-and-spoke paradigm. ‣ MQTT for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) is TCP/IP independent. ‣ Operations: Connect, Subscribe, Publish, Unsubscribe, Disconnect. ‣ Provides agnostic binary payload. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) MQTT bi-directional, async “push” communication MQTT! Broker CONNECT to MQTT broker SUBSCRIBE to thing3/data recv recv pub CONNECT to MQTT broker PUBLISH to thing3/data Picture Credits: MQTT: A practical protocol for the Internet of Things, Bryan Boyd, IBM, 2014. thing #1 thing #2 thing #3 TCP/IP WebSocket
  7. 7. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IEEE 802.15.4: ‣ It is a wireless communication standard for low-power, low-data rate, and short distance radio coverage. ‣ Developed within IEEE 802.15 Personal Area Network (PAN) group. ‣ Typical data rate is 250 kb/s with maximum packet size of 127 bytes - Available payload is about 86 up to 116 bytes. ‣ Defines physical layer (16 channels with direct sequence spread spectrum) and MAC layer. ‣ Can go multi-hop, but requires to keep the radio on all the time. ‣ Employs single channel operation, which suffers with multi-path fading and shadowing. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IEEE 802.15.4e: ‣ Employs a Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH) technique to avoid interferences, shadowing, and multi-path fading. ! ! ! ! ! Picture Credits: Standardized Protocol Stack for the Internet of (Important) Things, Palattella et al., IEEE Comm. Surveys and Tutorials, 2013. ‣ Redesigned MAC protocol to support centralized or distributed scheduling, channel hoping, and network formation. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved. of an acknowledged transmission. energy efficiency, channel slotframe structure. A repeat over time. Each it what to do in each either transmit, receive, does not turn on its schedule indicates with which which channel offset long enough for the length packet, and for the acknowledgment indicating good is implement-specific, [40]. Fig. 2. Dedicated and shared links. B. Scheduling IEEE802.15.4e defines how the MAC layer executes a schedule (as described in Sec. III-A). It does not specify how such as schedule is built. A schedule needs to be built carefully so that, when mote A has a transmit slot to mote
  9. 9. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ ZigBee ‣ Industry standard based on IEEE 802.15.4. ! ‣ Wireless Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol (WirelessHART) ‣ Industry standard based on IEEE 802.15.4 and TSCH (also employed on 802.15.4e). (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IETF: IPv6 over Low Power Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) ‣ IPv6 packets are too big for IEEE 802.15.4. ‣ Provides an adaptation layer to segment and reassembly IPv6 datagrams. ‣ Provides IPv6 header compression. IETF TCP/UDP IETF IPv6 IETF 6LoWPAN IEEE 802.15.4 MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY IETF TCP/UDP IETF IPv6 IETF 6LoWPAN IEEE 802.15.4 MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IETF: IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4e (6TiSCH) ‣ “It defines the 6top sublayer and a set of protocols (in particular, for setting up a schedule with a centralized or distributed approach, managing the resource allocation), as well as the architecture to bind them together, for use in IPv6 TSCH based networks,” from Internet Draft, July 2014. IETF TCP/UDP IETF IPv6 IETF 6LoWPAN IETF 6top IETF 6top IEEE 802.15.4e MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY IETF TCP/UDP IETF IPv6 IETF 6LoWPAN IEEE 802.15.4e MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IETF: 6TiSCH Operation Sublayer (6top) ‣ “6top offers a set of commands so control mechanisms can be introduced on top of TSCH to configure nodes to join a specific node and obtain a unique 16-bit identifier from the network. Once a network is formed, 6top maintains the network’s health, allowing for nodes to stay synchronized,” from Internet Draft, July 2014. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IETF: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) ‣ Provides a routing approach for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs). ‣ Employs a distance-vector approach were nodes construct a Destination-Oriented Acyclic Graph (DODAG). ‣ The destination is the root node (usually the IoT gateway). (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IETF: Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) ‣ Provides a specialized web transfer protocol for LLNs that conforms to the REST style. ‣ There is an URI for every “Thing”. ‣ Contrary to HTTP, it employs UDP instead of TCP. ‣ Enables asynchronous message exchange with low complexity parsing. ‣ HTTP-CoAP mapping is standardized. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Current Internet of Things Technologies ‣ IETF: Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) ‣ How it integrates to the IETF IoT stack? IETF CoAP IETF CoAP IETF TCP/UDP IETF IPv6 IETF 6LoWPAN IETF 6top IETF 6top IEEE 802.15.4e MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY IETF UDP/TCP IETF IPv6 IETF 6LoWPAN IEEE 802.15.4e MAC IEEE 802.15.4 PHY (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  16. 16. The Current Internet Status ü The main protocols in the stack were designed in an era where technological development was completely different from today. ! ü There was not enough capacity to support sophisticated networking services - the solution was to design a simple, but robust network. © Antônio M. Alberti 2014 ! ü The terminals were fixed, inside secure university/government environment - there were not attackers!! ! ü During decades, it was incrementally developed and deployed, achieving impressive scales!!!
