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Health Policy Debate

Antoinette Williams
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Health Policy Debate

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Health Policy Debate
Health Policy Debate The Affordable Care Act ACA has provided some needed changes to the
healthcare landscape of this great country. With these changes there have been many debates about
different aspects of the bill. The United States faces many ongoing challenges that include high cost
of healthcare, access to healthcare and the social aspect of government regulated healthcare. One of
the foundations of the ACA was to provide individuals with affordable healthcare and access to
preventative wellness as well as the reduction of preexisting conditions. In regards to the ACA, the
context of values, markets and morals will all be disused and the ongoing debate of the ACA. Values
Religion has always played a major role in the foundations of laws and values in the United States.
From money to monuments, the religious history has played major roles in this country's
establishment. According to Shaw (2015) "delivering participant value requires more than cost
containment strategies that simply cut benefits and requires programs that provide better quality and
more cost–effective care".
Americans are made up of many different ethnic groups and classes. This variation of incomes and
access to healthcare creates many ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The moral aspect of healthcare has always been a topic that is widely debated. As a country, we
should be responsible for providing care and services for those in need. According to Saloner &
Daniels (2011) the citizens of the U.S have a social obligation to preserve the opportunities of its's
citizens by achieving the health needs through insurance and by providing a form of insurance that
protects people from finical hardships. This moral responsibility to our citizens can be arguably
debated from both aspects but I believe that we must have some form of insurance to protect the
wellbeing of every citizen in the United
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Health Policy Debate
Health Care Policy
Abstract The number of uninsured Americans is greater than the total population of Canada
(Lambrew, Podesta, & Shaw, 2005). Conservative 2004 estimates indicate that there were 41.6
million uninsured persons of all ages (14.5%) and 51.0 million (17.7%) were uninsured for at least
part of the year (Cohen, Martinez, & Hao, 2005). By 2013, projections suggest that one in four
Americans under the age of 65, nearly 56 million people, will be without health care insurance
because coverage will be too expensive (CQ Health beat News, 2005). The United States spends
more money on health care than other industrialized nations but is the only one that doesn't ensure
health care coverage for all citizens. Every year, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The world faced a stark reality at the turn of the century. Amidst unprecedented new wealth and
powerful new technologies, millions were still getting sick and dying from diseases and life
expectancies were actually falling. Therefore, in September 2000, 189 country representatives
adopted the Millennium Development Goals to focus on time limited commitments to reduce
poverty and promote human development in order to reduce child mortality, improve maternal
health, combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other disease by 2015.(WHO, 2008). The challenge for
meeting this deadline of goals was perceived as emergent and had a powerful effect for transforming
the long–standing problem of global public health. It was perceived that globalization was putting
the social cohesiveness of many countries under stress and that the health systems as key
constituents of our contemporary societies were clearly not performing as well as they could and
should. Sentinel Events in U.S. Health Care in Opposition of Universal Coverage. According to
Mason (2007), Americans traditionally have been opposed to strong centralized government. The
Shepherd–Tower Act of 1921 set the stage for national funding for decentralized programs by
providing matching funds to states for prenatal and child health
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Health Policy Debate
Health Policy Definition
Provide a conceptual definition of health policy. Health policy is constantly evolving. Discuss
current social and environmental factors that are impetus for this constant shift. Select at least one of
these factors and identify a policy that has changed or was created to address the issue. Who are the
key players in health policymaking at the Federal, state and local government levels?
The conceptual definition of Health Policy is the scope and role the aggregated principles, stated or
unstated that characterize the distribution of resources, services and political into laws that impact
the health of the population. According to the text (Shi and Singh 2015) certain external factors
influence the health care delivery system. The consist of:
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Health Policy Debate
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Health Policy Debate

  • 1. Health Policy Debate Health Policy Debate The Affordable Care Act ACA has provided some needed changes to the healthcare landscape of this great country. With these changes there have been many debates about different aspects of the bill. The United States faces many ongoing challenges that include high cost of healthcare, access to healthcare and the social aspect of government regulated healthcare. One of the foundations of the ACA was to provide individuals with affordable healthcare and access to preventative wellness as well as the reduction of preexisting conditions. In regards to the ACA, the context of values, markets and morals will all be disused and the ongoing debate of the ACA. Values Religion has always played a major role in the foundations of laws and values in the United States. From money to monuments, the religious history has played major roles in this country's establishment. According to Shaw (2015) "delivering participant value requires more than cost containment strategies that simply cut benefits and requires programs that provide better quality and more cost–effective care". Americans are made up of many different ethnic groups and classes. This variation of incomes and access to healthcare creates many ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The moral aspect of healthcare has always been a topic that is widely debated. As a country, we should be responsible for providing care and services for those in need. According to Saloner & Daniels (2011) the citizens of the U.S have a social obligation to preserve the opportunities of its's citizens by achieving the health needs through insurance and by providing a form of insurance that protects people from finical hardships. This moral responsibility to our citizens can be arguably debated from both aspects but I believe that we must have some form of insurance to protect the wellbeing of every citizen in the United ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Health Care Policy Abstract The number of uninsured Americans is greater than the total population of Canada (Lambrew, Podesta, & Shaw, 2005). Conservative 2004 estimates indicate that there were 41.6 million uninsured persons of all ages (14.5%) and 51.0 million (17.7%) were uninsured for at least part of the year (Cohen, Martinez, & Hao, 2005). By 2013, projections suggest that one in four Americans under the age of 65, nearly 56 million people, will be without health care insurance because coverage will be too expensive (CQ Health beat News, 2005). The United States spends more money on health care than other industrialized nations but is the only one that doesn't ensure health care coverage for all citizens. Every year, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The world faced a stark reality at the turn of the century. Amidst unprecedented new wealth and powerful new technologies, millions were still getting sick and dying from diseases and life expectancies were actually falling. Therefore, in September 2000, 189 country representatives adopted the Millennium Development Goals to focus on time limited commitments to reduce poverty and promote human development in order to reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other disease by 2015.