Computer project


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Computer project

  1. 1. A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC),or at most a few integrated circuits.It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society. General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet. Many more microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control of a myriad of objects from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control.
  2. 2. History of Microprocessors A microprocessor is very familiar to all of us. It is impossible to find a person who has not used a microprocessor or microcontroller. Alarm clock, calculator, oven, it is used everywhere. And don’t forget about your personal computer or laptop or mobile which you are using to see this page. We are living in a microprocessor age. Now a microprocessor can performs billions of instruction per second. Scientists are working to increase the speed and performance of microprocessor since its beginning. History of computing is very old even long before modern electrical and electronic devices were developed. It date backs to 500 BC when the Babylonians invented the abacus. It was improved by Pascal in 1642. He invented a calculator which was constructed of gears and wheels. But the real effort to construct a microprocessor came after 19th century. Charles Babbage was successful to build Analytical Engine in 1823 which was programmable. Punched card was used as input for his machine. The first modern computer was invented by Konrad Zuse in 1936 when he invented a mechanical version of his system. In 1939 he constructed electromechanical computer system called Z2. Later he developed Z3 which operated in 5.33 Hz. But the first electronic computer was Colossus designed by Alan Turing invented in 1943. It was used to break secret German military codes. But it was not programmable. Programmable electronic computer system was developed in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania which was called ENIAC. It could perform 100,000 operations per second which was slow compared to its size, over 30 tons. The real advancement for microprocessor was the invention of transistor and integrated circuit.
  3. 3. History of Microprocessors The advancement in the electronics device and programming language led to the invention of microprocessor. The first microprocessor was designed by Intel in 1971. It was called Intel 4004, a 4-bit microprocessor. It could perform 50,000 instructions per second. It was used in video game system and small microprocessor based control systems. Intel then released 4040 which was an updated version of 4004. It operated in a higher speed. Texas instrument also developed TMS-1000 which was also a 4-bit microprocessor. These two ruled over the market. 4-bit microprocessors are still used in normal calculators, which use 4-bit BCD codes, and in microwave oven. The next advancement was 8-bit microprocessor. Later in 1971 Intel released 8008. After a few months Motorola Corporation introduced MC6800 microprocessor. It had additional instructions set it could address up to 16 K bytes. This started the age of microprocessor and it became the best sale in the electronics world. This led to great advancement in electronic devices. Developers soon understood that microprocessor can lessen the cost and fast the operation. Soon other companies started to develop their version of 8-bit microprocessor. Later Intel released 8080 and 8085 microprocessors which was faster than previous version of 8-bit microprocessor. 8085 was the last 8-bit microprocessor developed by Intel. Another company Zilog Corporation also developed Z-80 which was sold over 500 millions.In 1978, Intel released the 8086 microprocessor which was a 16-bit microprocessor. It could perform 2.5 million instructions per second. It is called the first modern microprocessor. In 1986 Intel Corporation released 80386 microprocessors which was the first 32-bit microprocessor. These are the predecessor of modern microprocessor. Now today’s microprocessor can perform billions of instruction per second. Addressing capability, data width has increased considerably. We are advancing in a great speed. It is impossible to think about today’s world without microprocessor
  4. 4. Core i3 Processor While the high-end unlocked Sandy Bridge CPUs, the Intel Core i7 2600K and Intel Core i5 2500K were rightfully taking all the plaudits for being overclocking monsters, the 2600K especially, not many people were looking at the other end of the food chain. That is to say in the value end of the market where the lowly Intel Core i3 2100 is to be found. As with all the current Sandy Bridge processors, it's built on the 32nm process and manages to pack 504 million transistors into its die. The Core i3 2100 is clocked at 3.1GHz with 3MB of L3 cache, which sounds like it should be a fairly blazing chip. However it has no Turbo Boost and is totally locked down, so there's no overclocking fun available on the processing side. This is a pity, because some of the best overclockable Intel chips in the past have come from this segment of the market. You may not be able to overclock the CPU core but you can though do a smidgen of tinkering to the HD2000 graphics core integrated into this second generation Core CPU.
  5. 5. Core i5 Processor Our old favourite that sets the standard this new chip will be measured by is the Intel Core i5 2500K from the Sandy Bridge generation, the best all round gaming CPU ever and all the chip most people need. Or maybe that should be the Core i5 2550K which was a very minor clockspeed bump over the 2500K. In truth, they're much of a muchness. At first glance, you might wonder whether the Intel Core i5 3570K is actually a new chip, so similar are the headline specifications to its predecessor. With four cores and no Hyperthreading support, there's not a lot of extra CPU hardware. The clockspeeds and cache haven't budged an inch, either. As before, we're talking 3.4GHz nominal, 3.8GHz Turbo and 6MB of cache. Dig a little deeper and the differences emerge. For gamers and performance enthusiasts, the most important upgrade is the shrink from 32nm to 22nm process technology and the introduction of Intel's 3D Tri-gate transistors. The upshot is what Intel is calling a "Tick-plus". A "Tick" in Intel-speak means a die shrink of an existing processor architecture, where a "Tock" is a new design using the old manufacturing tech. So, the existing Core i5 2550K is part of the Sandy Bridge Tock family and the new Intel Core i5 3570K is an Ivy Bridge Tick. AMD's FX Bulldozer chips, such as the AMD FX 8150, simply cannot compete when it comes to per core performance and that's what you need for a great gaming CPU. Which is what the old 2500k and 2550K were all about and what the Intel Core i5 3570K will have to deliver to take over where those two left off.
  6. 6. Core i7 Processor In single-threaded applications, the straight Sandy Bridge architecture has the edge in our test, showing why the gaming performance is higher as well. So the key battle for the Intel Core i7 3820 is the head-to-head with the Core i7 2700K, the top Sandy Bridge CPU. At £260, they're both priced in the same ballpark (or stadium, if you prefer), and at 3.6GHz vs the 2700K's 3.5GHz they're both around the same sort of clockspeed. Predictably things are pretty close in terms of raw performance. Importantly, though, not identical. The Intel Core i7 2700K still maintains a lead at stock clocks over the Sandy Bridge E Intel Core i7 3820. In single-threaded performance, the 2700K is actually quicker than even the i7 3830K, although despite having a higher clockspeed, the i7 3820 offers the same figures as the 3830K in single-threaded performance. Thanks to the extra couple of cores in the mid-range Sandy Bridge E chip, it takes a lead in the multi-threaded Cinebench rendering and X264 encoding tests. The resolutely quad-core Intel Core i7 3820 lags behind the hex-core chip and, interestingly, the lower-clocked Core i7 2700K, though. The straight Sandy Bridge's gaming pedigree comes to the fore, though, when we start throwing the World in Conflict and Shogun 2 benchmarks at the different chips.