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Sped601 Mr

  1. 1. MENTAL RETARDATION and HEARING IMPAIRMENT A Presentation By: Jill Angelique B. Limas and Cheryl L. Lobiano
  2. 2. DEFINITION of MENTAL RETARDATION • sub-average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance
  3. 3. What is Intellectual Functioning Level? • Intellectual functioning level is defined by standardized tests that measure the ability to reason in terms of mental age (intelligence quotient or IQ). • Mental retardation is defined as an IQ score below 70–75.
  4. 4. What are Adaptive Skills? • Refers To Skills Needed For Daily Life.  Communication  Self care  Social skills  Home-living skills  Leisure  Health and safety  Self-direction  Functional academics  Community use  Work
  5. 5. PREVALENCE • AAMR – estimates that 2.5% of the population has mental retardation • The Arc – estimates at 3% of the population has this disability • Ratio between boys and girls is at 1.5:1
  6. 6. CAUSES of MENTAL RETARDATION: • Genetic Factors • Pre-natal Illnesses and Issues • Childhood Illnesses and Issues • Environmental Factors
  7. 7. Genetic Factors • 30% of cases • May be caused by an inherited genetic abnormality – Fragile x syndrome – Single gene defects – Accident or mutation in genetic developement
  8. 8. Pre-natal Illnesses and Issues • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) • Maternal infections and illnesses - glandular disorders, rubella, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection - high blood pressure (hypertension) blood poisoning (toxemia) • Birth defects that cause physical deformities of the head, brain, and central nervous system
  9. 9. Childhood Illnesses and Injuries • Hyperthyroidism • Whooping cough • Measles • Chickenpox • Hib disease • Meningitis • Encephalitis • Traumatic brain injury
  10. 10. Environmental Factors • Ignored or neglected infants • Children who live in poverty and suffer from malnutrition • unhealthy living conditions • Abuse • improper or inadequate medical care
  11. 11. Characteristics of MR • LEARNING CHARACTERISTICS  Attention - difficulty focusing their attention, maintaining it, selectively attending to relevant stimuli, less attention to allocate, they do not know how to attend to the relevant aspects of dimensions of the problem.
  12. 12.  Memory - ability to remember information; factors that may contribute to the memory difficulties of persons with mental retardation include problems attending to relevant stimuli, inefficient rehearsal strategies, and an inability to generalize skills to novel settings or tasks.  Academic Performance - Students with mental retardation usually have to work harder and practice longer than other students in order to learn academic skills, this deficiency is seen across all subject areas, but reading appears to be the weakest area, specially reading comprehension; they are also deficient in arithmetic
  13. 13. • Motivation - Past experiences with failure typically lead individuals with mental retardation to exhibit an external locus - they are likely to believe that the outcomes of their behavior are the result of circumstances and events beyond their personal control, rather than their efforts. Repeated episodes of failure also give rise learned helplessness - the perception that no matter how much effort they put forth, failure is inevitable. Accumulated experiences with failure also result in a style of learning and problem solving characterized as ouster-directedness - a loss of confidence and trust in one’s own abilities and solutions and a reliance on others for cues and guidance
  14. 14. • Generalization - the ability to learn a task or idea then apply it in other situations. Learning in someone who is mentally retarded is situation specific. Generalization of responses can be facilitated (e.g. by using concrete materials rather than abstract representations; by providing instruction in various settings where the strategies of skill will typically be used; by incorporating a variety of examples and materials; or by simply informing the pupils of the multiple applications that are possible).
  15. 15. • Language Development – delays in development of language; vocabulary more limited; grammatical structure and sentence complexity are often impaired; speech disorders are common (e.g errors of articulation – additions or distortions); fluency disorders (stuttering); voice disorders (hyper-nasal speech or concerns about loudness).
  16. 16. • SOCIAL & BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS  Social problems – poor interpersonal skills, socially inappropriate or immature behavior  Emotional problems – loneliness and depression  Behavioral problems – compulsive eating, hair pulling, biting  Adaptive behavior problems • PHYSICAL & MEDICAL CHARACTERISTICS  Less physically fit
  17. 17. HISTORY • Ancient Greece and Rome – infacticide • 2nd Century AD – sold for entertainment • Dawning of Christianity - movement toward care for the less fortunate • Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed, Confucius - advocated human treatment for the mentally retarded, developmentally disabled, or infirmed
  18. 18. • Middle ages (476 - 1799 A.D.) - the status and care of individuals with mental retardation varied greatly: more human practices evolved but many children were sold into slavery, abandoned, or left out in the cold • 1690 - John Locke published his famous work “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” • 1790 - Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard published an account of his work with Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron. • 1848 – Edouard Seguin helped establish the Pennsylvania Training School • 1850 - Samuel Gridley Howe began the School of Idiotic and Feeble Minded Youth
  19. 19. • 1896 - the first public school class for children with mental retardation began in Providence, RI. • 1905 - Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed a test in France to screen students not benefiting from regular curriculum • 1916 – Lewis Terman of Stanford University published the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale in the US. • 1935 – Edgar Doll published the Vineyard Social Maturity Scale.
  20. 20. • 1950 – Parents formed the National Association for Retarded Children (The Arc) • 1959 - AAMR published its first manual on the definition and classification of mental retardation, with diagnosis based on an IQ score of one standard deviation below the mean (approximately 85) • 1961 – John F. Kennedy established the first President’s Panel on Mental Retardation • 1969 – Bengt Nirje published a key paper defining normalization. Wolf Wolfensberger championed normalization in the United States.
  21. 21. • 1973 – AAMR published a revised definition that required a score on IQ tests of two standard deviations below the mean (approximately 70 or less) and concurrent deficits in adaptive behavior. • 1975 - United States Congress passed the Education for the Handicapped Act, now titled the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - guaranteed the appropriate education of all children with mental retardation and developmental disabilities, from school age through 21 years of age • 1986 – IDEA was amended to guarantee educational services to children with disabilities age 3 through 21 and provided incentives for states to develop infant and toddler service delivery systems
  22. 22. • 1992 - AAMR published “System 92” a radically different definition of mental retardation with a classification system based on intensities of supports. • 2002 – AAMR published revision of the 1992 definition; retains classification by intensities of supports; returns to IQ of approximately two standard deviations below mean; adds social participation and interactions as fifth dimension of functioning.
  23. 23. CLASSIFICATION of MR • Mild • Moderate • Severe • Profound
  24. 24. Mild Mental Retardation • 85% of the mentally retarded • IQ score ranges from 50-75 • often acquire academic skills up to the 6th grade level • can become fairly self-sufficient and in some cases live independently, with community and social support
  25. 25. Moderate Mental Retardation • 10% of the mentally retarded • IQ scores ranging from 35-55 • can carry out work and self-care tasks with moderate supervision • typically acquire communication skills in childhood • able to live and function successfully within the community in a supervised environment
  26. 26. Severe Mental Retardation • 3-4% of the mentally retarded • IQ scores of 20-40 • may master very basic self-care skills and some communication skills • able to live in a group home
  27. 27. Profound Mental Retardation • 1-2% of the mentally retarded • IQ scores under 20-25 • may be able to develop basic self-care and communication skills with appropriate support and training • need a high level of structure and supervision
  28. 28. TREATMENT and MEDICATION • no treatments are available specifically for cognitive deficiency • develop a comprehensive management plan for the condition • requires input from care providers from multiple disciplines - special educators, language therapists, behavioral therapists, occupational therapists, and community services
  29. 29. • THANK YOU!!!