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Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research


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Tutorial presented at IWT 2013.

Published in: Education, Technology
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Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research

  2. 2. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Outline1. Introduction2. Substrate Resources and Its Integration with Software3. Software-Defined Networking4. Information, ID/Loc Splitting, Semantic, Context, and Mobility5. Autonomic Technologies6. Security, Privacy, and Trust7. Services and Applications8. Simplicity, Sustainability, and Evolvability
  3. 3. © Antônio M. Alberti 20131. Introduction The Internet has invaded most aspects of life and society,changing our lifestyle, work, communication, and socialinteraction. Nobody doubts about the fundamental role of the Internet on oursociety.
  4. 4. © Antônio M. Alberti 20131. Introduction Nevertheless, the Internet today is a complex agglomerate ofprotocols that inherits the grown legacies of decades ofpatchwork solutions. It was designed in an era where technological development wascompletely different from today. This motivated many people to question the adequacy of theTCP/IP stack to meet our information society needs. Since this question was first made, a lot of initiatives to reshapethe Internet appeared around the world - the so called FutureInternet design.
  5. 5. © Antônio M. Alberti 20131. Introduction The main motto question is: Considering the current state-of-art on computing andcommunications, is it possible to design right now a new Internetthat best meets our information society needs?2013After redesign!!!1970The BeetleThe InternetNo deep redesignuntil now!!!Huge scale!
  6. 6. © Antônio M. Alberti 20131. Introduction What is the scope of a Future Internet? A new network? Or something broader? A convergent infrastructure for information processing, storage,exchanging, and visualization. It is not limited to its original scope: a network to exchange informationamong computers. What is its role on our future society? A content exchanging infrastructure? A digital business ecosystem? A mobility-friendly architecture for social networking? A high speed optical/wireless network for fast browsing? A convergent infrastructure for all computing and communication needs!
  7. 7. © Antônio M. Alberti 20132. Substrate Resources and Its Integration with Software Technology Evolution Capacity and Ubiquity Internet of Things Real World Internet Exposition and Virtualization
  8. 8. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Technology Evolution Moores Law: Predicts technological developments in computing power. (Kurzweil, 2005): A theory for technological evolution – to describe the exponentialgrowth of technological advances: The Law of Accelerated Returns
  9. 9. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Technology Evolution The Law of Accelerating Returns: Two positive feedback loops1. Selection of the more capable techniques of a certain stage tobuild the next stage – increases the rate of progressexponentially, reducing required time to obtain the same results.2. Selected process becomes more attractive than others andbegins to catalyze resources to it – starts to evolve even faster,experiencing an additional exponential growth over the 1st.Source:
  10. 10. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Capacity and Ubiquity (Kurzweil, 2005): Exponential growth trends for: Memory capacity (DRAM in bits per dollar), microprocessor clock speed(Hz), transistors per chip, processor performance (MIPS), magneticstorage (bits per dollar), the number of hosts on the Internet. (Saracco, 2009): Consistent technological developments in: Computing – is achieving teraflops right now and evolution proceeds topetaflops in the next decade. Display technology – has advanced enormously in later years. Consumer electronics, such as handsets, laptops, HDTVs, e-books,video games, GPSs, etc.
  11. 11. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Capacity and Ubiquity Minnesota Internet Traffic Studies (MINTS): Annual Internet traffic growth rates were about 50-60% in 2008and about 40-50% in 2009. The monthly Internet traffic was circa 7.5-12x1018 bytes orexabytes. Japanese Akari project: Traffic could increase 1.7 times per year in Japan in the nextyears, producing an expansion of 1000 times in 13 years.
  12. 12. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Capacity and Ubiquity How to meet this demand? Mobile Access: 4G, Cognitive Radio (CR). Fixed Access: Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH). Core: State-of-the-art optical transmission and switching.
  13. 13. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Capacity and Ubiquity The technological evolution leads to price reduction → Ubiquity. More and more devices are becoming computationally capableand connected to the Internet (e.g. clothing, buildings). Inexpensive computing → Ubiquitous Computing (smartenvironments and ambient intelligence).
