Zoonotic Disease Transmission : Ebolavirus in Africa<br />Antoinette Rivera<br />Baldwin-Wallace College<br />Senior Semin...
Zoonotic Disease: Cross species transmission of an infection.<br />Endemic: usual rate of disease within a certain area.<b...
Places Zoonotic Diseases affect (1940-2004)<br />Global trends in emerging infectious diseases<br />Kate E. Jones, Nikkita...
Blame Apportioning and the Emergence of Zoonoses over the Last 25 Years<br />S. B. Ca’ceres and M. J. Otte<br />
Ebolavirus (EBOV) Classification<br />
Filovirus Virus Structure<br /><ul><li>Branch with folded Nucleocapsid containing the RNA.
Negative-Sense ssRNA, 19,000 RNA bases.
Humans: 3 billion (3 x 109) base pairs</li></ul> in DNA.<br /><ul><li>Encodes for ~7 proteins.</li></li></ul><li>Filovirus...
Ebola Infection<br />Direct contact with:<br />Infected blood, organs, tissues and other secretions<br />Handling of infec...
Ebola Attack on immune system<br />
Hemorrhagic Fever<br />Incubation: 1st week<br />Fever<br />Weakness<br />Muscle pain<br />Headache<br />Sore throat<br />...
Vaccine/Cure<br />How Ebola and Marburg viruses battle the immune system. MansourMohamadzadeh, <br />Lieping Chen, and Ala...
Ebola in Africa<br />Major Ebola Outbreaks<br />http://www.nsrc.org/AFRICA<br />
Africa and Ebola<br />
Africa and Ebola<br />
1 person=10 people<br />185 People<br />
Ebola<br />1 person=10 people<br />65 People<br />
Pathway for Transmission<br />
Potential Reservoirs<br />Other Vertebrate<br />Mammal<br />?<br />Plant<br />Arthropod<br />
Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs<br />A. Townsend Peterson, Darin S. Carroll, James N. Mills, and Karl M. Johnson<...
Which mammals?<br />Reviewed all mammal species in the world.<br />Deletions of genera based on 5 rationale criteria were ...
Study Rationale<br />1. Previous studies that suggest mammals.<br />2. Size.<br />3. Virus known to have a long-term evolu...
Families and Sub-families  Fitting all rationale points<br />Crocidurinae<br />Potamogalinae<br />Pteropodinae<br />Macrog...
Bats seem to be focal point<br /><ul><li>Of  the 24 families and subfamilies of mammals, 11 are bats.
Other studies have tested bats for antibodies to the virus; 3 fruit bat species were positive.
Further research has a focus on probable species.</li></li></ul><li>Pathway for Transmission<br />
Apes As Carriers and Hosts of Ebola<br />Apes are considered carriers and hosts because:<br />Infect other animals in the ...
Apes and Ebola<br />Gabon and the Congo hold ~80% of the world’s great apes.<br />Between 1983 and 2000 ape populations ha...
Gorillas and Chimpanzees<br />Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorillagorilla)<br />Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)<br...
Eat pith, leaves, shoots and fruit
Live in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, and DRC
Eat fruit, tree seeds, flowers, soft pith, galls, resin and bark</li></ul>http://www.cleverbadger.net<br />http://www.apet...
Potential for Ebola Transmission Between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Social Groups<br />Peter D. Walsh, Thomas Breuer, Crickett...
Is there potential for infection to pass between ape populations?<br />Researchers used the fruit bat as an assumption, re...
Which fruit tree?<br />Apes are very picky about fruit.<br />Both apes leave bodily secretions on the fruit, tree or surro...
Findings: Gorilla-Gorilla Transmission<br />15 total social groups (units) eating in 37 African Peach trees.<br />4 Solita...
Gorilla –Gorilla Foraging Overlap<br />
Findings- Gorilla-Chimpanzee<br />Observed 4 different communities of chimpanzees in Ficus.<br />5 out of 75 days (once fo...
Pathway for Transmission<br />
Human contact with non-human primates<br />Keep pet NHP<br />Butcher NHP<br />Hunt NHP<br />Eat NHP<br />Avg. no. NHP Meal...
Sudan<br />Cameroon<br />Uganda<br />Gabon<br />Congo<br />Dem. Rep. of Congo<br />http://files.posterous.com/forestpolicy...
Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003<br />Pierre Rouquet, Je...
Sampled Carcasses<br />August 2001- June 2003, 98 carcasses ( Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Duikers)<br />Found carcasses usi...
Lab tests on samples<br /><ul><li>If one test was positive, </li></ul>  the carcass was labeled infected.<br />* 21 carcas...
Carcass peaks coincide with human outbreaks<br />Carcass Peak<br />Carcass Peak<br />Human Outbreak<br />Human Outbreak<br...
