Ethical clothing consumer and mix anthea missy solvay 2013 - oral defense


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A study of the ethical clothing concept, consumers, marketing mix for better positionning on eco-fashion market.

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Ethical clothing consumer and mix anthea missy solvay 2013 - oral defense

  1. 1. Ethical clothing consumers - marketing mix for successful targeting2012 Towards graduation of Executive Masters in Marketing &Advertising Student: Anthea Missy Prof: Patrick De Pelsmacker Connectwith me on Linked
  2. 2. Introduction• Keywords >Ethical – sustainable – conscious – green – eco• Ethicalmarket X3 since 2000 in the UK• Ethicalclothingremains stable and a niche market (in UK 171 m£ - lessthan 1% of ethicalgoods’ expenditure – 0.5% of total 42 bn £ clothingexpenditure)• Few litterature on ethicalfashionconsumers and/or figures on potential/currentdemand• Ethical: for the good of the majority, making good to the majority with the least harm to other party• Ethical consumption : respects environment, human being from inception to floor• Ethical consumers: 30 % worldwide; 10 % of purists
  3. 3. LitteraturereviewDRIVERS OF ETHICAL CONSUMPTION:• Ethical cultural sensitivity ( Hofstede ; Inglehart 2005 ) : Anglo-nordic cluster and Japan• Buying ethically => sometimes not buying unethical goods, boycotts, anti- consumption• Clothing => high involvement product, consumers tend to look for detailed information on what they wear• Ethical clothing> mostly ‘fairly treated labour’, ‘bio cotton’• Clothing carries symbolic meaning => signal values and personality to others• Ethical clothing buyers => for themselves (experience of meaning), for others (express identity)
  4. 4. Litteraturereview - cont’dDRIVERS OF ETHICAL CONSUMPTION:• Ethical consumers: All age groups, gender, incomes, education level, but shared values• Post-materialistic values – need to be – quality orientation (GFK 2008)…• …Divided between need for peace and security vs. hedonism and pleasure• Barriers to buying ethical clothing : LACK OF AWARENESS AND INVOLVEMENT - NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS OF BRAND AND STYLE ATTRACTIVENESS -LOW AVAILABILITY - MISUNDERSTOOD PRICING (COOPERATIVE BANK 2010, NICE 2011)• 25% people worldwide are willing to pay 10% more for ethical clothing (BCG 2008)• 30% of Belgians feel attracted by specialized ethical clothing shops while 30% do not believe in ethical claims (GFK 2008)
  5. 5. Methodology2 Research questions:A) Who is the ethical fashion consumer ?B) What is the marketing mix that should be used to attract ethical clothing consumers ?
  6. 6. Methodology1. Drawassumptionsregarding 4P’s expectations, based on litteraturereview2. Estimate 4P’s expectations of participants based on theiranswersraisedduring focus groups  Rank individual expectations towards 4P’s from 0-5  Considering attitudinal and behavioural gap to estimateethicalsensitivity and actual consumer behaviourQualitative research => Focus group : 13 participants (4 F, 9 M) –22 to60 yo.
  8. 8. B) What is the marketing mix that should be used to attract ethical clothing consumers ? a) PRODUCT: CONSCIOUS CLOTHING CANNOT AVOID FASHION TRENDS AND STYLE Assumption 1: Ethical clothing products should at least satisfy same style and quality expectations than classic apparel goods. Ethical clothing should perform as well classic apparel on decisive buying criteria: comfort, quality, style Assumption 7: The first decisive buying criterion for target consumers is quality.  Core aspects are comfort, quality, style for classic/ethical apparel  No compromise on quality expected  Style is very important (casual of fancy)  Ethical clothing perceived as lacking style for most trendy consumers
  9. 9. B) What is the marketing mix that should be used to attract ethical clothing consumers ? b) PRICING: WILLINGNESS TO PAY AND “ETHICAL” PRICE Assumption 3: Pricing for ethical apparel goods is perceived as too expensive compared to quality and style of classic goods.  Negative perception of quality/price ratio for ethical clothing  “Poor style” perception => no worth it paying a higher price for clothes which are not flattering silhouette and style  Often seen as “because it’s ethical it’s always far way over-priced compared to classic goods” Assumption 4: Pricing for ethical apparel cannot exceed 5%-10% compared to classic clothing goods of the same product category, in store.  Majorityagreedtheywouldpay up to 10% for ethicalclothing  Only if meeting quality, comfort, style expectations  Only 1 person gave higherprices for ethicalclothing (up to 100%)
