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Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 1 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 2 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 3 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 4 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 5 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 6 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 7 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 8 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 9 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 10 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research Slide 11 Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key 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Future Internet: Visions, Requirements, Key Ingredients, and Ongoing Research

  1. 1. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 FUTURE INTERNET: VISIONS, REQUIREMENTS, KEY INGREDIENTS, SYNERGIES, AND ONGOING RESEARCH Antonio Marcos Alberti
  2. 2. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Substrate Resources and Its Integration with Software 3. Software-Defined Networking 4. Information, ID/Loc Splitting, Semantic, Context, and Mobility 5. Autonomic Technologies 6. Security, Privacy, and Trust 7. Services and Applications 8. Simplicity, Sustainability, and Evolvability
  3. 3. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 1. Introduction  The Internet has invaded most aspects of life and society, changing our lifestyle, work, communication, and social interaction.  Nobody doubts about the fundamental role of the Internet on our society.
  4. 4. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 1. Introduction  Nevertheless, the Internet today is a complex agglomerate of protocols that inherits the grown legacies of decades of patchwork solutions.  It was designed in an era where technological development was completely different from today.  This motivated many people to question the adequacy of the TCP/IP stack to meet our information society needs.  Since this question was first made, a lot of initiatives to reshape the Internet appeared around the world - the so called Future Internet design.
  5. 5. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 1. Introduction  The main motto question is:  Considering the current state-of-art on computing and communications, is it possible to design right now a new Internet that best meets our information society needs? 2013 After redesign!!! 1970 The Beetle The Internet No deep redesign until now!!! Huge scale!
  6. 6. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 1. Introduction  What is the scope of a Future Internet?  A new network? Or something broader?  A convergent infrastructure for information processing, storage, exchanging, and visualization.  It is not limited to its original scope: a network to exchange information among computers.  What is its role on our future society?  A content exchanging infrastructure?  A digital business ecosystem?  A mobility-friendly architecture for social networking?  A high speed optical/wireless network for fast browsing?  A convergent infrastructure for all computing and communication needs!
  7. 7. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 2. Substrate Resources and Its Integration with Software  Technology Evolution  Capacity and Ubiquity  Internet of Things  Real World Internet  Exposition and Virtualization
  8. 8. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Technology Evolution  Moore's Law:  Predicts technological developments in computing power.  (Kurzweil, 2005):  A theory for technological evolution – to describe the exponential growth of technological advances: The Law of Accelerated Returns
  9. 9. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Technology Evolution  The Law of Accelerating Returns: Two positive feedback loops 1. Selection of the more capable techniques of a certain stage to build the next stage – increases the rate of progress exponentially, reducing required time to obtain the same results. 2. Selected process becomes more attractive than others and begins to catalyze resources to it – starts to evolve even faster, experiencing an additional exponential growth over the 1st. Source: http://www.kurzweilai.net/the-law-of-accelerating-returns
  10. 10. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Capacity and Ubiquity  (Kurzweil, 2005):  Exponential growth trends for:  Memory capacity (DRAM in bits per dollar), microprocessor clock speed (Hz), transistors per chip, processor performance (MIPS), magnetic storage (bits per dollar), the number of hosts on the Internet.  (Saracco, 2009):  Consistent technological developments in:  Computing – is achieving teraflops right now and evolution proceeds to petaflops in the next decade.  Display technology – has advanced enormously in later years.  Consumer electronics, such as handsets, laptops, HDTVs, e-books, video games, GPSs, etc.
  11. 11. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Capacity and Ubiquity  Minnesota Internet Traffic Studies (MINTS):  Annual Internet traffic growth rates were about 50-60% in 2008 and about 40-50% in 2009.  The monthly Internet traffic was circa 7.5-12x1018 bytes or exabytes.  Japanese Akari project:  Traffic could increase 1.7 times per year in Japan in the next years, producing an expansion of 1000 times in 13 years.
  12. 12. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Capacity and Ubiquity  How to meet this demand?  Mobile Access: 4G, Cognitive Radio (CR).  Fixed Access: Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH).  Core: State-of-the-art optical transmission and switching.
  13. 13. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Capacity and Ubiquity  The technological evolution leads to price reduction → Ubiquity.  More and more devices are becoming computationally capable and connected to the Internet (e.g. clothing, buildings).  Inexpensive computing → Ubiquitous Computing (smart environments and ambient intelligence).