(WHO, 2008). The challenge for meeting this deadline of goals was perceived as emergent and had a powerful effect for transforming the long–standing problem of global public health. It was perceived that globalization was putting the social cohesiveness of many countries under stress and that the health systems as key constituents of our contemporary societies were clearly not performing as well as they could and should. Sentinel Events in U.S. Health Care in Opposition of Universal Coverage. According to Mason (2007), Americans traditionally have been opposed to strong centralized government. The Shepherd–Tower Act of 1921 set the stage for national funding for decentralized programs by providing matching funds to states for prenatal and child health ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Health Policy Definition Provide a conceptual definition of health policy. Health policy is constantly evolving. Discuss current social and environmental factors that are impetus for this constant shift. Select at least one of these factors and identify a policy that has changed or was created to address the issue. Who are the key players in health policymaking at the Federal, state and local government levels? The conceptual definition of Health Policy is the scope and role the aggregated principles, stated or unstated that characterize the distribution of resources, services and political into laws that impact the health of the population. According to the text (Shi and Singh 2015) certain external factors influence the health care delivery system. The consist of: ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. World Social Policies And Health Care Policy And... World Social Policies The advantages and disadvantages of resources and services within United States compared to other govern countries and their social demands for their citizens are immeasurably different. When comparing and analyzing how governing bodies oversees the well–being of citizens within their region of the world, it is important not to rely on their economic growth only. But, how their social policies and guidelines address poverty, housing, health care, unemployment, and the lack of education. Each governing body strive to improve the life expectancy of their citizens by implementing policies that would provide access to, delivering and allocating, and refining resources within the communities for the betterment of the people. The state welfare and public practice within a governmental and / or political setting varies with each area of concern; mainly with the health care and inequality (unemployment and homelessness) of citizens. This report will contrast how citizens of the United States, Belgium, and Japan fair with their health care policy and inequality policy that are implemented to service their perspective region. The growing concern of health care in the United States is alarming to its citizens. Unfortunately, the health care system does not provide an even quality of medical care for all citizens. Social Justice indicates that the government must allocate costs and benefits to help the citizens even if it does not guarantee fairness across the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Affordable Health Policy Introduction According the world health organization, healthy policy is encompassing the decisions, actions and plans that are undertaken in order to achieve particular healthcare goals within a particular society. One example of policies used in the United States of America currently is the research policy. This policy aims at strengthening health research systems. Researchers who are involved in health fields together with other health services take part in making health care policy and they do so in four main ways. These ways are as following, First they help in identifying the problems or flaws in the current healthcare policies and system (Clancy, Glied & Lurie, 2012). For example, they can identify that nurses there is a shortage of nurses and that is on the rise year ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Some of the advantages are helping in prevention of chronic diseases and improving public health. To prevent chronic diseases it fosters expanding quality preventative service both in clinical and community settings, eliminating health disparities and empowering American people to make health choices (Sultz & Young, 2014). ACA has also established six priorities for the public to help in curbing the chronic illnesses. These priorities are; healthy eating as recommended by myplate.gov, reproductive and social health which is part of what ACA promotes, injury and violent free environments both at home and in work environments, preventing drug and excess flu alcohol use and fostering mental and emotional wellbeing (Sultz & Young, 2014). To improve public health ACA focuses on improving the healthcare workforce so that the underserved, low–income, minorities, uninsured and rural populations can get access to healthcare (Sultz & Young, 2014). For example nurses are being trained more to become advanced practice registered nurses like nurse practitioner so that they can independently provide primary care to the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Health Policies And The Health Policy Health Policy Values According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2015), "Health policy refers to decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society" (p.1). Nursing can make a change in the health policy. This writer believes nursing is the most trusted professions and also upholds the uppermost values of morality and ethical principle. One of the journalists Deepak Chopra said, "Enlightened leadership is spiritual if we understand spirituality not as some kind of religious dogma or ideology, but as the domain of awareness where we experience values like truth, goodness, beauty, love and compassion, and also intuition, creativity, insight and focused attention" (Chopra, D., and n.d.). Nursing Values, Personal Values and Spiritual Belief "To be accountable, nurses follow a code of ethical conduct that includes moral principles such as fidelity, loyalty, veracity, beneficence, and respect for the dignity, worth, and self– determination of patients, as well as adhering to the scope and standards of nursing practice" (ANA, 2015, p. 15). Nursing profession is entirely about taking care of patients, and families with integrity, and dignity. This writer is a believer of God, following the teachings of God and truthfully practicing it with life in daily activities. As a nurse, this writer believes in honesty trust, respect, compassion, love, commitment, empowerment, and cooperation. While ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Health Transfer Policy The Indian Health Transfer Policy (1989) and the subsequent establishment of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch of Health Canada are supposed offers by the federal government to First Nations communities to gradually transfer the control of resources for health programs over to the community (Lavoie, et al., 2007). Essentially, however, the continued division of authority over public health "has created a non–system" (Cook, p. 40), a "policy patchwork [that] perpetuates confusion...[and] jurisdictional divide [among dozens of health care systems] at the federal, provincial and First Nation community levels" (Lavoie & Gervais, 2013) that continue to marginalize Aboriginal people in mainstream health–care systems. Documents such as the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 6). If collaboration and engagement occurs at the beginning, however, and if the process of policy development provides opportunities for each community to pursue their priorities based on what they value and hope to accomplish, this it is feasible. (Lavoie, 2013) Having said that, collaboration and communication is not easy given the diversity and geographic locations of First Nations communities provincially an throughout the nation. To overcome this challenge, local authorities and local community forums may be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Role Of Policy On Health Care Essay Role of Policy in Health Care Student Name Institution Affiliation Role of Policy in Health Care Ek, R., Goolsby, L., & Wengrovius, E. (2011).The national policy outlook for 2011. Policy & Practice, 69(1), 16. The health care executives should actively coordinate in problem planning and preparation activities, striving to ensure that their exigency operations plan fits within the whole community plans and represents an accountable approach to the risks an organization might undergo. According to Ek, Goolsby and Wengrovius (2011), health and human service programs should be administered with a very high integrity degree and accuracy. However, states have been hampered for several years by the most auditing and quality control requirements that skew programs towards conformity with the process mandates at the expense of meaningful outcomes. In policy consideration, there is a frustration mood to several states through needless duplications of effort in gathering application information, minor but numerous dissimilarities among linked programs and prohibitions against sharing data across program and department lines. Eliminating these barriers would foster access, decrease administrative burdens, and improve program integrity, yet many remain stubbornly in place through unwillingness at the federal levels limit the boundaries between silos, or to examine the costs versus benefits of excessive program oversight. Fyffe, T. (2009). Nursing is shaping and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Health Care Policy Summary Comprehnsion: The healthcare industry has grown significantly since the need for healthcare services and medical coverage have been identified. As the market for healthcare continues to grow the need for policies increases as the drives for healthcare changes to increasing access, decreasing costs, and improving quality (Brook, 2018). According to research health policy refers to this goal that needs to be obtained including the decision, planning, and strategy used within the policy. The need to achieve a balance in healthcare policies is achieved through efficient and fair in outlining the expectations (Morone et al., 2009). According to research consumers are dissatisfied with the increasing cost have grown over the past years. For example, the cost of medical expenses has doubled for consumers as the raising concern to build a policy that would curb the costs of healthcare (Brook, 2018). Illustrating the needs for finding the balance of efficiency within organizing values within a policy because impacting the cost, proposal, or procedures outlined. HHS ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The results from a two–year study indicated... "the program did not generate enough savings in Medicare Parts A and B to cover care–management fees associated with the program (2017)." Indicating that when trying to decrease the costs of health insurance premiums it has