Software project management


Published on

Published in: Business

Software project management

  1. 1. Project Management August 2007
  2. 2. Syllabus Course Contents: Introduction to Project Management: Project Management Life Cycle Software Project Planning, Project Activities and Work Breakdown Structure Project Management Plan, Project Scheduling and Tracking Techniques Project Economics: Project Costing, Project Estimation Techniques, Automated Estimation Tools Risk Analysis and Management, Risk Mitigation and Management, Software Metrics and Project Management Project Control and Closure, Project Management Issues with regard to New Technologies Suggested Readings: 1. Bob Hughes and Mike Cotterell, “Software Project Management”, Fourth Edition 2006, TMH • • Pankaj Jalote, “Software Project Management in Practice”, 2002, Pearson Education Asia. 3. Robert T. Futrell, Donald F. Shafer, and Linda I.. Shafer, “Quality Software Project Management” 2002, Pearson Education Asia. 4. Ramesh Gopalaswamy, “Managing Global Software Projects”, 2003, Tata McGraw-Hill Software Project Management- A unified Approach, Walker Royce, Pearson Education
  3. 3. What is a project? Some dictionary definitions: “A specific plan or design” “A planned undertaking” “A large undertaking e.g. a public works scheme” Longmans dictionary Key points above are planning and size of task
  4. 4. What is a Project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result Project Characteristics 1. Temporary every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved or when it becomes clear that the project objectives will not or cannot be met and the project is terminated – Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration; many projects last for several years. In every, case, however, the duration of a project is finite; projects are not ongoing efforts
  5. 5. Project Characteristics contd.. 2. A Project creates unique deliverables, which are products, services or results Projects can create: • A product or artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item • A capability to perform a service, such as business functions supporting production or distribution • A result, such as outcomes or documents. For example, a research project develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether or not a trend is present or a new process will benefit society. Uniqueness is an important characteristic of project deliverables • The presence of repetitive elements does not change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work. 3. Progressive Elaboration • Developing in steps and continuing by increments
  6. 6. Project Objectives To have a successful software project, the project objectives should be clearly defined S – specific, that is, concrete and well-defined M – measurable, that is, satisfaction of the objective can be objectively judged A – achievable, that is, it is within the power of the R – relevant, the objective must relevant to individual or group concerned to meet the target the true purpose of the project T – time constrained: there is defined point in time by which the objective should be achieved
  7. 7. Projects vs Operational Work Organizations perform work (task) to achieve a set of objectives. Generally, work can be categorized as either projects or operations, although the two sometimes overlap. They share many of the following characteristics: • Performed by people • Constrained by limited resources • Planned, executed, and controlled. Projects and operations differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and repetitive, while projects are temporary and unique. The objectives of projects and operations are fundamentally different. The purpose of a project is to attain its objective and then terminate. Conversely, the objective of an ongoing operation is to sustain the business. Project concludes when its specific objectives have been attained, while operations adopt a new set of objectives and the work continues.
  8. 8. Projects vs Operational Work To Sum up A task is more ‘project-like’ if it is: • • • • • • • • Non-routine Planned Aiming at a specific target Work carried out for a customer Involving several specialisms Made up of several different phases Constrained by time and resources Large and/or complex
  9. 9. Are software projects really different from other projects? Not really! …but… • • • • Invisibility Complexity Conformity Flexibility make software more problematic to build than other engineered artefacts.
  10. 10. What is management? This involves the following activities: • • • • Planning – deciding what is to be done Organizing – making arrangements Staffing – selecting the right people for the job Directing – giving instructions continued…
  11. 11. What is management? (continued) • Monitoring – checking on progress • Controlling – taking action to remedy hold-ups • Innovating – coming up with solutions when problems emerge • Representing – liaising with clients, users, developers and other stakeholders
  12. 12. What is Project Management Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. • Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. • The project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives Managing a Project Includes: • • • • Identifying requirements Establishing clear and achievable objectives Balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and • expectations of the various stakeholders.
  13. 13. Project Management Project Managers often talk of a “triple constraint” • Project Scope • Time and • Cost The relationship among these factor is such that if any one of the three factor changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. Project Managers also Manage projects in response to uncertainty Project risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on at least one project objective The Project Management team has a professional responsibility to its stakeholders including customers, the performing organization and the public
  14. 14. Activities covered by project management Feasibility study Is project technically feasible and worthwhile from a business point of view? Planning Only done if project is feasible Execution Implement plan, but plan may be changed as we go along
  15. 15. Project Management Knowledge Areas