  14. 14. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Internet of Things  Consequences of Ubiquitous Computing:  Connectivity anywhere, anytime, in anyplace, to anyone.  The rise of the NEDs (Network Enabled Devices) army.  The appearance of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Real World Internet (RWI).
  15. 15. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Internet of Things  Challenges and Requirements (1/3):  Exponential growth in the number of sensors collecting real world information → A flood of traffic on the network.  Real world could be increasingly integrated to the virtual one, making it possible to greatly increase the interaction between them.  Changes in real world objects could be reflected in virtual world – Changes made to virtual objects can become real.  User’s sensitive information will be collected, such as identity, location and other contextualized information.
  16. 16. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Internet of Things  Challenges and Requirements (2/3):  Flood of sensitive information → will push network scalability to new limits.  How to make this information safely available for innovative applications?  How to address billions of new nodes? Addressing and traceability to sensors and actuators, e.g. in the case of a fire.  Information needs to be contextualized to allow delivering to the right destiny, at the right time (information freshness).
  17. 17. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Internet of Things  Challenges and Requirements (3/3):  The need for energy-aware security → trust relations among nodes.  Semantic and context → smoke detector: fire or fireworks?  NEDs mobility → ID/Loc splitting.  Management and control → Autonomic technologies.  RWI as a sensorial system for Future Internet.
  18. 18. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Exposition and Virtualization  Exponential growth → diffuse substrate of digital technologies composed by processing, storage, display and communication resources.  Much of the communication equipment today → become computers, with CPUs, Operating Systems, etc.  Exposition: to make this diffuse substrate of hardware resources transparently and uniformly available to software by means of descriptors and metadata, containing its capacities, utilization, states, limitations, etc.
  19. 19. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Exposition and Virtualization  Virtualization: to emulate in software some hardware substrate functionality.  Another definition: To create an abstraction (indirection) layer between equipment (routers, switches, radios, etc) and software, in such way that resources can be used concurrently/ transparently/uniformly by different software instances.  Exposition+Virtualization allows multiple Virtual Networks (VNs) to share the same Substrate Network (SN).
  20. 20. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Exposition and Virtualization  What we can do with this idea? Source: Hiroaki Harai, Akari Project. Substrate Network VN1 VN2 VN3 VN4 Isolated Substrate Network VN1 VN2 VN3 Transitive Substrate Network VN1 VN2 Overlaid Substrate Hardware MAC Generic MAC PHY1 PHY2
  21. 21. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Exposition and Virtualization  Challenges and Requirements (1/2):  Scalability – How to support a large number of VNs?  Manageability – How to manage a large number of VNs? How to manage traffic?  Multidomain/Multioperator – How to interoperate VNs? How to span over multiple physical operators? Is it standardization required?  Selection/Admission/Routing – Virtual topology design and physical entities assignment are NP-hard problems.
  22. 22. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Exposition and Virtualization  Challenges and Requirements (2/2):  Resources Exposure – How to describe resources?  Security, Trust and Privacy – Possible attacks, security risks, denial of service.  Mobility – How to move virtual entities?  Complexity – How to deal with the increasing complexity? Autonomicity?