actually left market places with little or no competition. The overall results of the benefits that have been experienced from ACA has not produced the results that were anticipated (Weiner et al., 2017). Although the intention of the ACA was to improve access and quality of health care there has been more reported data indicating that this is actually the opposite of what has happened especially in regards to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. Unit 6 Health And Social Care Policies Essay Policies Policies are statements which are written to describe how an organisation intends to function in terms of good practice' (Richards and Ford, 2010). Having policies in place at a GP surgery can promote a positive care environment by protecting patient and staff from danger and harm such as discrimination. There are three main policies which include Confidentiality, Health and Safety and Whistleblowing. The first policy is Confidentiality which ensures that staff at a surgery will not disclose any of patients' personal information without permission from the patient. This policy informs the staff of the surgery their responsibilities when handling patients' information, how they should protect it and dispose of it. The policy sets ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This policy sets out guidelines for the staff to help ensure that the workplace is up to a high standard when it comes to a safe and healthy environment. The employees of the surgery have a responsibility to follow these health and safety rules while at work. This policy is set in place to ensure that staff and patients are in safe premises and are surrounded by safe equipment. The transport, use, storage and handling of substances must be safe and done with care. These duties include each member of staff taking responsibility of their own health and safety as well as other people who may be affected by their actions or errors, staff must not intentionally or recklessly misuse or interfere with anything that is provided in the interests of health and safety at work, all members of staff are required to report any hazard or unsafe working practice in the surgery and to take appropriate action to make the situation safe if possible, also they must report any accident or incident that they are involved in to their supervisor or manager and complete an incident form in detail. Members of staff must also announce any medical conditions or disabilities which may involve risks to them or others when they carry out their tasks to ensure that staff and patients around them are safe (Healthy Working Lives, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Health Policy : Health Care Policy Health care Policy Health policy refers to the decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken with the purpose of achieving specific healthcare goals within a certain society (Lindsay, 2005). According to the world health organization, an explicit health policy is capable of achieving several things. It states a vision for the future, which helps to establish targets for medium and short term. A brief history of universal healthcare efforts in the US In the 1800, the German and British systems were developed by governments in power as a defense to counter expansion of the socialist and labor parties. These governments used insurance against the cost of sickness in order to turn benevolence to power. The government of United States took no actions to subsidize voluntary funds. The federal government left matters to the states and voluntary and private programs (Lindsay, 2005). In the progressive era, President Roosevelt Theodore supported health insurance because he believed a strong nation needs well people. In 1906, the American association of labor legislation led the campaign for health insurance. Rhode Island congressional representative introduced new proposal in 1958 in order to cover hospital costs for old people on social security. Community Health Nurse Community health nurses have adapt to providing care to the public including churches, health clinics, shelters, the homeless and schools. Community health nurses provide comprehensive care to patients within ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Health Policy As a healthcare system which includes 8 acute care hospitals (one being an academic medical center,) 6 urgent care centers and 2 surgery centers, it is crucial that we stay abreast of current policy and changes to policy as they occur, in an effort to stay competitive in the marketplace. This is the most current research as it relates to the development of ACOs in New Jersey and an overview of how this activity may impact our health system. I am providing this to the board of trustees for review. Cantor, J. C., Chakravarty, S., Tong, J., Yedidia, M. J., Lontok, O., & DeLia, D. (2014). The new jersey medicaid ACO demonstration project: Seeking opportunities for better care and lower costs among complex low–income patients. Journal ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Medicaid demonstration project attempts to align quality objectives with payment incentives, which is different from traditional ACOs. The ACOs must have a strategy to enhance outcomes. This is a 3 year project whose outcomes have not yet been reported . Skoufalos, A., & Cecil, K. (2013). The journey to creating safety net accountable care in new jersey. Population Health Management, 16, S–12 1p. doi:10.1089/pop.2013.1681 This article describes the effort to improve the health outcomes, quality, and access to care for its low–income population (Medicaid patients), and to lower public spending on health care based on the policy Governor Christie signed related to the 3–year Medicaid Accountable Care Organization (ACO) Demonstration Project. It delves into the political and financial climate in the state that sparked legislative interest in this project. It identifies the key stakeholders that were involved in the decision making , and the challenges that the legislation faced . The idea of ACO being challenged based on the assumption that it is too similar to "Obamacare". This is significant in identifying the political landscape of the state at the time, republican governor with a democratic president. Conclusion : As compared to many states, New Jersey seems to be moving toward the ACO models more progressively than some other states . This is most likely based on the economic ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. The Definition Of Health Policy Essay This report will discussed the definition of health policy, the process of making a policy, the laws and legislations involve, the healthcare advocacy of professionals in politics and decision–making, and lastly, explore the advantages and drawbacks of 2 types of decision making models. The learning outcome of this report will further explore and better understand widely the process how the government of any nation undergo a certain procedure before arriving to an outcome. What is Policy? It is defined as a concept of coherent ideas or method of action selected by the government to guide and carry out such course of action with a common long–term objectives affecting a certain outcome1. These policies are formulated and implemented by the government to influence and resolve major decisions requiring actions and activities for long term purposes that is widely accessible. Health Policy are reforms of decisions, actions, and strategies to attain a particular health care goals within the society. WHO (2016) defines health care policy to create specific goals and targets where short and long term are met for future purposes2. It is a framework for health care professionals to build an agreement which informs them. For instance the National Drug Policy 2015–2020, is a current health care policy made by the Ministry of Health in New Zealand, where certain strategies and practices that counteracts with alcohol and drug issues. The Policy is a guide in decision making, prioritising ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27. Health Policy Analysis Once a policy has been formulated, it can either be implemented or modified. Most health services are controlled by policies which require that before implementing any policy, the policy must be examined carefully. If the policy does not meet the required criteria, it is modified until it helps in solving a given problem. Sometimes, it is important to change health policies to make sure they are accomplishing what they are supposed to. Makers of these policies, as discussed in the earlier sections of the paper, maybe legislators, federal or state agencies, public or private funders, or service delivery organizations themselves. The health policies in question are those that ensure that citizens receive the best healthcare possible, are cost–effective, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... IRS regulations disregard the statutory limitation and grant credits to potentially several million persons below the 100% statutory floor. The Treasury regulation effectively provides the largest tax credits to persons who don't satisfy the statutory criteria for eligibility on May 23, 2012 (Turner, 2017). On October 12, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order that might make major changes to the Affordable Care Act by expanding the use of so–called association health plans and short–term health insurance, which have fewer benefit requirements than the plans sold through the Obamacare exchanges. The executive order urge government agencies to make new rules that would allow more Americans to sign up for cheaper, less–regulated health ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. Public Health Policy Paper Opportunities for the general public to interact and influence public health policy