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Zoonotic Diseases: Ebola in Africa

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This presentation was my Senior Biology Major Capstone and was given along with a written paper. The presentation discusses three scientific papers following the ebola virus from fruit bats to carriers such as gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans.

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  • Thank you Dr. Melampy and thank you all for coming to my seminar today. Today I will be talking about diseases that can be transmitted across species, their called zoonotic diseases. While I was researching gorillas this summer at the clevelandmetroparks zoo I came across a virus that kills off thousands of gorillas and humans alike. There is not a lot of research that has been done of how the Ebolavirus can spread and kill so many so I will present some research that can help describe the leading theory of how this virus is transmitted from wildlife to humans.
  • Ecology of ebola virus pprEx. malaria
  • Find disease in US from paperGlobal trends in emerging infectious diseasesKate E. Jones1, Nikkita G. Patel2, Marc A. Levy3, Adam Storeygard3{, Deborah Balk3{, John L. Gittleman4& Peter Daszak2H1N1, bird flu, SARS, Malaria
  • Blame Apportioning and the Emergence of Zoonoses overthe Last 25 YearsS. B. Ca´ ceres and M. J. OtteFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=mmed&part=A3838http://www.mcb.uct.ac.za/tutorial/classif.htmDescribe strains too (some say there are 5 strains but other strains are spin offs from the top 3) WHOstrains =five distinct species: Zaïre, Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, Bundibugyo and Reston.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/Zaïre, Sudan and Bundibugyo species have been associated with large Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreaks in Africa with high case fatality ratio (25–90%) while Côte d’Ivoire and Reston have not. Reston species can infect humans but no serious illness or death in humans have been reported to date.Three have been reported to cause disease in humans: Ebola-Zaire virus; Ebola-Sudan virus; and the Ebola-Ivory virus. The human disease has so far been limited to parts of Africa.The disease has so far been limited to parts of Africa. A very small number of people in the United States who were infected with the fourth type of the virus, known as Ebola Reston, did not develop any signs of disease.
  • Negative-sense is complementary to the viral mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase prior to translation.
  • A filovirus is characterized by branched particle encompassed by an envelope structure, measuring 800-900nm in length by 80 nm. Contained within a helical nucleocapsid is a single molecule of negative sense ssRNA, roughly 19,000 nucleotides in length. How it effects the imune system and why its important to study (no vaccine, no cure etc)
  • Zoonotic Diseases: Ebola in Africa

    1. 1. Zoonotic Disease Transmission : Ebolavirus in Africa<br />Antoinette Rivera<br />Baldwin-Wallace College<br />Senior Seminar<br />January 22, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Zoonotic Disease: Cross species transmission of an infection.<br />Endemic: usual rate of disease within a certain area.<br />Epidemic: unusually high rate of disease within a certain area.<br />Host, Carrier: Animal, insect or plant that carries the infection (viral, bacterial, parasitic).<br />Vector: Any living thing that humans receive a disease from.<br />Reservoir: Animal that carries the infection that occurs naturally but is not affected by it.<br />
    3. 3. Places Zoonotic Diseases affect (1940-2004)<br />Global trends in emerging infectious diseases<br />Kate E. Jones, Nikkita G. Patel, Marc A. Levy, Adam Storeygard, Deborah Balk, John L. Gittleman & Peter Daszak<br />
    4. 4. Blame Apportioning and the Emergence of Zoonoses over the Last 25 Years<br />S. B. Ca’ceres and M. J. Otte<br />
    5. 5. Ebolavirus (EBOV) Classification<br />
    6. 6. Filovirus Virus Structure<br /><ul><li>Branch with folded Nucleocapsid containing the RNA.
    7. 7. Negative-Sense ssRNA, 19,000 RNA bases.