  23. 23. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 3. Software-Defined Networking  Definitions  The Four Abstractions Behind Shenker’s SDN  OpenFlow
  24. 24. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013  It is a new paradigm to redesign communication networks considering a software engineering point of view.  The argument is that current networks are essentially designed to “master the complexity” behind existing technologies, rather than to “extract simplicity” from the learned lessons.  Prof. Scott Shenker defends the idea that abstractions played a big role on computer science, shielding high level software from the complexity existing in the lower levels.  Thus, why not to define good abstractions for ICT? Definitions
  25. 25. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013  SDN means to rethink network architectures considering the important role of abstractions.  Software-defined also means that some functionality is defined by software, i.e. it works accordingly to some controlling software.  Both definitions share the software-controllability aspect, since Shenker et al. proposal is also based on software-controlled equipment. Definitions
  26. 26. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013  Forwarding  A flexible, software-controlled, frame forwarding model.  State distribution  A centralized control program that operates over a summarized network view.  Configuration  The output of the control program that is forwarded to the controlled devices.  Specification  Generation of abstract configurations for network devices, e.g. configuration of virtual networks. The Four Abstractions Behind Shenker’s SDN
  27. 27. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013  Probably the best well-known SDN initiative.  It covers the structure of an OpenFlow switch, as well as the protocol used by the control program (controller) to generate the network view and to configure forwarding tables.  A diversity of controllers can be used together with OpenFlow: NOX, HyperFlow, DevoFlow, and Onix.  A special controller called FlowVisor enables the creation of isolated slices of resources through the orchestration of OpenFlow switches and controllers. OpenFlow
  28. 28. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 4. Information, ID/Loc Splitting, Semantic, Context and Mobility  Names, Identifiers, Locators, and Addresses  Information-centrism  ID/Loc Splitting  Mobility  Semantic, Context, Context-Awareness and Ontology
  29. 29. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Names, Identifiers, Locators, and Addresses  A name are symbols used to denote one or more individual existence, while an address denotes position to where one or more than one individual existence can inhabit/be attached.  An identifier are symbols used to unambiguously identify some individual existence from others in some scope, while a locator denotes the current position(s) where an individual existence(s) is/are inhabiting/attached in some space.  Self-certifying names are meaningless names generated by hash functions.
  30. 30. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Information-centrism  Information as a key ingredient in design.  Information is in everywhere, i.e. contracts, location, police, IDs, descriptors, naming, etc.  “Information is everything and everything is information” (PSIRP, 2009).
  31. 31. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Information-centrism  Requirements and Challenges (1/4):  To represent persistently and consistently information by means of names.  “Named content is a better abstraction for today’s communication problems than named hosts.” (Van Jacobson, 2009).  To access information independently of its location.  To adequately manage content → versioning, encodings, copies of identical content.
  32. 32. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Information-centrism  Requirements and Challenges (2/4):  To use name resolution schemes to find out locators.  To allow disruptive and consented communications, e.g. publish/ subscribe (pub/sub) paradigm.  To enable anycast and multi path/multi point routing of previously located information.  To efficiently distribute content.  To cache information to improve performance and efficiency.
  33. 33. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Information-centrism  Requirements and Challenges (3/4):  To enable efficient, semantic rich, context-based information search and manipulation.  To deal with information scope.  To identify information uniquely.  To rethink security from the information point of view → securing information per se, improving traceability and non-repudiation.  To verify publisher privacy before content publishing – authenticate and authorize subscribers during rendezvous.
  34. 34. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Information-centrism  Requirements and Challenges (4/4):  To deal with scalability on information representation, searching, naming resolution, location, routing, etc.  To deal with multi level, multi domain environments.  To autonomously manipulate content.
  35. 35. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 ID/Loc Splitting  Future networks need to separate identifiers (ID) from locators (Loc) → the so called ID/Loc splitting.  This split is required not only for physical entities (e.g. hosts), but also for virtual entities as well as for content.
  36. 36. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 ID/Loc Splitting  Requirements and Challenges (1/2):  To uniquely identify every entity in the network → To move without identity loss.  How to generate unique digital identifiers for real or virtual entities?  How to manage IDs in order to provide generalized mobility for real or virtual entities?  How to deal with privacy and traceability?  Unique IDs can provide information sources non-repudiation.
  37. 37. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 ID/Loc Splitting  Requirements and Challenges (2/2):  How to use accountability information to prevent or to punish cyber crimes?  Traceability based on persistent IDs discourage network misuse.  How to manage the large number of IDs, their relationships and lifecycles?  There is a massive scalability problem here!
  38. 38. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Mobility  The challenge is to comprehensively support user, terminal, service, application, virtual networks, information, and other real and virtual entities mobility. Jeff Geerling Encryptedruler blakeburris We need a mobility- friendly environment.
  39. 39. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Semantic, Context, Context-Awareness, and Ontology  Situation-Awareness  According to (Baker et al., 2009) “... being aware of its physical environment or situation and responding proactively and intelligently based on such awareness”.  Context-Awareness  To be aware of relevant contexts.  Ontology  For (TripCom, 2008) “an ontology is a formal definition of terminology and relationships among the terms in a computer- processable form”.