Mr. Lamphier had great advice on ways the public can communicate with legislators and influence public health policy, which is also along the same guidelines for nursing. Know who your representatives are for the house, senate, county and school district level. Support a candidate either financially or through campaigning. Build relationships utilize the spring and summer months when the representatives are not in legislation to make contact and offer your nursing expertise. The bills that do not pass in the 40 days of the legislative period will need to start over and usually lobbying will start after the session ends. This is the time to find out how ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... "Nurses cannot afford to remain in the background or added as an afterthought to the policy and legislative arenas" (Abood, 2007, para. 45). Nurses need to capitalize on our reputation as one of the most trusted professions. With the continuous evolution of the healthcare system, nurses need to work on bringing the patients, communities, and the overall population's health perspectives into current and future legislative health policies, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 31. The Evolution Of Health Policy There are several key issues one needs to know about the evolution of health policy, however the most important are the evolution from health system design as it emerges into an unprecedented federal policy and law, the financing and quality/access of services. In the past, the primary characteristic of health care focused on least amount of government involvement and was not seen as an appropriate government function and until 1953 when a federal government cabinet–level created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (Williams & Torrens, 2008). Health policy is viewed in two ways, one is describe an informal and general set of values, ethical standards, legal decision in court cases therefore acting within the general ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Although participation from local and state does provide a voice toward value setting objectives, it can enhance the data and research that will guide the creation of legislative action (Williams & Torrens, 2008). In 2006, the United States allocated 16 percent of the gross domestic product to healthcare (Williams & Torrens, 2008). Healthcare cost is expected to raise $4.7 trillion by 2020 and government is expected to pay for a large share of the total cost (Nordal, 2012). Therefore, health policy is driven by financing a fragmented, decentralized and unplanned system into a more centralized organizational reform with Centers of Medicaid and Medicare having a greater role in the implementation and development of health policy through the federal and state levels as part of their responsibility of these two programs (William & Torrens, 2008). Hospital, physicians and health facilities are operating with tight financial constraints, physician discontent and increasing cost of pharmaceuticals. In addition, to the future of health policy is how it addresses acute or chronic illness model, aging population (i.e. Baby Boomer) and increasing demand the financing of health care will require a preventive model with standardization of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. The And Public Health Policies For years, it has been assumed by the vast majority of health care experts that everyone knows the guiding principle of ethics in healthcare. Everyone agrees that this guiding principle has the solid endorsement of the majority of the population. These presumptions are accepted with almost no contention or debate. In Justice in Medicine and Public Health, Rosamund Rhodes argues that "no single conception of justice explains the array of broadly endorsed medical and public health policies." This thought challenges the classical approach of defining or defending one accurate view of justice in medicine. There are many different views of justice in health care that have been developed and debated. However, it is clear that no one view of the distribution of the scarce resources and services fits every situation. Aristotle defined justice as giving each his due. While this thought has its fans, others prefer a more idealistic view of justice in the field of health care. One of these philosophies, utilitarianism, defines justice as policies and procedures that produce the best outcomes. During times of emergency, it is acceptable for health professionals to practice triage medicine. The practice of triage medicine represents the goal of avoiding the worst outcomes and not the utilitarian view of the best possible outcome. Furthermore, the aim of public health research is to collect information that may or may not be useful. The quest to gather information also appears to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35. Global Perspective on Health Policy Essay Introduction A macro perspective on health policy issues can be helpful to identify how problems become policy issues and how these issues result in the creation of health care policy. The neglected epidemic of Chronic Disease also known as non– communicable diseases are a controversial issue that needs to be addressed in the world. In this paper, the writer will provide an explanation of how this issue has resulted from a policy's creation. Identify the steps in the state and federal policy development process. Furthermore, differentiate between policy development and implementation. Also, explain how stakeholders become involved in the process and why their voices often become a driver for change in health policy. What is Chronic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2011). Policy Making Process. In healthcare, Chronic Disease epidemics cause many threats to the world. In response to the crisis, The Lancet NCD Action Group and the NCD Alliance has proposed five priority actions. Which are: "Leadership, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, and monitoring and accountability–and the delivery of five priority interventions–tobacco control, salt reduction, improved diets and physical activity, reduction in hazardous alcohol intake, and essential drugs and technologies (The Lancet. 2011)." The import involvements were chosen for their health paraphernalia, cost–value, small costs of implementation, and political and financial achievability. Tobacco control is the most urgent and immediate priority. They have propose a goal for 2040 that in essence the world would be free from tobacco where fewer than 5% of people engaged in tobacco use (The Lancet. 2011). Policy problems are identified by many factors that include methods that include getting issues on the political agendas and removing them. The first step in the Policymaking Process is agenda setting. Agenda setting is all about decision–making in the first phase of the policymaking process. To be considered on the agenda, difficulties must arise to policymakers' attention. Healthcare problems are highly visible, because the affect the nation, whereas major problems no relating to health are considered invisible to make the agenda (The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Singapore Health Policy 1. Introduction 1.1 Executive Summary This project focuses on how the Singapore government helps its citizens to pay for their healthcare needs. The primary policy that will be discussed will be the Ministry of Health's 3M framework and a policy analysis will be conducted based on it. A brief introduction of the development of this policy will be provided followed by an evaluation of the policy and recommendations on how to improve the policy. The report will be concluded with a discussion on the impacts that the policy brings about. 1.2 Background Public health care is an emotive issue that remains a major concern of the public in our country. With the rising costs of financing public healthcare systems and the pressing aging ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2.3 MediShield MediShield was introduced in 1990 as a low cost catastrophic illness insurance scheme aimed to help members meet medical expenses from major or prolonged illnesses, which could not be sufficiently covered by their Medisave balance. This scheme operates on a co–payment and deductible system to avoid problems associated with first–dollar, comprehensive insurance. It is operated by the Central Provident Fund Board (CPF). 2.4 MediFund Medifund was set up in April 1993 by the government as a means–tested endowment fund to help needy Singaporeans who are unable to pay for their medical expenses. Medifund acts as a safety net for those who cannot afford the subsidised bill charges, despite Medisave and MediShield coverage. 2.5 Role of the 3M framework in financing public health care systems The 3Ms framework plays a major role in helping Singaporean citizens to cope with the rising medical costs. With an integrated system of a compulsory savings fund (MediSave), a catastrophic medical insurance scheme (MediaShield) and a means tested medical expense assistance scheme, the 3Ms framework ensures that health care financing in Singapore is built upon a philosophy of shared responsibility between the individual and the society. 