Training and development


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  • Initiatives are based on business environment, understanding of the company’s goals. How training will help achive goals
  • Training and development

    1. 1. Training and Development
    2. 2. Definition of Training and Development• Any attempt to improve an employee’s current or future performance by increasing his or her ability to perform through learning usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge• T & D need is determined by the gap between the current performance and the required performance
    3. 3. Training vs. Development vs. Education• Education is theoretical learning in classrooms• Training is the process of imparting specific skills• Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow
    4. 4. The Training Paradox• Increasing an individual’s employability outside the company simultaneously increases his or her job security and desire to stay with the current employer• “Train them to the point where you may lose them, and then you won’t lose them.”
    5. 5. Benefits of Training• Competitive advantage to the firm• Removes performance deficiencies• Reduces accidents, damage, errors and wastage• Improves productivity and profits• Improves satisfaction and morale• Reduces absenteeism and turnover• Helps in knowledge upgradation and prevents obsolescence of skills• Helps meet future personnel needs• Improves the image of the organization
    6. 6. The Training Process• InD2IA: – Identification of training needs – Defining training objectives – Design of training programmes – Implementation of training – Assessment of training
    7. 7. Identification of Training Needs• Organizational Analysis: – Goals, HR demand and supply, target areas, recruitment strategies• Task Analysis – Job Descriptions and Specifications, or Competency Models KSAs – Analyses of operating problems (such as quality control issues, or customer complaints)• Person Analysis – Performance Appraisal, Interviews, Questionnaires, Work sampling / Observation
    8. 8. Defining Training Objectives• Descriptions of what the employee should be capable of doing, after undergoing the training – E.g., Will be able to produce ‘x’ number of units per hour, with zero defects
    9. 9. Design of Training Programmes• Identification of trainees – Voluntary – Nominations• Identification of trainers – Supervisors, Co-workers, External experts / trainers, Faculty from educational institutions• Choice of venue – At the job – On-site but off-the-job – Off-site• Choice of methods / techniques of training
    10. 10. Training Methods (Implementation of Training)• Information Presentation Techniques – Lectures – Conferences – Videos – Interactive multimedia (CDs and DVDs) – Distance Learning (Correspondence Courses / On-line)• Simulation methods – Case study method – Role Playing – Behavior Modeling – Interactive Simulations – In-basket exercises – Business games
    11. 11. Training Methods (contd.)• On-the-job training (OJT) methods – Methods • Orientation Training • Apprenticeships and Understudy Assignments • On-the-job training (learning through actual job performance) • Vestibule training / Near-the-job training • Job Rotation • Committee assignments • On-the-job coaching – Steps for OJT • Prepare the learner • Present the operation • Do a tryout • Follow Up
    12. 12. Assessment of Training• Done in order to check – Training validity (did trainees learn during training?) – Transfer validity (Has what was learnt during training been transferred on to the job? Has it enhanced job performance?) – Intra-organizational validity (Is performance of the trainees who have undergone this training consistent with the performance of trainees who have undergone previous methods of training?) – Inter-organizational validity (Can the training programme be used successfully in another organization?)
    13. 13. Assessment of Training (contd.)• Can be done at the following levels: – Reaction – Learning – Behaviour – Results
    14. 14. Factors which enhance Training Effectiveness:• Employee motivation• Recognition of individual differences• Opportunities to practise• Reinforcement• Feedback• Goals• Suitable schedules of learning• Meaningfulness of the material• Ease of transfer of learning back to the job• Top Management commitment to training
    15. 15. Training Metrics• Training Investment Factor – Training Cost per Employee – Total Training Cost / Headcount• Training Outcomes – Using experimental designs • Before-and-After measurements of performance • After-only measurements of performance of trained and untrained groups
    16. 16. The Strategic Training and Development Process Mission, Values, GoalsBusiness Strategy Diversify learning portfolio; improve Strategic Training & customer service; accelerate pace of Development Initiatives learning E-learning; devpt Training & plans Development Activities Learning, performance Metrics that show Improvement, reduced Value of training Customer complaints
    17. 17. Strategic Training & Development Initiatives & their implicationsInitiatives: learning related Implicationsactions to achieve bizstrategyDiversify the learning portfolio *Using new technology for training *Facilitate informal training *Provide personalised learningExpand who is trained *Train customers, suppliers *More training to non-mgmtAccelerate pace of employee *Quickly identify needs and providelearning learning solution *Facilitate access of learning resourcesImprove customer service *Ensuring product & service knowledge *Have skills to interact with customers