  40. 40. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Semantic, Context, Context-Awareness, and Ontology  Requirements and Challenges:  Situation and Context Awareness → RWI as a source for situation and context information.  Autonomicity → To enable a system/application/artifact to adapts to environmental or goal changes → Ontologies for rules, goals, regulations, etc.  Context Distribution → Collaboration of context processing entities using the publish/subscribe paradigm.
  41. 41. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 5. Autonomic Technologies  Autonomic Computing  Autonomic Communications Axel Rouvin Self-emergent social behavior
  42. 42. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Autonomic Computing  Why autonomic computing?  Accelerated returns:  Boom in diversity, scale and complexity.  Human capability limitations:  Highly stressful job and deep sense of failure.  OPEX:  Human resources are expensive.  Rapid adaptation to the environment.
  43. 43. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Autonomic Computing  (IBM, 2001):  A famous manifesto → autonomic computing.  “Computing systems’ complexity appears to be approaching the limits of human capability”.  Bio-inspired → human autonomic nervous system governs various functions without our awareness.  Computational systems → manage themselves according to high- level objectives outlined by human operators.  Reduce human interference and OPEX.
  44. 44. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Autonomic Computing  (Kephart and Chess, 2001): 4autonomic properties:  Self-Configuration - To configure components and the system itself to achieve high-level goals.  Self-Optimization - To optimize proactively system resources and other aspects in order to improve performance, efficiency, quality, etc.  Self-Healing - To detect, diagnose and repair localized problems and failures.  Self-Protection - To defend against attackers, threads or cascade failures.
  45. 45. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Autonomic Computing  (Dobson et al., 2010):  The most notable omission from IBM’s original vision is autonomous elements communication.  (Clark et al., 2003):  To incorporate more autonomy in communication networks, creating the so-called Knowledge Plane. Why not a self-driven Internet? Is there any risk?
  46. 46. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Autonomic Communications  Requirements and Challenges (1/2):  Self-awareness → introspective to the own node status and capabilities, e.g. antenna, bandwidth, laser.  Self-situation or environment-aware → sensing from RWI, e.g. primary operators in cognitive radio.  Information contextualization → relevance, self-situation/self- awareness, sound reasoning.  Cooperation → common objectives, self-management, self- emergent behavior, quality and scalability of information gathering, privacy, security.
  47. 47. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Autonomic Communications  Requirements and Challenges (2/2):  Stability → self-stable, i.e. to avoid instability.  Detail level and timely sharing → Information needs to be collected, filtered and distributed to cooperating nodes, in the right time, with right context.
  48. 48. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 6. Security, Privacy and Trust  Requirements and Challenges Väsk
  49. 49. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Requirements and Challenges  Built in or inherent;  Change to consented communications, e.g. publish/subscribe paradigm;  Establishment of trusted networks → entities, services, users, etc.  How to evaluate trust and reputation?  Privacy → To help users to protect and preserve their privacy;  To identify, assess, monitor, analyze and sort risks, vulnerabilities and threats; Ds02006
  50. 50. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 7. Services and Applications  Service-centric Approaches  Internet of Services  Digital Business Ecosystems
  51. 51. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Service-centric Approaches  Software design → changing from component-based to service oriented design: service-centrism.  The idea → applications are flexibly and dynamically constructed by the composition of distributed software services or utilities. App S8 S9 S7 S6 S5 S4 S3 S2 S1
  52. 52. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Service-centric Approaches  Requirements and Challenges (1/2):  Life-cycling → dynamic, distributed and cross-domain;  Seamless → service describing, publishing, discovering and negotiating will be necessary;  How to search, discover and select candidate services?  Which attributes are representative? Context? Semantic?  How to make attributes searchable? Publishing in divulgation services?
  53. 53. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Service-centric Approaches  Requirements and Challenges (2/2):  Negotiation → necessary to establish SLAs (Service Level Agreements);  Admission control → is there available resources to attach the desired service to one more application?  Admission installation → proceeds to configure the services;  Service monitoring, logging and exception handling;  Management → Autonomicity?
  54. 54. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Internet of Services  Above a certain level of abstraction everything can be viewed as a service → Internet of Services.  (Villasante, 2009):  “Internet of Services – Supporting the service economy (70% of GDP in modern societies)”.
  55. 55. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Digital Business Ecosystems  Dynamic service compose-ability → integrate business processes with applications and services, creating the so called Digital Business Ecosystems (DBEs).  DBEs → the new savannah.