3. Development of the 3M framework 3.1 Purpose of the Policy The purpose of the 3M framework is aimed at helping Singaporeans to pay for their medical expenses. The financing philosophy of Singapore's healthcare delivery ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. Health Policy Process And Power Health Policy Process & Power essay Question 3. Present a critical case study of evidence based/informed health policy making. In doing this, you will want to explain what the policy was, and what body of evidence was drawn upon or seen as relevant. Then you should explore the political aspects of the policy. If there was contestation over evidence (such as which evidence was used, what was seen as important, or how to interpret evidence), you can explain the views of the opposed groups, and the roles of different institutions or processes, which led to the final outcome. A case study of evidence based health policy–making: Adopting DOTS for treatment of tuberculosis in Ukraine This paper will cover the process by which Ukraine adopted ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Oxman et al., 2009) This paper will look at the role of evidence in informing the adoption of DOTS in Ukraine, utilising Figure 1 from Oxman et al (2009) about how systematic reviews and local evidence affect policy change. Local evidence will mainly be analysed as the systematic review was done in order for WHO to recommend the DOTS strategy. As shown in this model it is important to also consider local evidence when making evidence–informed decisions, since specific country circumstances can have significant effect on policies and changing one policy may in fact require a number of other policies to be modified as well. TB Control Program in Ukraine The Ukraine was formerly a part of the Soviet Union and as such many of its policies continue from those that were in place during this period. The TB policy was one of these whereby TB cases were detected by mass screening the population and TB services were vertical structures and highly centralised. Treatment was performed in specialized TB hospitals and entailed long and non– standard treatments. (Vassall et al., 2009) Patients were treated through individualized treatment, which required them to stay between 6 months to 2 years in hospital. Patients received TB services free of charge at point of delivery, as it was financed by national, regional and local budgets, the funds were provided by external agencies. The finances are managed by these
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  • 42. Health Policy Essay How do you propose to build public trust in developing a health policy? I propose to build public trust in my health policy by educating the public as to why this policy change is necessary. Benjamin and Bahr (2016) state that understanding the barriers associated with vaccinations is an important part of ensuring effective policy change. They further state that enhanced vaccination education is key for stakeholders to gain an understanding of the indications and safety concerns of a vaccination. Education about vaccine safety and the necessity of a large part of the population to be vaccinated is based on evidence. I will use scientific evidence to dispel rumors and conspiracy theories regarding vaccine safety. Jolley and Douglas (2017) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In this digital age of rapid consumption of information, a false narrative can become viral in hours. One of the most prevalent anti vaccination narratives is the now debunked school of thought that vaccines cause autism. Kolodziejski (2014) explains the harm of misinformation and how it is increasingly harder to debunk myths about vaccine safety. It will certainly be an uphill battle in developing and implementing this health policy, to ensure that misinformation is combated with truth, science and evidence of our beliefs. The ethical principle of autonomy insists that individuals be allowed to make their own decision as to what benefits them and their families. Keeping this in mind it is going to be difficult to convince individuals that vaccination strengthens herd immunity and the action of vaccinating against vaccine preventable illnesses is for the greater good. I firmly believe that an educated populace will make a sound decision regarding vaccination health, thus the strength of the policy change campaign will be its grassroots–led education efforts in the various communities of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44. Health Policy Analysis Paper : Health Policies Health Policy Analysis Paper Mindy Potter Loma Linda University Health Policy NGRD 653_ 41113 Shirley Bristol May 7, 2016 Health Policy Analysis Paper Introduction and definition of the issue/problem statement. In 1965, there was a histrionic change in the method that mental health care was delivered in the United States. The focus went from State Mental Hospitals to outpatient settings for the treatment of mental health issues. With the passing of Medicaid, States were encouraged to move patients out of the hospital setting (Pan, 2013). This process failed miserably due to under funding and understaffing for the amout of patients that were released from the State Mental Hospitals. This resulted in patients, as well as their families, who were in dire need of mental health services. This population turned to either incarceration (jails and/or prisons) or emergency departments as a primary source of care for their loved ones. In 2010, the Affordable Care Act invoked a $75 millon dollar demonstration project known as the Medicad Emergency Psychiatric Demonstration that was amended in section 2707 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The change seemed to be just what the nation needed, however, there was fine print added to the amendment that changed the interpretation. The fine print stated, patients who are on Medicaid from the ages of 21–65 seeking inpatient mental health care can receive treatment under the law. However, the inpatient facility will receive no ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46. Public Policy And Public Health Literature Review The first section describes the term public policy, taking into account a number of policy definitions from both public administration and public health, and as well as several policy influencing factors. The second section addresses physical activity policy in particular, providing a definition of physical activity policy as well as suggested criteria that characterize successful physical activity policy. The third section gives an insight into policy evaluation... What is public policy? The National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy (NCCHPP) defines public policy as "a strategic action led by a public authority in order to limit or increase the presence of certain phenomena within the population" (2012, p. 1). They propose an evidence– informed analytical framework that reflects both public health perspectives and concerns of policy makers. This is important because public health actors (i.e., policy evaluators and advocates) do not have the power to make decisions as they represent one voice of among many in the policy making process. The analytic framework is structured to guide public health matters in a decision–making context with six dimensions: first, the dimensions of effectiveness, unintended effects, and equity are related to the question of effectiveness; and subsequently, cost, acceptability, and feasibility are related to policy implementation. Policy is often not a single decision, but a web of decisions or sometimes rather a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48. The Reality Of Health Care Policies In reality health care policies are generated and developed in the private sectors by various agencies such as accrediting agencies, hospitals, and managed care organizations. The policy process is conceptualized as a process of power and implementation that can influence meaningful changes amongst the industry. Policies are generated from local, state, and court rulings that produce policies. The process is identified as specific decisions and or events that occur before implementation. The process of policy making can be broken down into 3 phases which are formulation phase, implementation phase, and evaluation phase. Stakeholders, accrediting agencies, managed care plans, and the external environment have the most influence in the formulation phase, along with after the evaluation phase of policy making. Stakeholders along with elected officials, organizations, and special interest groups all stake claim in proposal, which can cause quite the controversy amongst the organizations since they all have different interest and perspective. These individuals are those that have interest or even influence of decision making. This comes into effect during the formulation phase where policies are being proposed. Then the proposed policy gets thrown into the political process which is prominently dominated by Democrats and Republicans. Amongst the democratic and republican party is usually simple math as who is holding the majority has the political advantage. Politics have ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50. Stages Of Health Policy Analysis "The political decision–making process is so irrational that a completely rational approach to health policy–making can hardly be achieved." Support, debunk or provide alternative paradigms or approaches to this statement, focusing on the development of a particular policy area you are familiar with, and using analytic tools and frameworks in health policy analysis. This paper will begin by briefly examining the role of the state in health and how the state or political system is structured to meet this obligation. It will then describe the types of policy, the stages of policy making, and the uniqueness of health policy making. Having provided a solid foundation for understanding the political and policy making system, in the context of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While the more obvious internal political structure of a nation can facilitate or hinder participation in the policy making process, exogenous factors are a major yet less discernible factor. Therefore, it is dependent on the particular aspect of control that policy health actors are