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Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective - Linked pasts 15

Antoine Isaac
Antoine Isaac
Antoine IsaacR&D manager at Europeana

"Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective". Presentation at the Pelagios Linked Pasts event, July 20-21, 2015. http://pelagios-project.blogspot.co.uk/2015/03/linked-pasts.html

Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective - Linked pasts 15

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Classification schemes, thesauri and other
Knowledge Organization Systems
- a Linked Data perspective
Antoine Isaac
Pelagios: Linked Pasts
London, July 20-21, 2015
Classification schemes?
Scope: knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as
classification systems, thesauri, gazetteers, subject
heading lists…
(last-minute addition: also time periods, cf. PeriodO  )
Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective - Linked pasts 15
Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective - Linked pasts 15
Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective - Linked pasts 15
Simple Knowledge Organization System
SKOS is for exchanging KOSs as Linked Data (in RDF)
• Better than semi-structured data (CSV)
• Still relatively simple
Ad

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Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective - Linked pasts 15

  • 1. Classification schemes, thesauri and other Knowledge Organization Systems - a Linked Data perspective Antoine Isaac Pelagios: Linked Pasts London, July 20-21, 2015
  • 2. Classification schemes? Scope: knowledge organization systems (KOS) such as classification systems, thesauri, gazetteers, subject heading lists… (last-minute addition: also time periods, cf. PeriodO  )
  • 6. Simple Knowledge Organization System SKOS is for exchanging KOSs as Linked Data (in RDF) • Better than semi-structured data (CSV) • Still relatively simple
  • 7. A SKOS graph animals cats UF domestic cats RT wildcats BT animals SN used only for domestic cats domestic cats USE cats wildcats
  • 8. Representing semantics The formal way: OWL Semantic Web ontology language Used for ontologies that enable machine reasoning Mother is a class Parent is the class of entities of type Person that are related to at least one other resource of type Person using the child property …
  • 9. Do we want to represent every vocabulary as a formal ontology? It is possible, but not easy  KOS are large  KOS have softer “semantics” Parent RelatedTerm Child  KOS have a focus on terminological information Child UsedFor Offspring Softer semantics can be useful for many applications!
  • 10. Europeana and knowledge organisation systems  Create a “semantic layer” on top of cultural heritage objects From: Stefan Gradmann
  • 11. Using KOS in the Europeana Data Model
  • 13. Using KOS Linked Data <skos:Concept rdf:about="http://www.mimo-db.eu/InstrumentsKeywords/2251"> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="">Harpsichord</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Cembalo</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="sv">Cembalo</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Clavecin</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="it">Clavicembalo</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Harpsichord</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Klavecimbel</skos:prefLabel> <skos:broader> <skos:Concept rdf:about="http://www.mimo-db.eu/InstrumentsKeywords/2239"> <skos:prefLabel>Harpsichords</skos:prefLabel> </skos:Concept> </skos:broader> </skos:Concept>
  • 14. Other types of contextual resources <gn:Feature rdf:about="http://sws.geonames.org/3176959/"> <gn:name>Florence</gn:name> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="ko"> 피렌체 </gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="ja"> フィレンツェ </gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="th">ฟลอเรนซ์</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="bo">ཧྥུ་ལོ་རོན་ཟིའུ་ཡ།</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="cy">Fflorens</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="bs">Firenca</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="hbs">Firenca</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="hr">Firenca</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="sq">Firenca</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="pl">Firence</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="sl">Firence</gn:alternateName> <gn:alternateName xml:lang="lij">Firense</gn:alternateName> <gn:population>371517</gn:population> <wgs84_pos:lat>43.76667</wgs84_pos:lat> <wgs84_pos:long>11.25</wgs84_pos:long>
  • 16. Multilingual search 'uurglazen' in Italy http://europeana.eu/portal/search.html? query=uurglazen&rows=96&qf=COUNTRY%3Aitaly
  • 21. Enrichment types and vocabularies Enrichment Type Target vocabulary Source metadata fields Number of enriched objects Places GeoNames dcterms:spatial, dc:coverage 7M Concepts GEMET, DBpedia, dc:subject, dc:type 9.2M Agents DBpedia dc:creator, dc:contributor 144K Time Semium Time dc:date, dc:coverage, dcterms:temporal, edm:year 10,2M
  • 22. Work in progress Entity-based search and browsing Annotation Pundit @ DM2E project http://dm2e.eu Europeana Channels Semantic auto-completion
  • 23. Not only end-user facing functions Data must be accessible (Unified) APIs, Linked Data Data re-users should be able to provide enhanced services to their audience easily, especially in digital humanities Specific collection and application needs cannot rely on a handful of generic vocabularies
  • 25. Vocabulary management and publication  Europeana developed its own WWI vocabulary based on a subset of LCSH Terms translated in 10 languages and linked to id.loc.gov
  • 27. Representing finer-grained semantics  More precise relationships and formal semantics  For query expansion or data validation  E.g. ISO 25964 and Getty SKOS extensions
  • 28. Representing finer-grained semantics Depth level, concept associations XKOS Pre-coordinated strings MADS/RDF
  • 29. Representing finer-grained semantics? Finer-grained semantics can be useful, but core models are key They are what most people will start using
  • 30. The need for alignment / co-reference / reconciliation KOS 1: animals cats wildcats KOS 2: animal human object
  • 31. A lot of work (being) done  A long line of work in the KOS community: DESIRE, CARMEN, Renardus, LIMBER, HILT, MSAC, MACS, Crisscross, KoMoHe, FAO…  Continued in Linked data context: Pleiades, Wikidata… MACS: 120K links between Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), RAMEAU, Schlagwortnormdatei (SWD)
  • 32. Semantic mismatches Irish vocabulary From: Runar Bergheim Norwegian vocabulary skos:exactMatch
  • 33. Requires flexible approaches  AMALGAME/CultuurLink: http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/amalgame/ http://cultuurlink.beeldengeluid.nl/
  • 34. Finding and re-using vocabularies Well-known or new vocabularies Wikidata, VIAF, Geonames, Pleiades, DBpedia, LCSH… Data repositories and inventories The Data Hub
  • 35. Vocabulary selection criteria  Available in technically appropriate way  Well-maintained  Documented (including metadata)  Well-connected, e.g. equivalent elements in other vocabularies are indicated  Multilingual  Open • license stacking hampers re-use Quality assessment? Cf. Data on the Web Best Practices http://www.w3.org/TR/2015/WD-dwbp-20150625/#dataVocabularies
  • 36. Take-home messages Efforts across the whole ecosystem Publishers of vocabularies, Providers of object data, Application developers, Researchers… Requires to get very different steps right Implementing standards for data exchange Design consuming applications Not only technical: encouraging open data!