  14. 14. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Internet of Things Consequences of Ubiquitous Computing: Connectivity anywhere, anytime, in anyplace, to anyone. The rise of the NEDs (Network Enabled Devices) army. The appearance of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Real WorldInternet (RWI).
  15. 15. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Internet of Things Challenges and Requirements (1/3): Exponential growth in the number of sensors collecting real worldinformation → A flood of traffic on the network. Real world could be increasingly integrated to the virtual one,making it possible to greatly increase the interaction betweenthem. Changes in real world objects could be reflected in virtual world –Changes made to virtual objects can become real. User’s sensitive information will be collected, such as identity,location and other contextualized information.
  16. 16. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Internet of Things Challenges and Requirements (2/3): Flood of sensitive information → will push network scalability tonew limits. How to make this information safely available for innovativeapplications? How to address billions of new nodes? Addressing and traceabilityto sensors and actuators, e.g. in the case of a fire. Information needs to be contextualized to allow delivering to theright destiny, at the right time (information freshness).
  17. 17. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Internet of Things Challenges and Requirements (3/3): The need for energy-aware security → trust relations amongnodes. Semantic and context → smoke detector: fire or fireworks? NEDs mobility → ID/Loc splitting. Management and control → Autonomic technologies. RWI as a sensorial system for Future Internet.
  18. 18. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Exposition and Virtualization Exponential growth → diffuse substrate of digital technologiescomposed by processing, storage, display and communicationresources. Much of the communication equipment today → becomecomputers, with CPUs, Operating Systems, etc. Exposition: to make this diffuse substrate of hardware resourcestransparently and uniformly available to software by means ofdescriptors and metadata, containing its capacities, utilization,states, limitations, etc.
  19. 19. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Exposition and Virtualization Virtualization: to emulate in software some hardware substratefunctionality. Another definition: To create an abstraction (indirection) layerbetween equipment (routers, switches, radios, etc) and software,in such way that resources can be used concurrently/transparently/uniformly by different software instances. Exposition+Virtualization allows multiple Virtual Networks (VNs)to share the same Substrate Network (SN).
  20. 20. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Exposition and Virtualization What we can do with this idea?Source: Hiroaki Harai, Akari Project.Substrate NetworkVN1 VN2 VN3 VN4IsolatedSubstrate NetworkVN1 VN2 VN3TransitiveSubstrate NetworkVN1VN2OverlaidSubstrate HardwareMACGeneric MACPHY1 PHY2
  21. 21. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Exposition and Virtualization Challenges and Requirements (1/2): Scalability – How to support a large number of VNs? Manageability – How to manage a large number of VNs? How tomanage traffic? Multidomain/Multioperator – How to interoperate VNs? How tospan over multiple physical operators? Is it standardizationrequired? Selection/Admission/Routing – Virtual topology design andphysical entities assignment are NP-hard problems.
  22. 22. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Exposition and Virtualization Challenges and Requirements (2/2): Resources Exposure – How to describe resources? Security, Trust and Privacy – Possible attacks, security risks,denial of service. Mobility – How to move virtual entities? Complexity – How to deal with the increasing complexity?Autonomicity?
