A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a
computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single
integrated circuit (IC),or at most a few integrated circuits.It
is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital
data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in
its memory, and provides results as output. It is an example
of sequential digital logic, as it has internal memory.
Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols
represented in the binary numeral system.
The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has
transformed modern society. General-purpose
microprocessors in personal computers are used for
computation, text editing, multimedia display, and
communication over the Internet. Many more
microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing
digital control of a myriad of objects from appliances to
automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process
History of Microprocessors
A microprocessor is very familiar to all of us. It is impossible to find a person who
has not used a microprocessor or microcontroller. Alarm clock, calculator, oven, it is
used everywhere. And don’t forget about your personal computer or laptop or
mobile which you are using to see this page. We are living in a microprocessor
age. Now a microprocessor can performs billions of instruction per second. Scientists
are working to increase the speed and performance of microprocessor since its
beginning. History of computing is very old even long before modern electrical and
electronic devices were developed. It date backs to 500 BC when the Babylonians
invented the abacus. It was improved by Pascal in 1642. He invented a calculator
which was constructed of gears and wheels. But the real effort to construct a
microprocessor came after 19th century. Charles Babbage was successful to build
Analytical Engine in 1823 which was programmable. Punched card was used as input
for his machine.
The first modern computer was invented by Konrad Zuse in 1936 when he invented a
mechanical version of his system. In 1939 he constructed electromechanical computer
system called Z2. Later he developed Z3 which operated in 5.33 Hz. But the first
electronic computer was Colossus designed by Alan Turing invented in 1943. It was
used to break secret German military codes. But it was not programmable.
Programmable electronic computer system was developed in 1946 at the University
of Pennsylvania which was called ENIAC. It could perform 100,000 operations per
second which was slow compared to its size, over 30 tons. The real advancement for
microprocessor was the invention of transistor and integrated circuit.
History of Microprocessors
The advancement in the electronics device and programming language led to the
invention of microprocessor. The first microprocessor was designed by Intel in
1971. It was called Intel 4004, a 4-bit microprocessor. It could perform 50,000
instructions per second. It was used in video game system and small
microprocessor based control systems. Intel then released 4040 which was an
updated version of 4004. It operated in a higher speed. Texas instrument also
developed TMS-1000 which was also a 4-bit microprocessor. These two ruled
over the market. 4-bit microprocessors are still used in normal calculators, which
use 4-bit BCD codes, and in microwave oven. The next advancement was 8-bit
microprocessor. Later in 1971 Intel released 8008. After a few months Motorola
Corporation introduced MC6800 microprocessor. It had additional instructions
set it could address up to 16 K bytes. This started the age of microprocessor and it
became the best sale in the electronics world. This led to great advancement in
electronic devices. Developers soon understood that microprocessor can lessen
the cost and fast the operation. Soon other companies started to develop their
version of 8-bit microprocessor. Later Intel released 8080 and 8085
microprocessors which was faster than previous version of 8-bit microprocessor.
8085 was the last 8-bit microprocessor developed by Intel. Another company
Zilog Corporation also developed Z-80 which was sold over 500 millions.In 1978,
Intel released the 8086 microprocessor which was a 16-bit microprocessor. It
could perform 2.5 million instructions per second. It is called the first modern
microprocessor. In 1986 Intel Corporation released 80386 microprocessors which
was the first 32-bit microprocessor. These are the predecessor of modern
microprocessor. Now today’s microprocessor can perform billions of instruction
per second. Addressing capability, data width has increased considerably. We are
advancing in a great speed. It is impossible to think about today’s world without
Core i3 Processor
While the high-end unlocked Sandy Bridge CPUs, the Intel Core i7
2600K and Intel Core i5 2500K were rightfully taking all the
plaudits for being overclocking monsters, the 2600K especially, not
many people were looking at the other end of the food chain.
That is to say in the value end of the market where the lowly Intel
Core i3 2100 is to be found. As with all the current Sandy Bridge
processors, it's built on the 32nm process and manages to pack 504
million transistors into its die.
The Core i3 2100 is clocked at 3.1GHz with 3MB of L3 cache, which
sounds like it should be a fairly blazing chip. However it has no
Turbo Boost and is totally locked down, so there's no overclocking
fun available on the processing side.
This is a pity, because some of the best overclockable Intel chips in
the past have come from this segment of the market.
You may not be able to overclock the CPU core but you can though
do a smidgen of tinkering to the HD2000 graphics core integrated
into this second generation Core CPU.
Core i5 Processor
Our old favourite that sets the standard this new chip will be measured by is the Intel
Core i5 2500K from the Sandy Bridge generation, the best all round gaming CPU ever
and all the chip most people need.
Or maybe that should be the Core i5 2550K which was a very minor clockspeed bump
over the 2500K. In truth, they're much of a muchness.
At first glance, you might wonder whether the Intel Core i5 3570K is actually a new
chip, so similar are the headline specifications to its predecessor.
With four cores and no Hyperthreading support, there's not a lot of extra CPU
hardware. The clockspeeds and cache haven't budged an inch, either. As before,
we're talking 3.4GHz nominal, 3.8GHz Turbo and 6MB of cache.
Dig a little deeper and the differences emerge.
For gamers and performance enthusiasts, the most important upgrade is the shrink
from 32nm to 22nm process technology and the introduction of Intel's 3D Tri-gate
The upshot is what Intel is calling a "Tick-plus".
A "Tick" in Intel-speak means a die shrink of an existing processor architecture,
where a "Tock" is a new design using the old manufacturing tech.
So, the existing Core i5 2550K is part of the Sandy Bridge Tock family and the new
Intel Core i5 3570K is an Ivy Bridge Tick.
AMD's FX Bulldozer chips, such as the AMD FX 8150, simply cannot compete when
it comes to per core performance and that's what you need for a great gaming CPU.
Which is what the old 2500k and 2550K were all about and what the Intel Core i5
3570K will have to deliver to take over where those two left off.
Core i7 Processor
In single-threaded applications, the straight Sandy Bridge architecture has the edge
in our test, showing why the gaming performance is higher as well.
So the key battle for the Intel Core i7 3820 is the head-to-head with the Core i7
2700K, the top Sandy Bridge CPU. At £260, they're both priced in the same ballpark
(or stadium, if you prefer), and at 3.6GHz vs the 2700K's 3.5GHz they're both
around the same sort of clockspeed.
Predictably things are pretty close in terms of raw performance.
Importantly, though, not identical.
The Intel Core i7 2700K still maintains a lead at stock clocks over the Sandy Bridge
E Intel Core i7 3820. In single-threaded performance, the 2700K is actually quicker
than even the i7 3830K, although despite having a higher clockspeed, the i7 3820
offers the same figures as the 3830K in single-threaded performance.
Thanks to the extra couple of cores in the mid-range Sandy Bridge E chip, it takes a
lead in the multi-threaded Cinebench rendering and X264 encoding tests. The
resolutely quad-core Intel Core i7 3820 lags behind the hex-core chip
and, interestingly, the lower-clocked Core i7 2700K, though.
The straight Sandy Bridge's gaming pedigree comes to the fore, though, when we
start throwing the World in Conflict and Shogun 2 benchmarks at the different chips.