    8. 8. Humans: 3 billion (3 x 109) base pairs</li></ul> in DNA.<br /><ul><li>Encodes for ~7 proteins.</li></li></ul><li>Filovirus- Ebola<br />Branch<br />Nucleocapsid<br />Nucleocapsid<br />Branch<br />http://phene.cpmc.columbia.edu<br />
    9. 9. Ebola Infection<br />Direct contact with:<br />Infected blood, organs, tissues and other secretions<br />Handling of infected wildlife<br />Plants<br />
    10. 10. Ebola Attack on immune system<br />
    11. 11. Hemorrhagic Fever<br />Incubation: 1st week<br />Fever<br />Weakness<br />Muscle pain<br />Headache<br />Sore throat<br />Vomiting<br />Diarrhea <br />Late symptoms: 2nd-3rd weeks<br />Bleeding (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, rectum)<br />Eye Inflammation<br />Genital Swelling<br />Rash over entire body (hemorrhagic)<br />Seizures<br />Coma<br />Mortality rate: ~50-90%<br />
    12. 12. Vaccine/Cure<br />How Ebola and Marburg viruses battle the immune system. MansourMohamadzadeh, <br />Lieping Chen, and Alan L. Schmaljohn*<br />
    13. 13. Ebola in Africa<br />Major Ebola Outbreaks<br />http://www.nsrc.org/AFRICA<br />
    14. 14. Africa and Ebola<br />
    15. 15. Africa and Ebola<br />
    16. 16. 1 person=10 people<br />185 People<br />
    17. 17. Ebola<br />1 person=10 people<br />65 People<br />
    18. 18. Pathway for Transmission<br />
    19. 19. Potential Reservoirs<br />Other Vertebrate<br />Mammal<br />?<br />Plant<br />Arthropod<br />
    20. 20. Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs<br />A. Townsend Peterson, Darin S. Carroll, James N. Mills, and Karl M. Johnson<br />
    21. 21. Which mammals?<br />Reviewed all mammal species in the world.<br />Deletions of genera based on 5 rationale criteria were made.<br />Reviewed previous studies that tested African mammals for the virus.<br />
    22. 22. Study Rationale<br />1. Previous studies that suggest mammals.<br />2. Size.<br />3. Virus known to have a long-term evolutionary relationship with the reservoir species.<br />4. Range.<br />5. Non-commensal animals.<br />
    23. 23. Families and Sub-families Fitting all rationale points<br />Crocidurinae<br />Potamogalinae<br />Pteropodinae<br />Macroglossinae<br />Emballonuridae<br />Megadermatidae<br />Rhinolophinae<br />Hipposideridae<br />Kerivoulinae<br />Vespertilionidae<br />Miniopterinae<br />Molossidae<br />Nycteridae<br />Procaviidae<br />Sciurinae<br />Muridae<br />Cricetomyinae<br />Dendromurinae<br />Gerbillinae<br />Anomaluridae<br />Zenkerellinae<br />Graphiurinae<br />Thryonomyidae<br />Leporidae<br />http://farm1.static.flickr.com<br />http://www.nwtrek.org/<br />http://thewebsiteofeverything.com<br />
    24. 24. Bats seem to be focal point<br /><ul><li>Of the 24 families and subfamilies of mammals, 11 are bats.
    25. 25. Other studies have tested bats for antibodies to the virus; 3 fruit bat species were positive.
    26. 26. Further research has a focus on probable species.</li></li></ul><li>Pathway for Transmission<br />
    27. 27. Apes As Carriers and Hosts of Ebola<br />Apes are considered carriers and hosts because:<br />Infect other animals in the area.<br />Succumb to the disease (90-95% ape mortality).<br />Can be transmitted between ape species. (Gorillas, Chimpanzees, Humans)<br />
    28. 28. Apes and Ebola<br />Gabon and the Congo hold ~80% of the world’s great apes.<br />Between 1983 and 2000 ape populations have declined by half due to hunting and Ebola.<br />Deaths of gorillas, from Ebola, in the area of Gabon were tallied to be approximately 5000 individuals by 2000.<br />
    29. 29. Gorillas and Chimpanzees<br />Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorillagorilla)<br />Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)<br /><ul><li>Live in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, DRC
    30. 30. Eat pith, leaves, shoots and fruit
    31. 31. Live in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, and DRC
    32. 32. Eat fruit, tree seeds, flowers, soft pith, galls, resin and bark</li></ul>http://www.cleverbadger.net<br />http://www.apetag.orgg<br />
    33. 33. Potential for Ebola Transmission Between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Social Groups<br />Peter D. Walsh, Thomas Breuer, CricketteSanz, David Morgan, and Diane Doran-Sheehy<br />
    34. 34. Is there potential for infection to pass between ape populations?<br />Researchers used the fruit bat as an assumption, referencing previous study.<br />Surveyed fruit trees.<br />Analyzed feeding periods of both species.<br />
    35. 35. Which fruit tree?<br />Apes are very picky about fruit.<br />Both apes leave bodily secretions on the fruit, tree or surrounding (Urine, feces, saliva).<br />Types of trees: Naucleapobeguinii (African Peach), Ficus<br />http://www.ethnopharmacologia.org/<br />http://arbresvenerables.free.fr/ArbresVenerables<br />