faced with, will direct the type of policy development processes undertaken. If the policy is within the control of Health, involves input to cross portfolio policy development, or involves input to intergovernmental policy development. Amongst the many structures used to describe the policy processes Walt (1994) describes the most commonly used framework as a four step continuous cycle that moves through (1) problem identification and issue recognition/definition, (2) Policy formulation with clarification of policy issues and preferred options, (3) policy implementation (4) policy evaluation and review. Consultation occurs throughout this cycle. This was expanded upon in the NSW Health Department State Health Publication (1998) to include; a release of formal discussion paper and the development of final policy paper, as two separate activities coming after policy formation. These two additional steps have become necessary, as the intended policy must be available to the general public and special interest groups, to illicit their views before it is adopted and sent before cabinet for approval. NSW ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52. Health Policies and Health Determinants Grade Received – "A" Discuss the ways that health can be conceptualized by a society. What are the determinants of health in humans? What is the connection between how a society defines health and how it pursues health? Has increased access to technology changed that perception over the last decade? Discuss the connection between health policies, health determinants, and health. Abstract Health policies, health determinants and health are all categories that are intertwined with one another. As technology becomes more advanced within the health industry, society's perception on healthcare may change for the better or for the worst. And with the new technology, new policies arise. Deliberate the ways that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With new developments in technology in healthcare also comes with great responsibility from an ethical standpoint. Decisions can be difficult, ethically when taking into consideration of the life, health or amount of money needed for the type of care given to a patient. Here are a few examples of medical technology perceptions that have changed of the last decade ethically: In–Vitro Fertilization The first child to ever be from using test tube techniques happened in the late 1970's. Although many have applauded this new type of technology, there is an ethical issue on whether or not embryos should be created in test–tube knowing that fact that many are not implanted and have human development. "Octo–Mom" is a classic case that may have changed many people's perception when it comes to in–vitro fertilization. Many felt that it was ethically wrong for her doctor to conduct that type of procedure to a woman who will not have the ability to provide adequate care for the well–being of her children who may have health issues. Medical Marijuana
  • 53. Perception with medical marijuana is constantly changing as we find how it can help others with mental and physical conditions and chronic pain. There is a recent case of a severely autistic child who has Tuberous Sclerosis, is given ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55. Legislative Health Policy When it comes to understanding the process of legislative health policy in the United States we first need to understand what is a health policy. To create a successful health care system many rules and regulations have to take place. When those have taken place it is forms the health policy. It outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people (Healthy Policy, 2017). The health policy is an intricate method created by the United States. This policy involves two sectors: private and public. A private sector is an organization or business that is ran by a non–governmental group. An example of a private sector is a non–profit group. The public sector is just the opposite of a private sector. It is a division of organizations that are run by the government. A great example of a private sector would be a school. There are five steps of the process of legislative health policy. The first is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Several features characterize US health policy, including government as subsidiary to the private sector; fragmented, incremental, and piecemeal reform; pluralistic politics associated with demanders and suppliers of policy; decentralized role of the states; and impact of presidential leadership (Shi and Singh, 2015, pg. 513). There are three main critical health policy issues that are paid close attention to. Those are access to care, cost of care, and quality of care. Access to care is all about the idea of having equality for Americans to receive health care. No matter what the level or type all healthcare should be available. Also every individual no matter what type of insurance should also have access to care. Within the idea of access of care American citizens no matter their age, social status, location, and income should all have equal access to health ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57. Nursing Health Policy Unfortunately, while nurses make up a significant portion of the healthcare workforce, they remain minimally engaged in political activities (Kunaviktitul, 2014). It's easy for nurses to sit and protest about the deleterious impact policies can have on daily nursing practice, all the while ignoring their professional and moral responsibility to get involved. It is time to step up and take an active role in securing and shaping the future of nursing practice. Educational Exposure to Health Policy and Personal Engagement I first encountered health policy during my baccalaureate degree preparation. At that time, however I was a relatively new nurse who found health policy extremely complex and out of my league. I did not know enough about ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While policies are supposed to improve healthcare delivery, sometimes they have unintended consequences. Over the years, I have collaborated with peers to overcome organizational level problems that were a direct result of healthcare reforms. Nurse participation in policy–related activities may help reduce or eliminate some of the unintended consequences that often accompany health care reforms and which negatively impact nursing care. Thus participation in policy develop may be the answer to many of our present challenges. As a nurse leader, I urge other nurses to reach out to legislators and keep them abreast of the impact policies have on patient care and health care delivery. Insight Gained and Elements to Pursue While I have been aware for quite some time about the role that nursing unions and nursing organizations play in health care policy development, I lacked awareness about nursing coalitions. This article sparked my interest in this method of participation. In researching this further I discovered that unlike unions and nursing organizations, coalitions can offer a more focused approach as well as the opportunity to work with other disciplines and community partners. Therefore I believe they are a fantastic option for more novice nurses or for nurses who have specific interests they would like to pursue. Joining a coalition is something I would strongly like to endeavor in. Agree or Disagree I agree the internet is a great place for nurses to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59. Health Care Policy : Patient Safety Policy Priority Issue– Safe Staffing Candice Davis Chamberlain College of Nursing NR 506: Health Care Policy 05/21/2017 Patient Safety– Safe Staffing Patient safety is defined as the prevention of harm to patients, and is the number one priority in healthcare facilities. All healthcare facilities have policies in place to keep patients as safe as possible. These policies can include anything from preventing infection to education. Every facility will have different policies in place, thus all patient safety policies will emphasize a culture of safety in a suitable environment. One policy that is of concern is the minimum number of nurses staffed on a unit at any given time, or the nurse to patient ratio. Every state and every ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The increased workload also gives nurses less time to care for each patient, increasing the risk for falls and infections. In California, after years of fighting, policymakers passed legislation, assembly bill 394, decreasing the nurse to patient ratio to 1:5; this is the only state to have such a law. When this policy went into effect in California stakeholders wanted insight on the impact it would have on healthcare. There have been numerous studies comparing California hospitals to other hospitals around the country, gauging the impact nurse to patient ratios have on patient safety; and the majority of the studies support the idea of a lower ratio with a select few stating there was no conclusive evidence. Goals/options The ultimate goal is to have a policy put in place that will lower the nurse to patient ratio. A policy change will not happen overnight, so even getting policymakers and politicians, as well as healthcare administration and nurse mangers, to look into this issue is a step in the right direction. In order to influence policymaker's nurses can lobby in their respective states. There is also a nationwide coalition that is fighting for a policy similar to assembly bill 394; all nurses can join this coalition and support them. National Nurses United have put together a national campaign for safe RN–to–patient staffing ratios. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61. Health Policy Issues Probably the most media related topic of health policy issue in the forefront today is the current Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Was the healthcare act worth the cost to the country? "According to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT), it estimated that the insurance coverage provisions of the PPACA will have a net cost of just under $1.1 trillion over the 2012–2021 periods."(Becker et al., 2014) The current United States federal debt is the highest it has ever been since WWII and according to the CBO, if the current laws or policies remain unchanged, the debt is expected to grow to 150 percent of gross domestic product by 2047. (Congressional Budget Outlook, 2017) Background In ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... According to the report by the CBO the net effect of repealing the ACA on the public would be approximately 24 million nonelderly U.S. residents being uninsured. Nursing Organizational Stand It is a long standing view that the American Nursing Association (ANA) is the firm supporter for quality health care access for all. ANA's Principles for Health System Transformation 2016 outlined the association's stance on the current state of affairs regarding the ACA. The association's current principles which remain at the front of the issue regarding the health care reform remain: access to all, efficient optimization of community services, support for those who cannot afford care, and sufficient support for the education of health care providers. (ANA, 2016) Policy Options Many opinions are presented in how best to address the issue of universal health care for the American public: keeping the current system, changing the current system, repealing the ACA, or adopting another system altogether. Considering the cost to Americans associated with the federal deficit, changing, repealing, or maintaining the current ACA does not address or "fix" the deficit. Repealing the current system, above all else, places many Americans without the health care they need and deserve as a basic right. One of the most appealing options is adopting the same universal coverage offered in Canada: a single payer system. The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63. Government Agencies and Health Policy Kim Clayton HLT–205 April 17, 2016 Instructor: Deborah Conway Government Agencies and Health Policy The United States Health Care system has evolved from the home visit by the town doctor concept, to a more complex system of regulatory agencies, policies, rules and regulations that govern the practice and art of medicine. It is a system in which billions of dollars have been budgeted and dedicated to ensuring the country is delivering affordable, quality care. The ultimate goal of the U.S. system is making sure quality care is accessible to its consumers and is value added care that will result in clinical outcomes aimed at reducing the nation's mortality rate and increasing or extending the average life expectancy. In ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With the expansion of it services, the CDC began to train public health staff on how to identify diseases that were a threat to the general public and how to protect the public from those diseases. The organization later found the need to expand their functions and with that expansion the agency evolved into what is now known as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Its mission is to: to protect America from health, safety and security threats, both foreign and in the U.S. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are chronic or acute, curable or preventable, human error or deliberate attack, CDC fights disease and supports communities and citizens to do the same. CDC increases the health security of our nation. As the nation's health protection agency, CDC saves lives and protects people from health threats. To accomplish our mission, CDC conducts critical science and provides health information that protects our nation against expensive and dangerous health threats, and responds when these arise. (Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016) The current function and role of the CDC includes: responding to health threats; addressing health problems that may cause death or disability for citizens; utilizing technology to prevent disease; educate and promote healthy and safe behaviors; training ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65. Global Perspective on Health Policy Health Care Reform: the Macro Perspective Andrew Ojo HCS/550 December 16, 2013 Connie Melton Health Care Reform, the Macro Perspective Often a time individuals living in America wonders how the health care system could change for the better. One problem that has constantly troubled the minds of consumers have been the subject of health care cost and restrictions invoked by health care coverage providers. At the moment, most of the American people need quality health care services resulting mainly from lack of health care coverage. Here in the United States health care policy and health care service has become controversial domestic issue. Most Americans have this believe that there is a strain on their budgets resulting from how ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Assessment can also be referred to as conducting analysis. Conducting analysis involves three major steps; a. Identifying the owner of the policy or the representative form the constituency that such a policy affects by so doing that person can is able to push and monitor such a policy's development. b. Determine the best policy path; this involves identifying which arm of the state, department, or constituency that best supports the policy. This will help gather votes for the support of the developing policy c. Pick a team; because most policy procedure documents are sometimes used by various groups a policy developer need to get experts who are specialized and will prepare a well– informed policy (Association of college and university policy administrators, n.d). 3. Create a Draft: this step requires policy developers or facilitators to draw out an actual paper work carefully defining the terms of a said policy, the committee here write out rules and regulations, guidelines or standards as it helps clarify a policy process. The member of the committee in this step all need a common ground and format to manage and produce the policy. When those involved in policy developing are operating at the same level in terms of access to information, consistency is guaranteed. Finding a common format during policy development help makes a policy ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 67. Health Policy and Values Health Policy Values Anil Jose UIC November 5th, 2014 Introduction A person's physical state, mental state and social well–being defines health. According to World health Organization (WHO), "A resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities"(WHO, 2014). Health care policies are defined and implied by government for the betterment of general health of the public. This paper heavily distributed between personal views, religious implications and beliefs; moreover, writers view point on health policy. Personal Values and Spiritual Beliefs The writer, is born and raised in India. Raised in an upper middle ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Abortion is a major subject but believes in women's right to make decision of her and her baby. Policy should not interfere in family matters. Some specific situation where the patient should have the option for abortion; for example, rape and abnormality in the fetus, where mother's life is in danger Writers Orthodox values and faith are strong, concept of spirituality and morality, are to keep in simple and fare. It's a balance between healthy thinking, prayers and positive outcomes. Being raised in Christian values, education was the top priority. Giving respect to elders, and praying daily, and eating a healthy diet was part of our daily life. A famous Bible quotes "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding". This still remains writes guiding torch. Perspective on Health care Policy In the United States, healthcare cost and quality of service continues to be a major concerns. U. S. is the leading country that overspends than its counterpart nation over healthcare services. Unfortunately, it is reported that the money spend is not effective and results and not encouraging. Research on QOS are cut short due to cost concerns. The writer is from India, the largest democratic and populated country in the world. The term health insurance doesn't exist in India. There are no insurance companies in India. There are two sectors for health services in India; ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69. Mental Health Policies To effectively address mental health, there has to be a supportive policy environment in place, as well as intensive planning to coordinate and expand access (WHO, 2010). Sub–Saharan Africa is comprised of 48 countries that lie south of the Saharan desert, of the 48 countries in this region, a mere 52 percent have a mental health policy in place. (World Health Organization, 2010). Conversely, the policies in place do not have clear vision statements, thorough areas of actions, or evaluation processes. Overall, these countries lack comprehensive mental health policies (WHO, 2010). The policies that are currently in place have not been updated in over 15 years (WHO, 2010). Based on the lack of comprehensive policies, mental health issues are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In addition to the barriers caused by the lack of comprehensive policies, there are other additional hurdles. Dissimilar to the people from the Western region of the world who have general knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments, many