  56. 56. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 8. Simplicity, Sustainability and Evolvability  Simplicity  Sustainability  Evolvability http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/locoart/locoart.html
  57. 57. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Simplicity  To call attention on how difficult it is to design with simplicity we can evoke Leonardo Da Vinci’s:  “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”.  Or as Einstein said:  "Make everything as simple as possible, but no simpler.” http://www.idsia.ch/~juergen/locoart/locoart.html Jürgen Schmidhuber: Low Complexity Art
  58. 58. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Sustainability  Ops! We need to redesign the Internet again...  Sustainability can be defined as the property of maintaining a certain level/situation in the course of time.  Akari also aims to project a sustainable network, capable to evolve and support information society requirements in the next decades.
  59. 59. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Evolvability  Evolvability is a definition related to biological systems.  (Rowe & Leaney, 1997):  “the ability of a system to adapt in response to changes in its environment, requirements and implementation technologies.” Darwin evolutionary tree. Qz10
  60. 60. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Thank You! Antônio Marcos Alberti antonioalberti.blogspot.com facebook.com/antoniomarcos.alberti researchgate.net/profile/Antonio_Alberti linkedin.com/profile/view?id=69752898 http://inatel.academia.edu/AntonioMarcosAlberti mendeley.com/profiles/antonio-marcos-alberti/ twitter.com/antoniomalberti
  61. 61. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 Further readings  Alberti A., A Conceptual-Driven Survey on Future Internet Requirements, Technologies, and Challenges, Journal of Brazilian Computer Society, Springer-Verlag GmbH, 2013.  Alberti A., Searching for Synergies among Future Internet Ingredients. Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology Conference. Communications in Computer and Information Science Volume 310, 2012, pp 61-68.  Alberti A., Future Network Architectures: Technological Challenges and Trends, New Network Architectures: The Path to the Future Internet. Book Chapter. Springer-Verlag GmbH. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-13247-6_5. 2010.
  62. 62. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Kurzweil R (2005) The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, Viking Press, ISBN 0670033847.  Saracco R (2009) Telecommunications Evolution: The Fabric of Ecosystems. Revista Telecomunicações INATEL 12(2):36-45.  Akari (2008) New Generation Network Architecture AKARI Conceptual Design. Project Description v1.1.  Cross-ETP (2009) The Cross-ETP Vision Document. European Technology Platforms (ETPs) Cross Vision Document v1.0.
  63. 63. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Presser M, Daras P, Baker M, Karnouskos S, Gluhak A, Krco S, Diaz C, Verbauwhede I, Naqvi S, Alvarez F, Fernandez-Cuesta A (2008) Real World Internet Position Paper.  Peterson L, Anderson T, Culler D, Roscoe T (2003) A Blueprint for Introducing Disruptive Technology into the Internet. SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Review 33(1):59-64.  Peterson L, Shenker S, Turner J (2005) Overcoming the Internet Impasse through Virtualization. IEEE Computer 38(4): 34-41.  GENI (2006) Technical Document on Wireless Virtualization. Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) Technical Report GDD-06-17.
  64. 64. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Jacobson V, Content-Centric Networking, Future Internet Assembly (FIA), Valencia, Spain, 2010.  Rothenberg CE, Verdi FL, Magalhaes, M (2008) Towards a New Generation of Information-Oriented Internetworking Architectures. Re-Architecting the Internet, Madrid, Spain.  Berners-Lee T, Hendler J, Lassila O (1999) The Semantic Web. Scientific American Magazine 23(1).  Alberti A, (2010) Future Network Architectures: Technological Challenges and Trends, New Network Architectures: The Path to the Future Internet. Book Chapter. Springer-Verlag GmbH. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-13247-6_5. 2010.
  65. 65. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Jacobson V, Smetters D, Thornton J, Plass M, Briggs N, Braynard R (2009) Networking Named Content. CoNEXT’09, Rome, Italy.  Ahlgren B, D’Ambrosio M, Dannewitz C, Marchisio M, Marsh I, Ohlman B, Pentikousis K, Rembarz R, Strandberg O, Vercellone V (2008) Design Considerations for a Network of In-formation. Re-Architecting the Internet, Madrid, Spain.  Tarkoma S, Ain M, Visala K (2009) The Publish/Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP): Designing the Future Internet Architecture. Towards the Future Internet, IOS Press.  4WARD (2010) Architecture and Design for the Future Internet: Second NetInf Architecture Description. Deliverable D6.2.