Editor's Notes

  1. http://www.mimo-db.eu/InstrumentsKeywords/2251
  2. http://www.getty.edu/vow/AATFullDisplay?find=hourglasses&amp;logic=AND&amp;note=&amp;english=N&amp;prev_page=1&amp;subjectid=300198626
  3. http://sws.geonames.org/3176959/
  4. http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/
  5. View the object at: http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/09102/_CM_0161930.html
  6. The labels are also stored in our database for better search. -&amp;gt; Search &amp;apos;uurglazen&amp;apos; in Italy http://europeana.eu/portal/search.html?query=uurglazen&amp;rows=96&amp;qf=COUNTRY%3Aitaly -&amp;gt; back to http://europeana.eu/portal/record/02301/urn_imss_instrument_401058.html Show that the Dutch label for Hourglasses was not in the original data. But it&amp;apos;s in the auto-generated tags below.
  7. Two categories: Global Produced by projects See list on the wiki
  8. People may ask why we&amp;apos;ve not just re-used the LCSH URIs and added translation data to them. Response will be &amp;quot;so as to obey the principle of not re-defining others&amp;apos; data&amp;quot;
  9. Note: the last line is redundant with previous slides
  10. Alignment: 2 vocabularies describing the same concept can be aligned via the concept...
  11. In the linked environment, enrichment often refers to adding new information at the semantic level to the data about certain resources. It is the creation of new links between the enriched resources and another data resource, such as controlled vocabularies and authority files. The goal is contexualization of metadata and embedding the resoucrs in context outside the scope of the platform