  17. 17. The Current Internet Status ü The result is a complex agglomerate of incremental protocols that inherits the grown legacies of decades of patchwork solutions. ! ü New protocols must live with the limitations of the preceding. © Antônio M. Alberti 2014 ! ü Intermediary layers have been added to overcome unplanned situations, reducing network efficiency. ! ü While at the physical layer we are approaching to the theoretic Shannon’s limit of channels, at network level, lots of bytes are lost on inefficient stacking. ! ü Interoperability of dual stacking for IoT (traditional vs LLN).
  18. 18. © Antônio M. Alberti 2014 The Current Internet Status ü Other limitations of the current stack are: ú The dual semantics of IP addresses (identifier and locator). ú The lack of unique addresses and transparency. ú The inefficient support for host mobility. ú The inexistent support for service mobility. ú The incomplete naming approach, which do not name applications and other important entities in architecture. ú The weak support for security, privacy, and trust. ú The weak support for multicast. ú The weak support for quality of service. ú The problematic support for inter autonomous system routing. ú The inexistent support for multihoming. ú The scalability issues of client/server model.
  19. 19. Future Internet and Internet of Things ‣ Since 2000, several initiatives to rethink the Internet appeared under the banner of the so called Future Internet Architecture (FIA) design. ! ‣ They can be classified as: ú Clean slate - Aim at redesigning from “scratch" the Internet architecture using the state-of-the-art of contemporary information and communications technologies. ! ú Evolutionary - Aim at continuing evolving TCP/IP Internet. ! ‣ Since 2008, I am designing a new convergent information architecture called NovaGenesis.
  20. 20. Future Internet and Internet of Things ‣ A branch of FIA design is the Internet of Things (IoT), or more generally the Internet of Everything (IoE). ! ‣ The IoE can be defined as to make everything belong to the Internet. ! ‣ The clean slate advocates wonder if the current Internet can support such a challenge, i.e. scalability, naming, identification, mobility, addressing for billions of nodes. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  21. 21. European IoT Initiatives (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved. IoT-­‐A Partner List Produtos de Mercado FP7 ARM Architecture Reference Model FIA – RWI – IoT-­‐I Projetos orientados a IoT: SENSEI, ASPIRE, AUTOI SMARTSANTANDER WISEBED Projetos tocantes a IoT: INSTANT MOBILITY OUTSMART, SAFECITY SMARTAGRIFOOD FI-­‐PPP Partners Serviços e Soluções de Mercado FIA Partners: EFIA FI-­‐EC Serviços e Soluções de Mercado FIA-­‐FP7 -­‐ EU’s Seventh Framework Programme RWI -­‐ Real World Internet FIA – Future Internet Assembly IoT-­‐I – Internet of Things Initiative FI-­‐PPP – Future Internet Public Private Partnership IoT-­‐A – Internet of Things Architecture EFIA – European Future Internet Alliance FI-­‐EC – Future Internet at European Commission
  22. 22. Interrelationships Among IoT and FI Ingredients IoT Capacity/Ubiquity/ Scalability Real-Virtual Exposition/Service-centrism SDN Management/ Autonomicity Information-centrism Naming/Identification/Mobility/ Multihoming (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Resources Exposition and Service-Centrism ü IoT and FI resources need be exposed to software orchestration frameworks, allowing the dynamic and integrated composition of real and virtual existences. Software Orchestration (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Resources Exposition and Service-Centrism ü Entire services’ life-cycles can be orchestrated involving such exposed resources. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 ! ü The life-cycle can include devices description, search, selection, negotiation, admission, installation, monitoring, failure handling, and all the other management functionalities. ! ü In short, IoT capabilities can be seen as a service (IoT-as-a-service). ! ü This view approximates the IoT to the so-called Internet of Services (IoS).