  66. 66. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Ohlman B, Ahlgren B, et al. (2010) Networking of Information: An Information-centric Approach to the Network of Future. ETSI Future Network Technologies Workshop.  Niebert N (2008) Vision on Future Content Networks: A Networks and Media Joint Venture. Future Internet Assembly (FIA), Madrid, Spain.  Paulson LD (2003) News Briefs - W3C Works on Semantic Web Proposal. Computer Magazine 36(11):20  Fensel D (2007) ServiceWeb 3.0. IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conf. on Intelligent Agent Technology, Fremont, USA.
  67. 67. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Baker N, Zafar M, Moltchanov B, Knappmeyer M (2009) Context-Aware Systems and Implications for Future Internet, Towards the Future Internet, IOS Press.  Bicocchi N, Baumgarten M, Brgulja N, Kusber R, Mamei M, Mulvenna M, Zambonelli F (2010) Self-Organized Data Ecologies for Pervasive Situation-Aware Services: The Knowledge Networks Approach, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics – Part A: System and Humans, Vol. 40, No. 4.  Dey A, Abowd D (2000) Towards a better understanding of context and context-awareness, Proc. ACM Conf. Human Factors Comput. Syst.—What, Who, Where, When and How of Context-Awareness, Hague, The Netherlands.
  68. 68. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Zimmermann A et al. (2005) Personalization and Context Management, User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 15, 3-4, pp. 275-302.  Giunchiglia F (1992) Contextual Reasoning, Trento, Italy.  Wang P (2004) Experience-Grounded Semantics: A theory for intelligent systems, Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science.  Gruber T (1993) A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications. Knowledge Acquisition, 5:199–220.  TripCom (2008) Ontology of EDIFACT Syntax and Semantics, Deliverable D7.2.
  69. 69. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Ben Yahia I, Bertin E, Crespi N (2007) Ontology-based Management Systems for the Next Generation Services: State- of-the-Art, presented in Networking and Services, 2007. ICNS Third International Conference and published in IEEE Transaction.  Clark D, Partridge C, Ramming C, Wroclawski J (2003) A knowledge plane for the Internet, Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf., Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 3–10.  Siekkinen M, et al. (2007) Beyond the Future Internet – Requirements of Autonomic Networking Architectures to Address Long Term Future Networking Challenges, 11th IEEE International Workshop on Future Trends of Distributed Computing Systems (FTDCS'07).
  70. 70. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Strassner J, (2008) The Role of Autonomic Networking in Cognitive Networks, Cognitive Networks: Towards Self-Aware Networks. John Wiley and Sons, Book Chapter 23-52.
  71. 71. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Jelger C (2009) Information Dispatch Points, NetArch Symposium Presentation, Ascona, Switzerland.  Pollock J, Hodgson R (2004) Adaptive information: improving business through semantic interoperability, grid computing, and enterprise integration, John Wiley and Sons.
  72. 72. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Kephart JO, Chess DM (2003) The Vision of Autonomic Computing. IEEE Computer Magazine 36(1):41-50.  Dobson S, Sterritt R, Nixon P, Hinchey M (2010) Fulfilling the Vision of Autonomic Computing. Computer Magazine 43(1): 35-41;  Clark D, Partridge C, Ramming J, Wroclawski J (2003) A Knowledge Plane for the Internet. Proc. of the Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Comm., Karlsruhe, Germany;  Smirnov M (2004) Autonomic Communication: Research Agenda for a New Communications Paradigm. Fraunhofer FOKUS technical Report;
  73. 73. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Dobson S, Denazis S, Fernández A, Gaïti D, Gelenbe E, Massacci F, Nixon P, Saffre F, Schmidt N, Zambonelli F, (2006) A Survey of Autonomic Communications. ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems 1(2):223-259.  Sterritt R, Bustard D W, (2003), Autonomic Computing—A Means of Achieving Dependability?, Proc. 10th IEEE Int’l Conf. and Workshop on the Eng. of Computer-Based Systems (ECBS 2003), IEEE Press:247-251.  Chaparadza R, (2010), Can Autonomicity help Migration, and what could be a possible Evolution Path?, FIA‐GHENT: Migration Session, December 2010.