  23. 23. © Antônio M. Alberti 20133. Software-Defined Networking Definitions The Four Abstractions Behind Shenker’s SDN OpenFlow
  24. 24. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 It is a new paradigm to redesign communication networksconsidering a software engineering point of view. The argument is that current networks are essentially designedto “master the complexity” behind existing technologies, ratherthan to “extract simplicity” from the learned lessons. Prof. Scott Shenker defends the idea that abstractions played abig role on computer science, shielding high level software fromthe complexity existing in the lower levels. Thus, why not to define good abstractions for ICT?Definitions
  25. 25. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 SDN means to rethink network architectures considering theimportant role of abstractions. Software-defined also means that some functionality is definedby software, i.e. it works accordingly to some controllingsoftware. Both definitions share the software-controllability aspect, sinceShenker et al. proposal is also based on software-controlledequipment.Definitions
  26. 26. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Forwarding A flexible, software-controlled, frame forwarding model. State distribution A centralized control program that operates over a summarizednetwork view. Configuration The output of the control program that is forwarded to thecontrolled devices. Specification Generation of abstract configurations for network devices, e.g.configuration of virtual networks.The Four Abstractions Behind Shenker’s SDN
  27. 27. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Probably the best well-known SDN initiative. It covers the structure of an OpenFlow switch, as well as theprotocol used by the control program (controller) to generate thenetwork view and to configure forwarding tables. A diversity of controllers can be used together with OpenFlow:NOX, HyperFlow, DevoFlow, and Onix. A special controller called FlowVisor enables the creation ofisolated slices of resources through the orchestration ofOpenFlow switches and controllers.OpenFlow
  28. 28. © Antônio M. Alberti 20134. Information, ID/Loc Splitting, Semantic, Context and Mobility Names, Identifiers, Locators, and Addresses Information-centrism ID/Loc Splitting Mobility Semantic, Context, Context-Awareness and Ontology
  29. 29. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Names, Identifiers, Locators, and Addresses A name are symbols used to denote one or more individualexistence, while an address denotes position to where one ormore than one individual existence can inhabit/be attached. An identifier are symbols used to unambiguously identify someindividual existence from others in some scope, while a locatordenotes the current position(s) where an individual existence(s)is/are inhabiting/attached in some space. Self-certifying names are meaningless names generated byhash functions.
  30. 30. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Information-centrism Information as a key ingredient in design. Information is in everywhere, i.e. contracts, location, police, IDs,descriptors, naming, etc. “Information is everything and everything is information” (PSIRP,2009).
  31. 31. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Information-centrism Requirements and Challenges (1/4): To represent persistently and consistently information by means ofnames. “Named content is a better abstraction for today’s communicationproblems than named hosts.” (Van Jacobson, 2009). To access information independently of its location. To adequately manage content → versioning, encodings, copiesof identical content.
  32. 32. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Information-centrism Requirements and Challenges (2/4): To use name resolution schemes to find out locators. To allow disruptive and consented communications, e.g. publish/subscribe (pub/sub) paradigm. To enable anycast and multi path/multi point routing of previouslylocated information. To efficiently distribute content. To cache information to improve performance and efficiency.
  33. 33. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Information-centrism Requirements and Challenges (3/4): To enable efficient, semantic rich, context-based informationsearch and manipulation. To deal with information scope. To identify information uniquely. To rethink security from the information point of view → securinginformation per se, improving traceability and non-repudiation. To verify publisher privacy before content publishing –authenticate and authorize subscribers during rendezvous.
  34. 34. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Information-centrism Requirements and Challenges (4/4): To deal with scalability on information representation, searching,naming resolution, location, routing, etc. To deal with multi level, multi domain environments. To autonomously manipulate content.
  35. 35. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013ID/Loc Splitting Future networks need to separate identifiers (ID) from locators(Loc) → the so called ID/Loc splitting. This split is required not only for physical entities (e.g. hosts),but also for virtual entities as well as for content.
  36. 36. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013ID/Loc Splitting Requirements and Challenges (1/2): To uniquely identify every entity in the network → To move withoutidentity loss. How to generate unique digital identifiers for real or virtualentities? How to manage IDs in order to provide generalized mobility forreal or virtual entities? How to deal with privacy and traceability? Unique IDs can provide information sources non-repudiation.
  37. 37. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013ID/Loc Splitting Requirements and Challenges (2/2): How to use accountability information to prevent or to punishcyber crimes? Traceability based on persistent IDs discourage network misuse. How to manage the large number of IDs, their relationships andlifecycles? There is a massive scalability problem here!
  38. 38. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Mobility The challenge is to comprehensively support user, terminal,service, application, virtual networks, information, and other realand virtual entities mobility.Jeff GeerlingEncryptedrulerblakeburrisWe need a mobility-friendly environment.