  25. 25. Management and Autonomicity ü IoT will manage itself or at least reduce considerably the degree of the human intervention required. We already have self-driven cars. Why not to have a self-driven FIA? ü We cannot expect that the IoT will be managed in the same way as the telecom operator’s networks today. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Management and Autonomicity ü The autonomic technology appears to be a natural candidate for the IoT management. ! ü However, the IoT provides the information necessary to feed the autonomic cycle of other FI architectural components. ! ü Thus, IoT appears to be a natural candidate to implement some of the phases of the autonomic cycle for FI components. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Information-centrism ü Node-centrism is perhaps the most common approach for designing WSANs. ! ü IoT can take great advantage of the precepts behind the Internet of Information (IoI). ! ü Self-certifiable names (hash codes) can be used to name data in a persistent and verifiable way. ! ü The integrity, provenance, and non-repudiation of sensing and actuating data can be checked based on such names. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Information-centrism ü Name-based search and discovery of network-enabled devices and information helps on IoT services’ life-cycle. Content UDP Figure 6. Comparison of IP protocol stack and the proposed solution: a) IP-based stack; b) non-IP-based stack. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved. cost for CCN-based IoT particular, a device using Fig. 6b can further elimi-nate management procedure. be achieved in the CCN the request arrival, the the cached data without activation of the target. More-over, resource subscription, the keep the subscription mes-sage serving the request with the timely reaction to the it is in sleep mode for RESEARCH CHALLENGES introduced the IETF effort on communication solution summarized some of the critical challenges of bringing the cur-rent reality. From the techni-cal Internet of Things relies not to promote network con-vergency, academic innovations at a fun-damental improve engineering designs. we identify some inter-esting opportunities and challenges for in the IoT design [19], such as incentive, resource pricing, and social-aware privacy. CONCLUSION Content IEEE 802.15.4, WiFi, Ethernet,... (b) IPv6 6LoWPAN IEEE 802.15.4 (a) 1:00 PM Page 97 Examples: ! NDN - Named Data Networking or NovaGenesis Picture Credits: A Survey on the IETF protocol suite for the Internet of Things - Standards, Challenges and Opportunities, Sheng et al., IEEE Wireless Comm., Dec. 2013.