  74. 74. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Cross-ETP (2009) The Cross-ETP Vision Document. European Technology Platforms (ETPs), Cross Vision Document v1.0.  Clarke J (2008) Trust & Identity in the Future Internet, Presentation at FIA.  X-ETP (2010) Future Internet Strategic Research Agenda, Version 1.1.  PICOS (2008) Taxonomy, Deliverable D2.1 Version 1.0.  RFC 4949 (2000), Internet Security Glossary, IETF Request for Comments 2828.
  75. 75. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Chaum D (1985) Security without Identification: Transaction Systems to make Big Brother Obsolete, Communications of the ACM 28/10 1030-1044.  Avizienis A, Laprie J, Randell B, Landwehr C, Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing 1 (1).  Pfitzmann A, Hansen M (2010), A terminology for talking about privacy by data minimization: Anonymity, Unlinkability, Undetectability, Unobservability, Pseudonymity, and Identity Management, Available online at http://dud.inf.tu-dresden.de/ Anon_Terminology.shtml/.
  76. 76. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Fischer-Hübner S, Hedbom H (2008) D14.1.c – PRIME Framework V3. Public Project Deliverable.  Luhmann, N (1979) Trust and Power, Chichester, Wiley.  RISEPTIS (2009) Trust in the Information Society, Report of the Research and Innovation for SEcurity, Privacy and Trustworthiness in the Information Society.  Campolargo, M (2010) Trust in the Information Society, Presentation at “Trust in the Information Society” Conference.
  77. 77. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  European Commission, “The Future of the Internet: A Compendium of European Projects on ICT Research Supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme for RTD”, 2008.  Pedrinaci, C., “Lightweight Semantic Annotations for Services on the Web”, SSAIE 2009.  Ristol, S., “Enabling a Web of Billions of Services”, SW 2009.  S-Cube, “The S-Cube Book”, August 2010.  De Panfilis, S., "FISO architecture of the Future Internet", FIA Workshop– FISO Session May 2009.
  78. 78. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Gittler, F, "NEXOF: An Approach for Service‐based System Architectures", 2nd International SOA Symposium, October 2009.  Pasic, A., “Delivering Building Blocks for Internet of Services: Trust, Security, Privacy and Dependability”, Book Chapter, New Network Architectures, 2010.  Benko, B. K., “Autonomic Communication Elements and the ACE Toolkit”, ACE Toolkit tutorial, Milan, November 2008.  Baresi, L., Di Ferdinando, A., Manzalini, A., Zambonelli, F., “The CASCADAS Framework for Autonomic Communications”, Autonomic Communication, Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
  79. 79. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Rowe D, Leaney JR (1997) Evaluating evolvability of computer based systems architectures - an ontological approach”, Proc. International Conference on the Engineering of Computer Based Systems, 1997.
  80. 80. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Wang P Artificial General Intelligence: A Gentle Introduction, Available online at: http://sites.google.com/site/narswang/home/agi- introduction/  Kurzweil R (2005) The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, Viking Press, ISBN 0670033847.  Dartmouth Meeting (1956) A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire, Available online at: http:// www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/history/dartmouth/dartmouth.html/  Langton C What is Artificial Life?, Available online at http:// www.biota.org/papers/cglalife.html/
  81. 81. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  McKinley P, Cheng B, Ofria C, Knoester D, Beckmann B, Goldsby H (2008) Harnessing Digital Evolution, IEEE Computer Magazine.  Nachira F (2006) How ICT research supports Innovation Ecosystems and SMEs, UEAPME workshop.  Briscoe G, De Wilde P (2006) Digital Ecosystems: Evolving Service-Orientated Architectures, Proceedings of the 1st international conference on Bio inspired models of network, information and computing systems.
  82. 82. © Antônio M. Alberti 2013 References  Tempesti G, Mange D, Mudry P, Rossier J, Stauffer A (2007) Self-Replicating Hardware for Reliability: The Embryonics Project, ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC), Vol. 3 Issue 2.  Guedj D (2010) Future and Emerging Technologies Proactive Initiatives in FP7 call 6, Information Day, ICT Call 6 Brussels.
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Tutorial presented at IWT 2013.

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