Introduction to the Bologna Process


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Introduction to the Bologna Process

  1. 1. Recognition in the EHEA An overview of HE reform in Europe Dr Justin Fenech FAIRE Anthony F. Coimbra – Portugal
  2. 2. What is theBologna Process?
  3. 3. The Bologna ProcessOrigin: Sorbonne Declaration (1998) – FR; UK; IT; DEFollow-up:  Bologna Declaration (1999) – 29 countries  Prague Communiqué (2001) – 32 countries, EC, CoE, EUA, EURASHE, ESIB  Berlin Communiqué (2003) – 40 countries  Bergen Communiqué (2005) – 45 countries, EI, ENQA, Business-Europe  London Communiqué (2007) – 46 countries  Leuven / Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué (2009) – 46 countries  Vienna / Budapest Declaration (2010) – 47
  4. 4. The Bologna ProcessOriginal Aim was to develop a European Higher Education Area by 2010:  Comparability and compatibility of degrees based on a three cycle system  Ensure employability of graduates  Promote student and staff mobility  Develop a European dimension in higher
  5. 5. Diploma Supplement (1999) Recognition (2001)ECTS (1999) Workload & learning outcomes (2003)Student Centred Learning (2007)Two-cycle structure (1999) Three-cycle structure (2003)Short-cycle (2005)Mobility (1999)Quality Assurance (1999) EQAR (2005)European dimension (1999) Attractiveness (2001)Multidimensional transparency tools (2009)
  6. 6. Lifelong learning (2001)Involvement of higher education institutions and students (2001)Social dimension (2001) Data collection (2007)Employability (2001)Qualifications Framework (2003)Funding (2009)
  7. 7. Bologna Process Structure: Bologna Secretariat Bologna Follow-Up Group Working Groups Conferences Ministerial Summits Bologna Policy Forum Launch of European Higher Education Area at Vienna / Budapest Ministerial Conference (2010)
  8. 8.  The Positives of the Bologna Process • • • • Collaborative Inter-governmental Strong stakeholder involvement Based on a vision of borderless education
  9. 9.  The Negatives of the Bologna Process • Non-Binding • Mis-implemented and misunderstood • Does not deal with important issues • Employability • Funding
  10. 10. Bologna
  11. 11. Diploma Supplement Describes the education system of the country and how the programme followed by the student and the education institution places within this system along with the main areas studied as part of the programme. Should be issued automatically and free of charge in a widely spoken European language to every student with their degree.ECTS The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System reflects the workload associated with study units. One academic year of full time study corresponds to 60 ECTS credits. One ECTS credit should be equivalent to 25-30 hours of classes and self-study.Two/Three-cycle structure Represents the Bachelor - Master - Doctorate
  12. 12. Quality Assurance Facilitate cooperation on quality assurance in higher education on European level to develop common criteria and methodologies that will promote mutual trust in and facilitate recognition of qualifications.Qualifications Framework Explains qualifications in an education system on the basis of knowledge, skills and competencies obtained upon completion. It provides information on the level of and transition between qualifications to allow for flexible learning pathways and to facilitate recognition of qualifications.Mobility Including students, academic and administrative staff. It may be for a short-term (e.g. semester) or a whole degree. The development of a mobility window is discussed to allow for flexibility of study programmes. The process envisages that 20% of graduates should have been mobile as part of their studies by
  13. 13. European dimension Shall increase the transparency and attractiveness of European higher education globally to attract the most talented students to Europe.Lifelong learning Flexible learning pathways and transition between education and work shall ensure continuous opportunities for learning and the development of knowledge, skills and competencies. Furthermore lifelong learning shall provide opportunities for flexible access to higher education for underrepresented groups.Involve HEI & students In all decision making within higher education institutions as well as in the Bologna Process as a whole to ensure ownership of the reforms and their proper
  14. 14. Theoretically...Social dimension Higher education should be accessible so that the student population in higher education should reflect the diversity of the general population.Employability Provide students with the knowledge, skills and competencies required on the labour market to avoid graduate unemployment.Funding Higher education is understood as a public good and a public responsibility requiring continuous and adequate support by
  15. 15. How it all fits togetherAn evolving picture of portablequalifications in
  16. 16. University University ?
  17. 17. 3 yrs 3 yrs Work Dott. equivalent?
  18. 18. What to do?• Option 1: Change names of most degrees in Europe – Opposition from many professions – Public confusion• Option 2: Find an easy way to describe
  19. 19. EQF Dott. Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Work Level 6 Bacc. Level 7 Level 8
  20. 20. What did you study? I studied EQF 6 engineering at I studied EQF 6 Coimbra engineering at Msida equivalent? DS DS
  21. 21. Diploma A collectionSupplement of credits Credit Learning Outcomes Level Described in terms of: Estimated using: Knowledge Skills Workload
  22. 22. But, is this is a quality university qualification? What did you study? I studied EQF 6 engineering at I studied EQF 6 Coimbra engineering at Msida DS DS
  23. 23. European Standards and Guidelines University University for Quality Assurance Internal QA Internal QA National Agency National Agency External QA External QA eqar
  24. 24. Comparing Qualifications • EQF allows you to compare qualifications at macro-level • Diploma Supplement describes the content of a qualification • ECTS is a common currency for describing the content of a qualification • ESG guarantee comparable quality levels A la carte implementation is not an
  25. 25. UniversityUniversity University credits Portable qualifications means you can use them anywhere within the European Higher Education
  26. 26. Bologna ProcessImplementationReform ofDegree
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Bologna
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. Bologna ProcessImplementationQuality
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Bologna ProcessImplementationDiploma
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Bologna
  39. 39.
  40. 40. The Bologna ProcessEuropean Student
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Obrigado! Thank-you for your attention Questions? Dr Justin Fenech ( Anthony F. Camilleri (