  39. 39. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Semantic, Context, Context-Awareness, and Ontology Situation-Awareness According to (Baker et al., 2009) “... being aware of its physicalenvironment or situation and responding proactively andintelligently based on such awareness”. Context-Awareness To be aware of relevant contexts. Ontology For (TripCom, 2008) “an ontology is a formal definition ofterminology and relationships among the terms in a computer-processable form”.
  40. 40. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Semantic, Context, Context-Awareness, and Ontology Requirements and Challenges: Situation and Context Awareness → RWI as a source for situationand context information. Autonomicity → To enable a system/application/artifact to adaptsto environmental or goal changes → Ontologies for rules, goals,regulations, etc. Context Distribution → Collaboration of context processing entitiesusing the publish/subscribe paradigm.
  41. 41. © Antônio M. Alberti 20135. Autonomic Technologies Autonomic Computing Autonomic CommunicationsAxel RouvinSelf-emergent socialbehavior
  42. 42. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Autonomic Computing Why autonomic computing? Accelerated returns: Boom in diversity, scale and complexity. Human capability limitations: Highly stressful job and deep sense of failure. OPEX: Human resources are expensive. Rapid adaptation to the environment.
  43. 43. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Autonomic Computing (IBM, 2001): A famous manifesto → autonomic computing. “Computing systems’ complexity appears to be approaching thelimits of human capability”. Bio-inspired → human autonomic nervous system governs variousfunctions without our awareness. Computational systems → manage themselves according to high-level objectives outlined by human operators. Reduce human interference and OPEX.
  44. 44. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Autonomic Computing (Kephart and Chess, 2001):4autonomic properties: Self-Configuration - To configure components and the systemitself to achieve high-level goals. Self-Optimization - To optimize proactively system resources andother aspects in order to improve performance, efficiency, quality,etc. Self-Healing - To detect, diagnose and repair localized problemsand failures. Self-Protection - To defend against attackers, threads or cascadefailures.
  45. 45. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Autonomic Computing (Dobson et al., 2010): The most notable omission from IBM’s original vision isautonomous elements communication. (Clark et al., 2003): To incorporate more autonomy in communication networks,creating the so-called Knowledge Plane.Why not a self-driven Internet?Is there any risk?
  46. 46. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Autonomic Communications Requirements and Challenges (1/2): Self-awareness → introspective to the own node status andcapabilities, e.g. antenna, bandwidth, laser. Self-situation or environment-aware → sensing from RWI, e.g.primary operators in cognitive radio. Information contextualization → relevance, self-situation/self-awareness, sound reasoning. Cooperation → common objectives, self-management, self-emergent behavior, quality and scalability of information gathering,privacy, security.
  47. 47. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Autonomic Communications Requirements and Challenges (2/2): Stability → self-stable, i.e. to avoid instability. Detail level and timely sharing → Information needs to becollected, filtered and distributed to cooperating nodes, in the righttime, with right context.
  48. 48. © Antônio M. Alberti 20136. Security, Privacy and Trust Requirements and ChallengesVäsk
  49. 49. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Requirements and Challenges Built in or inherent; Change to consented communications, e.g. publish/subscribeparadigm; Establishment of trusted networks → entities, services, users, etc. How to evaluate trust and reputation? Privacy → To help users to protect and preserve their privacy; To identify, assess, monitor, analyze and sort risks, vulnerabilitiesand threats;Ds02006
  50. 50. © Antônio M. Alberti 20137. Services and Applications Service-centric Approaches Internet of Services Digital Business Ecosystems
  51. 51. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Service-centric Approaches Software design → changing from component-based to serviceoriented design: service-centrism. The idea → applications are flexibly and dynamicallyconstructed by the composition of distributed software servicesor utilities.AppS8 S9S7 S6 S5S4 S3 S2 S1
  52. 52. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Service-centric Approaches Requirements and Challenges (1/2): Life-cycling → dynamic, distributed and cross-domain; Seamless → service describing, publishing, discovering andnegotiating will be necessary; How to search, discover and select candidate services? Which attributes are representative? Context? Semantic? How to make attributes searchable? Publishing in divulgationservices?