  10. 10. B) What is the marketing mix that should be used to attract ethical clothing consumers ? c) PROMOTION: LABELLING TO INCREASE AWARENESS AND ENGAGE, STORY TELLING TO DRIVE POSITIVE ATTITUDE AND PURCHASE INTENT Assumption 2 : Promotion is crucial to increase consumer’s awareness, positive attitude, and purchasing intent towards ethical clothing goods. The elements of promotion are labelling, transparency of production process and labour working conditions.  Labelling => clear and transparent information on production processes; signaling item in store among other classic goods (packaging + care label)  Information verification platforms => have insights on production processes via website, track accuracy of brand promise  Interact with brand and people => promote or get reviews from others customers, testimonies of workers’ life improvement.  Story telling => tell a story about how the product is ethically made and how it changes the world in a good way  Green washing? => decrease doubt
  11. 11. B) What is the marketing mix that should be used to attract ethical clothing consumers ? d) RETAIL: DISTRIBUTION NEEDS TO BE SELECTIVE AND VISIBLE Assumption 5: Ethical clothing goods are not available in mainstream retail channels and it is difficult for consumers to find them.  Positive attitude towards ethical clothing  Not top of mind intent when buying clothing  Could be considered as an option if available in store => Access !  Efforts to find ethical clothing => which brand? Where to buy them?  Should be more accessible: promotion on brand + point of purchase
  12. 12. B) What is the marketing mix that should be used to attract ethical clothing consumers ? e) POTENTIAL CONSUMERS: VARIABLE BEHAVIOURAL/ATTITUDINAL GAPS Assumption 6: Target consumers have high awareness of ethical issues as far as environment and working labour conditions are concerned.  All participants were really aware or labour working conditions in low-paid countries => does not necessarily imply buying more ethical products  Need the tools to trust brands  Good quality/price ratio Assumption 8: Daily ethical behaviour towards environment does not always involve ethical clothing consumption, and an moderate overall ethical behaviour can still be associated with ethical clothing consumption for some consumers.  Most ethically engaged consumers rarely bought ethical clothing  However they boycotted brands such as Nike
  13. 13. Conclusion• Brands> lack of credibility• Ethical apparel > major stake for brands > need to clean their reputation• Most influential consumers > Cultural Creatives, and Two-Faced Explorers > social charisma – trendsetters – social influencers• Small adjustments on ethical clothing products > improve price perception and level of acceptability• Story telling and a transparent approach > co create products and concepts with consumers - active ethical involvement and community• Most studies partly help defining ethical good/ consumer/ segments.• Fail to address estimation in terms of purchasing power and needs…• ..And propose an effective marketing mix to capture these consumers• Drawbacks>Small focus groups (13 participants) interviewed which result in low significance of findings
  14. 14. Thanks for your attention ! Q/A …
  15. 15. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource Jennifer L Aaker (1997); Dimensions of brand personality; Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34, Issue 3; p. 347 – 357; Retrieved from (Aaker 1997) Full Scholarly Article (Adler 2006) Adler (2006) ; The new greening of America, Newsweek, Vol. 17, July, pp. 42-52 Paper Article T. Albayrak, M. Caber, Ş. Aksoy; Clustering Consumers According to Their Environmental Concerns and Scepticisms; International Journal of (Albayrak 2010) Scholarly Article Trade, Economics and Finance, Vol. 1, No. 2, August, 2010; Retrieved from James A. Muncy, Shelby D. Hunt (1984) ; Consumer Involvement: Definitional Issues and Research Directions; Advances in Consumer Research (Assael 1981) Full Scholarly Article Volume 11, 1984, Pages 193-196 ; Retrieved from (BENELUX 2008) See (GFK 2008) Private consumer report (Berger & Luckmann 1966; R. Cialdini;, R. Trost (2003); Social Influence: social norms, conformity and compliance; Chapter 21,; pp.151,193, Annual Review of Psychology Full Scholarly Article Summer 1906) (2004);Retrieved from Iain R. Black and Helene Cherrier (2010) ; Anti-consumption as part of living a sustainable lifestyle: Daily practices, contextual motivations and (Black and Cherrier 2010) Full Scholarly Article subjective values ; Journal of Consumer Behaviour J. Consumer Behaviour. 9: 437–453 Published online in Wiley On(Blanton & Christie 2003, Kim R. Cialdini;, R. Trost (2003); Social Influence: social norms, conformity and compliance; Chapter 21,; pp.151,193, Annual Review of Psychology & Markus 1999, Nail et al. Citation in Scholarly Article (2004);Retrieved from 2000). (Boston Consulting Group Joe Manget Catherine Roche Felix Münnich (2009); Capturing the Green Advantage for Consumer Companies; The Boston Consulting Group ; Private Consumer Research 2009) Retrieved May 15th from Report
  16. 16. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource(Bougherara and Combris Bougherara D. and Combris, P. (2009) Eco-labelled food products: what are consumers paying for? European Review of Full Scholarly Article 2009) Agricultural Economics 36(3): 321-341 J. Bray (2009) ; Ethical Dimensions in Clothing Purchase ; In: First Annual Ethics in Everyday Life Conference, 17-19 March 2009, (Bray 2009) Academic Paper Salzburg ; Retrieved from M.C. Cervellon (GREEN IN FASHION? An exploratory study of national differences in consumers concern for eco-fashion ; (Cervellon 2010) Critical Studies in Fashion & Beauty, Vol. 2 Issue 2 ; Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article A. Chan, H. Cheung (2010); Cultural Dimensions, Ethical Sensitivity, and Corporate Governance; Journal of Business Ethics (Chan & Chung 2010) Scholarly Article (2012); Retrieved from Chan, AWH; Cheung, HY (2012) ; Cultural Dimensions, Ethical Sensitivity, and Corporate ; Journal of Business Ethics, 2012, v. (Chan, Cheung 2012) Full Scholarly Article 110 n. 1, p. 45-59 ; Retrieved from The Co-operative Bank U.K. (2011); Ethical Consumerism annual report 2011, Retrieved June 10th 2012 from Bank 2011) Public Report (Desmet and Hekkert Pieter Desmet and Paul Hekkert (2005); Framework of Product Experience; International Journal of Design, Vol 1, No 1; Retrieved Full Scholarly Article 2005) from (Deutsch and Gerard R. Cialdini;, R. Trost (2003); Social Influence: social norms, conformity and compliance; Chapter 21,; pp.151,193, Annual Review of Citation in Scholarly Article 1965) Psychology (2004);Retrieved from Dickson, M.A., & Littrell, M.A. (1996). Socially responsible behaviour: Values and attitudes of the alternative trading organization(Dickson & Littrell 1996) Full Scholarly Article consumer. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 1(1), 50-69; Retrieved from
  17. 17. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource Dickson, M.A. (2000). Personal values, beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes relating to intentions to purchase apparel from socially (Dickson 2000) responsible businesses. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 18, 19-30; Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article M. Dickson (2001); Utility of No Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases; The (Dickson 2001) Full Scholarly Article Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 5 (2001), pp.96-119;Retrieved from E. Dielmans, M. Zanni, ETHICAL FASHION CONSUMERISM: A Segmentation and Understanding of Young Swedish Consumers; (Dielmans 2012) Working Paper/ Essay Retrieved from Ecco (2008); Ecco Consumer profiles; Retrieved from (Ecco 2008) Private consumer report J. Elster (1989), Social Norms and Economic Theory, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3, 99-117 ; Retrieved from (Elster 1989) Textbook Extract (Ethically me 2003) Ethically me (2003); ethical buying Survey ; Retrieved from Online survey Oakdene Hollins Consulting(2011) ; EU Ecolabel for food and feed products – feasibility study ; A report for DG Environment, (European Commission European Commission October 2011 ; Retrieved from Private Report 2011) R. Cialdini;, R. Trost (2003); Social Influence: social norms, conformity and compliance; Chapter 21,; pp.151,193, Annual Review of(Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) Citation in Scholarly Article Psychology (2004);Retrieved from GFK (2007); GfK magazine for staff and clients ; GFK insite; Retrieved from (GFK 2007) Commercial document