  16. 16. Project Management Knowledge Areas Project Integration Management, describes the processes and activities that integrate the various elements of project management, which are identified, defined, combined, unified and coordinated within the Project Management Process Groups. It consists of the Develop Project Charter, Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement, Develop Project Management Plan, Direct and Manage Project Execution, Monitor and Control Project Work, Integrated Change Control, and Close Project management processes. Project Scope Management, describes the processes involved in ascertaining that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of the Scope Planning, Scope Definition, Create WBS, Scope Verification, and Scope Control project management processes. Project Time Management, describes the processes concerning the timely completion of the project. It consists of the Activity Definition, Activity Sequencing, Activity Resource Estimating, Activity Duration Estimating, Schedule Development, and Schedule Control project management processes.
  17. 17. Project Management Knowledge Areas Project Cost Management, describes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of the Cost Estimating, Cost Budgeting, and Cost Control project management processes. Project Quality Management, describes the processes involved in assuring that the project will satisfy the objectives for which it was undertaken. It consists of the Quality Planning, Perform Quality Assurance, and Perform Quality Control project management processes. Project Human Resource Management, describes the processes that organize and manage the project team. It consists of the Human Resource Planning, Acquire Project Team, Develop Project Team, and Manage Project Team project management processes. Project Communications Management, describes the processes concerning the timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, storage and ultimate disposition of project information. It consists of the Communications Planning, Information Distribution, Performance Reporting, and Manage Stakeholders project management processes
  18. 18. Project Management Knowledge Areas Project Risk Management, describes the processes concerned with conducting risk management on a project. It consists of the Risk Management Planning, Risk Identification, Qualitative Risk Analysis, Quantitative Risk Analysis, Risk Response Planning, and Risk Monitoring and Control project management processes. Project Procurement Management, describes the processes that purchase or acquire products, services or results, as well as contract management processes. It consists of the Plan Purchases and Acquisitions, Plan Contracting, Request Seller Responses, Select Sellers, Contract Administration, and Contract Closure project management processes.
  19. 19. Areas of Expertise Needed by the Project Team Application Area Knowledge, Standards and Regulations Application areas are categories of projects that have common elements significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of: Functional departments and supporting disciplines, such as legal, production and inventory management, marketing, logistics, and personnel Technical elements, such as software development or engineering, and sometimes a specific kind of engineering, such water and sanitation engineering or construction engineering as Management specializations, such as government contracting, community development, and new product development Industry groups, such as automotive, chemical, agriculture, and financial services.
  20. 20. Areas of Expertise Needed by the Project Team •Understanding the Project Environment Cultural and Social Environment International and Political Environment Physical Environment •General Management Knowledge & Skills •Interpersonal Skills Effective Communication Influencing the Organization Leadership Motivation Negotiation and conflict Management Problem Solving
  21. 21. Key points in lecture • Projects are non-routine - thus uncertain • The particular problems of projects e.g. lack of visibility • Clear objectives are essential which can be objectively assessed • Stuff happens. Not usually possible to keep precisely plan – need for control • Communicate, communicate, communicate!
  22. 22. Lecture 2
  23. 23. Review Lecture 1 What is a Project? A Project is an endeavor to accomplish a specific objective through a unique set of interrelated tasks and the effective utilization of resources.
  24. 24. Review Lecture 1 What are the attributes of a Project? • • • • • • • A project has a well defined objective A Project is carried out through a series of interdependent tasks A project utilizes various resources to carry out the tasks A project has a specific time frame A project may be a unique or one-time endeavor A project has a customer Project involves a degree of uncertainity
  25. 25. Review Lecture 1 What are four factors that constrain the achievement of a project Objective ?
  26. 26. Review Lecture 1 : What is Project Management Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. • Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. • The project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives Managing a Project Includes: • • • • Identifying requirements Establishing clear and achievable objectives Balancing the competing demands for quality, scope, time and cost Adapting the specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and • expectations of the various stakeholders.
  27. 27. Project Life Cycle
  28. 28. Project Life Cycle
  29. 29. Project Life Cycle Phase 1 : Identification of Need • Customer requesting proposals from individuals, a project team or organizations to address the identified need or solve the problem. The need and requirements are usually written up by the customer in a document called a Request for Proposal (RFP) • Through RFP, customer asks to submit proposals • Not all situations involve a formal RFP
  30. 30. Project Life Cycle Phase 2 : Develop a Proposed Solution Submission of proposal(s) to the customer by one or more individuals or organizations After a customer evaluates the submissions and selects the winning proposal, the customer and the winning contractor negotiate and sign a contract (agreement) Phase 3 : Implementation of Proposed Solution • • