Experimental evaluation of five methods for collecting emotions in field settings with mobile applications
MethodsFor understanding people ’s emotionswith mobile applicationsIsomursu , M., Tahti, M., Vainamo, S. & Kuutti, K. (2007).Experimental evaluation of five methods for collecting emotionsin field settings with mobile applications. International journalof Human-Computer Studies, 65 (2007), pg. 404-418. Presented by: Debaleena Chattopadhyay Fall, 2012
“There’s an app for that.”Reference: http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/10/app-for-that/
Evaluation of five methods for collecting emotions in field settings with mobile applicationsFive self-report methods:1. Self-assessment manikin (SAM ) (Lang, 1980)2. Emocards (Desmet et al., 2001)3. Expressing Experiences and Emotions (3E) (Tahti and Arhippainen, 2004)4. Mobile Feedback Application (Arhippainen at al., 2004)5. Experience Clip (Isomursu et al.,2004)
Evaluation of five methods for collecting emotions in field settings with mobile applicationsHuman emotions• Affect (emotional or cognitive impact) is an essential component of user experience.• Affect is an experiential property.• Information about the affect aroused by applications makes a basis for design decisions or formal properties.• Understanding the difference: Emotions as responses to design products Vs. Emotions as part of interaction. Hence the need to understand the user and the context in a broad sense.
Evaluation of five methods for collecting emotions in field settings with mobile applicationsNaturalistic Field Settings• Location– Oulu, Finland• Time frame – 2001-2005• Number of field experiments – Nine.• Mobile applications used in field tests (4): – CAPNET: Context sensitive office application. (Users Technical and non- technical professionals) – SmartRotuarri (or Rotuarri): Context sensitive information services within a city setting. (Users Locals and Tourists on city center streets) – Adamos Menu: Location sensitive service menu for smartphones. (Users IT professionals) – SmartLibrary: Map-based book location service in a library setting. (Users Students visiting the library)
Why capturing emotions is not trivial?• Settings need to be realistic to allow users to experience emotions.• Experiences are subjective and hard to record. Even difficult to verbalize.• User experience is dynamic and need to be captured long-term.• Finally, emotions need to be correctly interpreted.
The Analysis Framework (For mobile applications)To capture emotions which users would experiencein normal use, we ideally need: ‘Real’ users Real-life usage scenariosNo add-on physicalinstrument for the user Un-restricted physical context Absence of the researcher
The Analysis Rubric for MethodsUser’s viewpoint Designer’s viewpoint• Fit • Input for design• Usability• User experience • Interpretation• Disturbance • Validity
1. Self-assessment manikin (SAM) Pleasure - displeasure• Series of pictures or puppets Degree of arousal• paper-and-pencil Dominance-• Captures emotions submissiveness in more than one dimension
Self-assessment manikin (SAM) (contd..) Positive Negative• Easy to use • Scales sometimes difficult to• Simple equipment interpret for subjects requirements • Requires additional data• Results in numerical form collection if explanations• Easy to analyze are sought• Information from • Difficult to perform during pleasure, arousal and use. dominance
2. Emocards• 16 cartoon faces female Excited Neutral male• Recognizable facial expressions• paper-and-pencil• Static facial cues to Calm pleasant express emotions female male
Emocards (contd..) Positive Negative• Easy to use • No dynamic experience captured• Simple equipment requirements • Difficult to interpret for subjects• Results in numerical form • Requires additional data• Easy to analyze collection if explanations are sought • Difficult to perform during use. • Requires the user to summarize his/her emotions into one selection
3. Expressing Experiences and Emotions (3E)• Structured and unstructured language for expressing emotions.• Direct representation of emotional status of the user.• Paper format diary to What the What the collect data. user wants user is to say? thinking?
Expressing Experiences and Emotions (contd..) Positive Negative• Easy to use • Analyzing is challenging• Simple equipment requirements • Does not address the dynamic• Free formatted pictures give side of the experience freedom of expression to users • Difficult to perform during• Combines written and visual use, more suitable for capturing expression emotions before and after use• Reveals emotions and their • Some people do not like to draw explanations
4. Mobile Feedback Application• Context-aware experience sampling tool.• Captures experiences invoked by dynamic interactions.• No time lapse between experienced emotion and data collection.
Mobile Feedback Application (contd..) Positive Negative• Easy to use • Requires a feedback application• Data collection is integrated to which preferably runs on the same device as the application same platform as the evaluated under evaluation application• Results are in numerical form • Questions need to be carefully• Easy to analyze planned beforehand • Questions need to be brief • Clarifications for the answers cannot be asked
Experience Clip• Two pairs of volunteers shooting each other’s interactions.• Provides data about dynamic interactions.• Emphasizes sharing experiences and related emotions.• Captures co-experience.
Experience Clip (contd..) Positive Negative• Easy to use • Requires special equipment (video• Emotion expressions can be collected capable mobile phone) during use • Not suitable for long testing periods• Provides expressions of emotions in • Interpreting emotions is challenging verbal form as well as with physical • Users may choose not to record all cues kinds of usage situations• Provides information about context • External environmental conditions may• Users were eager and comfortable to have big impact on the quality of use video. • Requires small groups of users (at least two)
Method Selection FrameworkType of data sought Resources Test Situation Users
Conclusion• There is still controversy on how human emotions can be presented or described.• However, we can still use the incomplete and controversial information in choosing the best-suited methods to inform designers about experiential properties.• While there is always a trade-off between how much data to collect and how difficult it is interpret, while collecting emotions with mobile users, several variations can be used.• Often , use of more than one method proves to be a better data collection strategy.