  18. 18. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource Shopping Behaviour of the Belgian Consumer GfK Fashion Congress (2008); GFK; (GFK 2008) Private consumer report um.pdf Gilg, Andrew; Barr, Stewart; Ford, Nicholas (2005) ; Green consumption or sustainable lifestyles? Identifying the sustainable (Gilg 2005) consumer, Futures Vol 37, 481-504 ; Retrieved August 21, 2012, from Full Scholarly Article for-Sustainable-Lifestyle GFK (2012); Environmentally Friendly Purchases Heat Up in Emerging Markets, Despite Discontent over High Prices; Retrieved from Press Release (GLOBAL 2012) PR Newswire (2012); New Report: American Consumers Lead the World in Environmental Scepticism; SOURCE GfK Roper Consulting ; Online Article Retrieved from skepticism-103520764.html National Geographic & Global Scan (2012); Greendex 2012: Consumer Choice and the Environment - A Worldwide Tracking (Greendex 2012) Survey; Retrieved from Public Consumer Report cb1343059672.pdf Ha-Brookshire, J., & Hodges, N. (2009). Socially Responsible Consumer Behaviour?: Exploring Used Clothing Donation(Ha-Brookeshire & Hodges Behaviour. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 27, 179-196; Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article 2009) Ha-Brookshire, J., & Hodges, N. (2009). Socially Responsible Consumer Behaviour?: Exploring Used Clothing Donation(Ha-Brookshire & Hodges Behaviour. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 27, 179-196.; Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article 2009, Lin 2009) T. Higgins (1987); Self-Discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect; Psychological Review, the American Psychological (Higgins 1987 Full Scholarly Article Association, 1987, Vol.94, No. 3, 319-340; Retrieved from G. Hofstede(1983); National Cultures in Four Dimensions, A research-Based Theory of Cultural Differences among Nations; (Hofstede 1983) Retrieved from http://leeds- Scholarly Article Houston, M.J. and M.L. Rothschild (1977), "A Paradigm for Research on Consumer Involvement," Working Paper no 11-77-46, (Houston 1977) Working Paper University of Wisconsin-Madison
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  20. 20. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2008) ; Kants Moral Philosophy ; Retrieved from (Kant 18th century) Online Encyclopedia moral/ (Katrin Magnussen, Mintel Oxygen Reports (2009) ; Ethical clothes sales go from rags to riches ; Retrieved from International Online Press Release centre/press-releases/341/ethical-clothes-sales-go-from-rags-to-riches 2009) Kevin Lane Keller (2005); BRANDS AND BRANDING: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND FUTURE PRIORITIES ; Marketing Science (Keller 2005) November/December 2006 vol. 25 no. 6 740-759 ; Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article & Damhorst 1998 p. Kim, H.E., & Damhorst, M.L. (1998). Environmental Concern and Apparel Consumption. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, Full Scholarly Article 132) 16, 126-133; Retrieved from Kotler & Armstrong (2012); “ Four Types of Buying Bahaviour”; Principles of Marketing 14th Edition; Pearson Prentice Hall; p.151 Marketing Textbook(Kotler & Armstrong 2012) Kotler & Armstrong (2012); “Buying Decision Making Process”; Principles of Marketing 14th Edition; Pearson Prentice Hall; p. 152 Marketing Textbook Lin, S. (2009). Exploratory evaluation of potential and current consumers of organic cotton in Hawaii. Asia Pacific Journal of (Lin 2009) Marketing and Logistics, 21, 489-506, Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article 26%20LIN%20Org%20co (Litrell 1999) Littrell, M. & Dickson, M. (1999) Social responsibility in the global market: Fair trade of cultural products. Sage, Thousand Oaks. Full Textook