  53. 53. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Service-centric Approaches Requirements and Challenges (2/2): Negotiation → necessary to establish SLAs (Service LevelAgreements); Admission control → is there available resources to attach thedesired service to one more application? Admission installation → proceeds to configure the services; Service monitoring, logging and exception handling; Management → Autonomicity?
  54. 54. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Internet of Services Above a certain level of abstraction everything can be viewed asa service → Internet of Services. (Villasante, 2009): “Internet of Services – Supporting the service economy (70% ofGDP in modern societies)”.
  55. 55. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Digital Business Ecosystems Dynamic service compose-ability → integrate businessprocesses with applications and services, creating the so calledDigital Business Ecosystems (DBEs). DBEs → the new savannah.
  56. 56. © Antônio M. Alberti 20138. Simplicity, Sustainability and Evolvability Simplicity Sustainability Evolvability
  57. 57. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Simplicity To call attention on how difficult it is to design with simplicity wecan evoke Leonardo Da Vinci’s: “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”. Or as Einstein said: "Make everything as simple as possible, but no simpler.”ürgen Schmidhuber: LowComplexity Art
  58. 58. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Sustainability Ops! We need to redesign the Internet again... Sustainability can be defined as the property of maintaining acertain level/situation in the course of time. Akari also aims to project a sustainable network, capable toevolve and support information society requirements in the nextdecades.
  59. 59. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Evolvability Evolvability is a definition related to biological systems. (Rowe & Leaney, 1997): “the ability of a system to adapt in response to changes in itsenvironment, requirements and implementation technologies.”Darwin evolutionary tree.Qz10
  60. 60. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Thank You!Antônio Marcos
  61. 61. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013Further readings Alberti A., A Conceptual-Driven Survey on Future InternetRequirements, Technologies, and Challenges, Journal ofBrazilian Computer Society, Springer-Verlag GmbH, 2013. Alberti A., Searching for Synergies among Future InternetIngredients. Convergence and Hybrid Information TechnologyConference. Communications in Computer and InformationScience Volume 310, 2012, pp 61-68. Alberti A., Future Network Architectures: TechnologicalChallenges and Trends, New Network Architectures: The Path tothe Future Internet. Book Chapter. Springer-Verlag GmbH. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-13247-6_5. 2010.
  62. 62. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Kurzweil R (2005) The Singularity is Near: When HumansTranscend Biology, Viking Press, ISBN 0670033847. Saracco R (2009) Telecommunications Evolution: The Fabric ofEcosystems. Revista Telecomunicações INATEL 12(2):36-45. Akari (2008) New Generation Network Architecture AKARIConceptual Design. Project Description v1.1. Cross-ETP (2009) The Cross-ETP Vision Document. EuropeanTechnology Platforms (ETPs) Cross Vision Document v1.0.
  63. 63. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Presser M, Daras P, Baker M, Karnouskos S, Gluhak A, Krco S,Diaz C, Verbauwhede I, Naqvi S, Alvarez F, Fernandez-CuestaA (2008) Real World Internet Position Paper. Peterson L, Anderson T, Culler D, Roscoe T (2003) A Blueprintfor Introducing Disruptive Technology into the Internet.SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Review 33(1):59-64. Peterson L, Shenker S, Turner J (2005) Overcoming theInternet Impasse through Virtualization. IEEE Computer 38(4):34-41. GENI (2006) Technical Document on Wireless Virtualization.Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) TechnicalReport GDD-06-17.
  64. 64. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Jacobson V, Content-Centric Networking, Future InternetAssembly (FIA), Valencia, Spain, 2010. Rothenberg CE, Verdi FL, Magalhaes, M (2008) Towards a NewGeneration of Information-Oriented InternetworkingArchitectures. Re-Architecting the Internet, Madrid, Spain. Berners-Lee T, Hendler J, Lassila O (1999) The Semantic Web.Scientific American Magazine 23(1). Alberti A, (2010) Future Network Architectures: TechnologicalChallenges and Trends, New Network Architectures: The Pathto the Future Internet. Book Chapter. Springer-Verlag GmbH.DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-13247-6_5. 2010.