individuals from Africa lack the basic knowledge in regards to mental health. Deficient knowledge of mental health is essentially grounded on the fact that many African countries do not have a mental health policy in place or have limitedly implemented mental health policy (Shierenbeck, Johansson, McAndersson & Van Rooyen, 2013). Lots of individuals from Sub–Saharan Africa do not seek services for mild to moderate mental conditions, and do not recognize how treatable mental illnesses are. Majority of clients lack awareness of medical interventions for mental health, and those that take medication are not educated about side effects therefore discontinue their medication when symptoms arise (Shierenbeck, Johansson, McAndersson & Van Rooyen, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 71. Health Care Policy Medicare Policy Process Brandy Marsh HCS 455 December 12, 2011 John (Jay) Cutspec Medicare Policy Process The health care, policy–making process is composed of three major stages; the formulation stage, legislative stage, and the implementation stage. The policy process refers to the specific decisions and events that are required for a policy to be proposed, considered, and finally either implemented and/or set aside. It is an interactive process with multiple points of access providing opportunities to influence the multiple decision makers involved at each stage (Abood, 2007). Each stage presents a unique set of events for a policy to be proposed, considered, and either implemented or rejected. In the formulation stage there is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In 1962 President Kennedy proposed a new version of Medicare, and again it failed in Congress. In 1964 the Medicare Program was passed by the senate, but was then blocked in conference by the House (DeWitt, 2003). It was not until twenty years later, in 1965, that President Johnson finally signed Medicare into law as an amendment to the Social Security Legislation. It was composed of two parts; Part A and Part B. Part A provides coverage for hospital insurance, and Part B provides coverage for medical insurance. In 1972 disabled persons under age 65 and those with end–stage renal disease become eligible for coverage. In 1997 Part C was added, which gave Medicare enrollees the option to choose a private provider for their medical coverage. Then in 2006 Part D was added. Anyone who is enrolled in Medicare Part A and B is automatically enrolled in the Part D prescription Drug program, which provided reduced–cost prescriptions. Because of the need for adequate health care for the elderly and disabled individuals, Medicare was formulated. After Medicare was formulated and signed into law, it then entered the implementation stage of the policy making process. In the implementation stage the policy is put into effect, and begins after the policy is signed into law. In this phase, the proposed policy is transformed into a plan of action (International Council of Nurses, 2005). The policy then needs to be administered, funded, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 73. Health Promotion And Health Policies Health promotion empowers individuals throughout awareness to improve and acknowledge their health. Its main focus of an individual is to embrace their capabilities and skills they possess and the attempt to change in regards to alternating environmental, economic and political conditions to then weaken the impact it has on one's health and likewise, populations. The outcomes that health promotions will need in order for one 's self to take control over their health and improved results would be: Not just treat their illnesses, but strategies on how to prevent it Provide individuals access to resources and opportunities to reach a level of optimal wellbeing School and community health education should be incorporated For the purpose of protection from harm, legislation, policies and economic conditions should be added The aims of health promotion is to advocate to the public different methods of maintaining a healthy lifestyles and attributing to positive, overall wellbeing of an individual. In regards to WHO's goals and objectives, they aim to develop equity in health, decrease health risks, convey more awareness in terms of healthy lifestyles and resolving the determinants of health. In other words, determinants of health are referred to an individual and the socioeconomic, sociocultural as well as environmental factors that lead to both positive and negative influence on the health–of themselves and the population. Some of the essential determinants of health are the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 75. Health Policy Process The goal of health policy is to protect and promote the wellbeing of communities and without a doubt, the development of national health policies is a multifaceted and dynamic process. Its precise nature varies from country to country as well as according to the political and socio–economic environment at that time (WHO, 2016). Interestingly for most health care professionals, the policy– making process is unknown and decisions are made by elected officials in various branches of government and hence sadly, is far more influenced by politics. This essay seeks to outline the processes involved in creating health policies. The health policy process model is often seen as a cycle with each section dependent on the other. The stages may have changed ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Support or financing the policy must also be considered and is important to determine the feasibility of the decision as well the execution of the policy. The way a problem is stated or outlined influences the types of solutions that are proposed. During policy formation written policies and laws often go through many drafts before they are finally approved. Policy adoption/ legitimation involves the actions of government officials, laws, executive orders or budgets. In can involve legislative approval, executive approval, as well as consent through discussion with interest groups. This step can be problematic because the actors involved often have well–defined agendas of their own as policy choices often benefit some citizens and not others. At this stage, political influence is dominant while evidence may carry less weight. ("Policy Statement Development Process"', 2016). Policy implementation is what happens between policy expectations and apparent policy results. Implementation is an important step in the process because it involves putting programs into action and producing desired effects. It also involves establishing or employing an organization to take responsibility for application, ensuring that the organization has the income to do so, and making sure that policy decisions are carried out as planned (Paul Carney, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 77. Health Policy : Allocative Policy Vs. Regulatory Policy Healthy Policy: Allocative Policy Vs. Regulatory Policy Jaiden Mercer October 1, 2015 Dr. R Abstract: Healthcare policy is dynamic and ever changing, especially in our society today with the many changes in government control, insurance company influence, and actual delivery of healthcare services. In order to corral our healthcare system and ensure that there is quality control amongst all populations, health policies must be put in place. Health policy is defined as many things due to its dynamic nature but the assigned text expresses a definition that encompasses all aspects of what health policy is for us today, "Authoritative decisions made in the legislative, executive, or judicial branches of government that are intended to direct or influence that actions, behaviors, or decisions of others"(Longest, p. 5, (2010)). Among the many reasons why health policy is pertinent to our society an aspect of health policy that I feel is most important is in regards to public health practices. Health policy is the reason why populations that whom otherwise would not receive the absolute needed healthcare, actually get to receive healthcare. The financial aspect of healthcare is quite steep and more often than not healthcare services are not sought out by populations because they cannot afford to do so. With health policy the policymakers allow for the proper and equal disbursement of goods and services to ensure that everyone is remaining healthy no matter what ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79. Social Determinants Of Health Policy Walaa Awad Dr. Diana Naser Global Health Issues Culture and Policy Development September 26, 2017 World health Organization (WHO) defines health policy as the decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society. Health policies defines all the health care priorities, and establish a system of well–planned interventions to achieve better health outcomes. Governments with adequate policy capacity have 'the ability to develop policy that is aligned with resources in pursuit of goals' (Greer, Wismar and Figueras 2016: 39). Health policies always designed to targets specific diseases, to control certain determinant of health, or to generally provide a healthy life–style ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Deciding who would positively affected by the policy and forming coalitions that involve representatives from the community members will generate a public awareness and guarantee implementation of the policy. Conducting community meetings and involving the media will bring the attention of more members to share their thoughts and define their needs. Acknowledgement and support for the cultural diversities not only required for achieving better health outcomes, but it is required to strength the cultural ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...