  21. 21. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource (Marketing Magazine David Tiltman (2007); Green consumerism: Who is the ethical consumer?; Marketing Magazine UK ; Retrieved February 26th from Online Article 2007) Mintel (2009); Ethical clothes sales go from rags to riches ; Retrieved April 2nd 2012 Private Consumer Research (Mintel 2009) Press Release Nordic Initiative Clean and Ethical (NICE), Danish School of Fashion, BSR Corporate Responsability (2012); Nice Consumer (NICE 2012) Research Summary and Discussion Paper Toward a Framework for Sustainable Fashion Consumption in the EU; Retrieved from Private Report http://www.bsr Niinimäki, K. (2010). Eco-clothing, consumer identity and ideology. Sustainable Development, 18, 150-162, downloaded from (Niinimäki 2010) Full Scholarly Article et al. Studying the ethical consumer: A review of research (2007); Journal of Consumer Behaviour 6, pp. 253–270 (2007); Retrieved Full Scholarly Article 2006) from Patrick De Pelsmacker, Wim Janssens, Caroline Mielants (2005) ; Consumer Values and Fair-Trade Beliefs, Attitudes and Buying (Pelsmacker 2005) Behaviour; International Review on Public and Non Profit Marketing, vol. 2, no 2 (December 2005), pp. 50-69 ; Retrieved from Full Scholarly Article www3. P. Punyatoya (2011); How Brand Personality affects Products with different Involvement; European Journal of Business and (Punyatoya2011) Full Scholarly Article Management ; Retrieved from LaetitiaRadder, Wei Huang (2007); High-involvement and low-involvement products: A comparison of brand awareness among (Radder, and Huang students at a South African university; Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Volume 12, Number 2, 2008, pp. 232-243; Full Scholarly Article 2007) Retrieved from A. J. Hoffman;Competitive Environmental Strategy: A Guide To The Changing Business Landscape; pp. 86-88 Retrieved from (Roper 1990) Management Textbook 1Gtq&sig=SYLTbx1hBUXLSn
  22. 22. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource J. Rosell, J. Moisander (2008); Ethical Dimensions of Sustainable Marketing: A Consumer Policy Perspective; European Advances in(Rosell & Moisander 2008) Consumer Research (Volume 8); Scholarly Article Retrieved from Bernd H. Schmitt; Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, The Free Press;, p 218; Retrieved from ( Schmitt 1999) Full Textbook &source=bl&o Shaw, D., Hogg, G., Wilson, E., Shiu, E., & Hassan, L. (2006). Fashion victim: the impact of fair trade concerns on clothing choice. (Shaw et al. 2006) Full Scholarly Article Journal of Strategic Marketing, 14, 427-440; Retrieved from Shim, S. (1995). Environmentalism and Consumers Clothing Disposal Patterns. An Exploratory Study. Clothing and Textiles (Shim 1995) Full Scholarly Article Research Journal, 13, 38-48; Retrieved from M. Joseph Sirgy,Dong-Jin Lee, J.S. Johar; John Tidwell Effect of self-congruity with sponsorship on brand loyalty ; Journal of (Sirgy and Su, 2000) Full Scholarly Article Business Research 61 (2008); Retrieved from (Souad HMida Ph.D, Souad H’Mida; DETERMINANTS OF PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOURS WITHIN INDIVIDUAL CONSUMERS; Retrieved Scholarly Article 2008) from A. Tallontire, E. Rentsendorj, M. Blowfield (2001) ; ETHICAL CONSUMERS AND ETHICAL TRADE: A REVIEW OF CURRENT (Tallontire 2010) LITERATURE; Natural Resources Institute University of Greenwich;Retrieved from Public Consumer Report J. Thøgersen (2010); Country Differences in Sustainable Consumption: The Case of Organic Food, Journal of Macromarketing, (Thøgersen 2010) Scholarly Article 30(2): 171-185. Retrieved from T.Mainieri, E.G.Barnett, T.R.Valdero, J.B.Unipan, S.Oskamp (1997) ; Green buying: the influence of environmental concern on (Tina Mainieri 1997) consumer behaviour. The Journal of Social Psychology , 137(2), 189-204; Retrieved August 21, 2012, from Full Scholarly Article
  23. 23. References Parenthetical Notes Works Cited Format Type of Resource Ethical Fashion Forum 2011; THE MARKET FOR ETHICAL AND SUSTAINABLE FASHION PRODUCTS, Briefing Report 2011; (TNS 2008) Retrieved from Public Consumer Report uploaded/documents/Market_for_sustainable_fashion_Briefing_2011.pdf L. Percy, R.Rosenbaum-Elliott (2012); Strategic Advertising Management, Oxford University Press, 2012; p. 164; Retrieved from Marketing Textbook (UK 2007) DY4cTkI3&sig=b-hV Online Article See (Marketing Magazine 2007) Cooperative Bank (2010); Ethical Consumerism Research; Retrieved from http://www.ipsos- (UK 2010) Public Report United Nations (1987); World Commission on Environment and Development. "Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards (UN 1997) Public Report Sustainable Development". Retrieved from Jem Bendell & Anthony Kleanthous for WWF (2007); Deeper Luxury Report; Retrieved from (WWF 2007) Public Report Yuniya Kawamura (2005); Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies; Berg Editions, pp. 23-28; Retrieved from(Yuniya Kawamura 2005). Full Textbook Going green: the future of Luxury (2009) ; The Luxury Channel; Retrieved from Video documentary