    36. 36. Findings: Gorilla-Gorilla Transmission<br />15 total social groups (units) eating in 37 African Peach trees.<br />4 Solitary silverbacks, 11 groups of 2+<br /># of Cases:<br />56: pair of units fed in same trees on the same day, using same paths.<br />13: gorilla(s) from one unit fed in the same tree on the same day as another had.<br />
    37. 37. Gorilla –Gorilla Foraging Overlap<br />
    38. 38. Findings- Gorilla-Chimpanzee<br />Observed 4 different communities of chimpanzees in Ficus.<br />5 out of 75 days (once for every 15), Chimpanzees and Gorillas foraged in the same tree at the same time.*<br />Lasted for ~47 minutes: ~10 Chimpanzees, ~4 Gorillas<br />*True Rates of occupancy might have been higher.<br />
    39. 39. Pathway for Transmission<br />
    40. 40. Human contact with non-human primates<br />Keep pet NHP<br />Butcher NHP<br />Hunt NHP<br />Eat NHP<br />Avg. no. NHP Meals per month<br />% Reporting Behavior<br />Exposure to Nonhuman Primates in Rural Cameroon<br />Nathan D. Wolfe, et. al. 2004<br />Savanna<br />Gallery Forest<br />Forest<br />Habitat<br />
    41. 41. Sudan<br />Cameroon<br />Uganda<br />Gabon<br />Congo<br />Dem. Rep. of Congo<br />http://files.posterous.com/forestpolicy/<br />
    42. 42. Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003<br />Pierre Rouquet, Jean-Marc Froment, Magdalena Bermejo, AnnelisaKilbourn, William Karesh, Patricia Reed, Brice Kumulungui, Philippe Yaba, Andre Delicat, Pierre E. Rollin, and Eric M. Leroy.<br />
    43. 43. Sampled Carcasses<br />August 2001- June 2003, 98 carcasses ( Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and Duikers)<br />Found carcasses using field GPS locations and villager sightings.<br />Liver, spleen, muscle, skin and bone samples.<br />2 Peaks of animal death: Nov-Dec 2001, Dec 2002-Feb2003.<br />
    44. 44. Lab tests on samples<br /><ul><li>If one test was positive, </li></ul> the carcass was labeled infected.<br />* 21 carcasses sampled, 14 tested positive.<br />
    45. 45. Carcass peaks coincide with human outbreaks<br />Carcass Peak<br />Carcass Peak<br />Human Outbreak<br />Human Outbreak<br />51 Carcasses<br />20 Carcasses<br />92 Cases <br />70 Dead<br />143 Cases <br />128 Dead<br />
    46. 46. Pathway for Transmission<br />Carcasses<br />
    47. 47. Ebola is a problem without a solution…<br />Complicated pathways.<br />Research each level and inhibit transmission.<br />Find an alternative means of food and income for native Africans. <br />One strain of Ebola has been in the U.S. another could possibly come and infect thousands of Americans. <br />Continue work on a vaccine as well as treatment for humans and apes.<br />
    48. 48. Thank You!!!<br />Family<br />Friends<br />Sisters<br />Teachers<br />Dr. Barratt<br />Dr. Melampy<br />Zoo Influences<br />D’Edra Thompson<br />Terry Joyce<br />Dr. Kristen Lukas<br />
    49. 49. Any Questions?<br />http://farm2.static.flickr.com/<br />http://i30.photobucket.com<br />http://media.photobucket.com/<br />
    50. 50. References<br />Caceres, S B., and M J. Otte. &quot;Blame Apportioning and the Emergence of Zoonoses over the Last 25 Years.&quot; Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 56 (2009): 375-79. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.<br />Jones, Kate E., Nikkita G. Patel, Marc A. Levy, Adam Storeygard et al. &quot;Global trends in emerging infectious diseases.&quot; Nature 451 (2008): 990-94. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.<br />Mohamadzadeh, Mansour, Lieping Chen, and Alan L. Schmaljohn. &quot;How Ebola and Marburg viruses battle the immune system.&quot; Nature 7 (2007): 556-67. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.<br /> Peterson, A. Townsend, Darin S. Carroll, James N. Mills, and Karl M. Johnson. &quot;Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs.&quot; Emerging Infectious Diseases 10.12 (2004): 2073-81. Web. 10 Dec. 2009.<br /> Rouquet, Pierre, Jean-Marc Froment, Magdalena Bermejo, AnnelisaKilbourn et al. &quot;Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003.&quot; Emerging Infectious Diseases 11.2 (2005): 283-90. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.<br /> Walsh, Peter D. &quot;Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa.&quot; Nature 422 (2003): 611-14. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.<br /> Walsh, Peter D., Thomas Breuer, CricketteSanz, David Morgan et al. &quot;Potential for Ebola Transmission between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Social Groups.&quot; The American Naturalist 169.5 (2007): 684-89. Web. 15 Dec. 2009.<br /> Wolfe, Nathan D., A. Tassy Prosser, Jean K. Carr, UbaldTamoufe et al. &quot;Exposure to Nonhuan Primates in Rural Cameroon.&quot; Emerging Infectious Diseases 10.12 (2004): 2094-99. Web. 22 Dec. 2009.<br />

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