  29. 29. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  30. 30. NovaGenesis Overview ‣ It aims to create a “clean slate” architecture to the new new generation of converging information technologies. ‣ It is a set of distributed systems that cooperate each other towards self-organizing all architecture functionalities as on demand, contracted services. ‣ It employs a bottom-up approach where complex distributed systems are formed by the cooperation of simples ones. ‣ It aims to create a broad, flexible, sustainable, and evolvable digital business ecosystem (DBE). ‣ NovaGenesis provides an unique way of combining the same Future Internet ingredients adopted worldwide. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  31. 31. NovaGenesis Overview ‣ Adopted decision choices: - Entities and content naming using natural language and self-certifiable names (hash codes). - As functionalities are seen as services, including network protocols. - Complex protocols like TCP are fragmented on a population of cooperating services - combined at runtime. - Name bindings are stored on distributed hash tables, representing all kind of relationships among named-things. - Name bindings are published and subscribed, enabling distributed search, discovery, negotiation, and contracting of services and content. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  32. 32. NovaGenesis Overview - Substrate resources are exposed to software by proxies, which represent them regarding resource life-cycling and orchestration. - All the communication is done by message scheduling and exchanging, with dynamic headers. - All the contracts can capture intrinsically the required quality, security, privacy, reputation, etc. - The services will employ a decision cycle to meet objectives traced by human and machine operators. - They compete each other to better satisfy contracts (evolutionary pressures) and optimize the usage of substrate resources (evolution environment). (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  33. 33. (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel. Physical Individual Existences Services! & Contents Names Bidwell Mansion 525 Esplanade, Chico, California 39°43′56.47″N 121°50′36.53″W Raymond Kurzweil Bugatti VeyronTM OpenOfficeTM Readme.txt PID = 321 /home/Readme.txt Hash 6 Hash 7 iPADTM Nexus N5TM 1ABC234 Locators 525 Esplanade, Chico, California Hash 1 Identifier Serial #2, Hash 5 Bidwell Mansion 1ABC234 Raymond Kurzweil ../Readme.txt, Hash 7 PID = 321, Hash 6 Serial Number 1 Serial Number 2 Hash 2 Hash 4,6 Hash 5,7 39°43′56.47″N 121°50′36.53″W Hash 1 Hash 2 Hash 3 Hash 4 Hash 5 Hash 1 Hash 2 Hash 3 Serial #1, Hash 4 NovaGenesis Overview
  34. 34. NovaGenesis (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel.
  35. 35. PSS GW HT PS CLI PGS GW HT PG CLI HTS GW HT CLI GIRS GW HT IR CLI PGS GW HT PG CLI HTS GW DHT CLI MAC/PHY MAC/PHY Eth/Wi-Fi PHY Eth/Wi-Fi PHY HT App GW HT Core CLI App GW HT Core CLI NovaGenesis Overview
  36. 36. ‣ NovaGenesis as an architecture to Adaptive and Cognitive Radio over Fiber (ACRoF) and Internet of Things (IoT) Optical Switch To “E” To “E” From “H” RoF RoF Splitter Access Point Spectrum Analyzer Antenna Control Link From “H” Throughtput (Mbps) CINR (dB) RF Sa Freque NovaGenesis Services for Proxy/Gateway/ Control of: ! -Spectrum Sensing -Optically Controlled Antenna -Access Point -Wi-Fi VLAN !! ! (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Developing a NovaGenesis IoT Towards a Trustable Fellowship of Self-Organizing “Things” (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved. Social Devices Window Sensor Storm Nobody at home Open window Presence Sensors Weather Sensors Close the window Window ! Representative Presence Sensors ! Representative Weather Sensors ! Representative Smart ! Assistant
  38. 38. Developing a NovaGenesis IoT Smart Future Internet Architecture People! Policies, Rules, Regulations, etc. Self-Organizing! Assistants, Controllers, Managers, etc. Self-Organizing ! Physical World Representatives Physical World (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Obrigado! Antônio Marcos Alberti ! www.inatel.br/novagenesis antonioalberti.blogspot.com facebook.com/antoniomarcos.alberti researchgate.net/profile/Antonio_Alberti linkedin.com/profile/view?id=69752898 http://inatel.academia.edu/AntonioMarcosAlberti mendeley.com/profiles/antonio-marcos-alberti/ twitter.com/antoniomalberti
  40. 40. Experimenting with current IoT technologies ‣ Building a biometric classroom frequency control software LPC1769 XBee Wi-Fi Modules (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved.
  41. 41. Experimenting with current IoT technologies ‣ Dynamic firmware replacement on LPC 1769 (c) Antonio Alberti 2014, Inatel - All rights reserved. Bootloader (NovaGenesis) Aplicação Troca de Informação Gateway NovaGenesis Dispositivos / Roteadores Comunicação sem fio

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