  65. 65. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Jacobson V, Smetters D, Thornton J, Plass M, Briggs N,Braynard R (2009) Networking Named Content. CoNEXT’09,Rome, Italy. Ahlgren B, D’Ambrosio M, Dannewitz C, Marchisio M, Marsh I,Ohlman B, Pentikousis K, Rembarz R, Strandberg O, VercelloneV (2008) Design Considerations for a Network of In-formation.Re-Architecting the Internet, Madrid, Spain. Tarkoma S, Ain M, Visala K (2009) The Publish/SubscribeInternet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP): Designing the FutureInternet Architecture. Towards the Future Internet, IOS Press. 4WARD (2010) Architecture and Design for the Future Internet:Second NetInf Architecture Description. Deliverable D6.2.
  66. 66. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Ohlman B, Ahlgren B, et al. (2010) Networking of Information:An Information-centric Approach to the Network of Future. ETSIFuture Network Technologies Workshop. Niebert N (2008) Vision on Future Content Networks: ANetworks and Media Joint Venture. Future Internet Assembly(FIA), Madrid, Spain. Paulson LD (2003) News Briefs - W3C Works on Semantic WebProposal. Computer Magazine 36(11):20 Fensel D (2007) ServiceWeb 3.0. IEEE/WIC/ACM InternationalConf. on Intelligent Agent Technology, Fremont, USA.
  67. 67. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Baker N, Zafar M, Moltchanov B, Knappmeyer M (2009)Context-Aware Systems and Implications for Future Internet,Towards the Future Internet, IOS Press. Bicocchi N, Baumgarten M, Brgulja N, Kusber R, Mamei M,Mulvenna M, Zambonelli F (2010) Self-Organized DataEcologies for Pervasive Situation-Aware Services: TheKnowledge Networks Approach, IEEE Transactions on Systems,Man and Cybernetics – Part A: System and Humans, Vol. 40,No. 4. Dey A, Abowd D (2000) Towards a better understanding ofcontext and context-awareness, Proc. ACM Conf. HumanFactors Comput. Syst.—What, Who, Where, When and How ofContext-Awareness, Hague, The Netherlands.
  68. 68. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Zimmermann A et al. (2005) Personalization and ContextManagement, User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 15,3-4, pp. 275-302. Giunchiglia F (1992) Contextual Reasoning, Trento, Italy. Wang P (2004) Experience-Grounded Semantics: A theory forintelligent systems, Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science. Gruber T (1993) A Translation Approach to Portable OntologySpecifications. Knowledge Acquisition, 5:199–220. TripCom (2008) Ontology of EDIFACT Syntax and Semantics,Deliverable D7.2.
  69. 69. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Ben Yahia I, Bertin E, Crespi N (2007) Ontology-basedManagement Systems for the Next Generation Services: State-of-the-Art, presented in Networking and Services, 2007. ICNSThird International Conference and published in IEEETransaction. Clark D, Partridge C, Ramming C, Wroclawski J (2003) Aknowledge plane for the Internet, Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf.,Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 3–10. Siekkinen M, et al. (2007) Beyond the Future Internet –Requirements of Autonomic Networking Architectures toAddress Long Term Future Networking Challenges, 11th IEEEInternational Workshop on Future Trends of DistributedComputing Systems (FTDCS07).
  70. 70. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Strassner J, (2008) The Role of Autonomic Networking inCognitive Networks, Cognitive Networks: Towards Self-AwareNetworks. John Wiley and Sons, Book Chapter 23-52.
  71. 71. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013References Jelger C (2009) Information Dispatch Points, NetArchSymposium Presentation, Ascona, Switzerland. Pollock J, Hodgson R (2004) Adaptive information: improvingbusiness through semantic interoperability, grid computing, andenterprise integration, John Wiley and Sons.
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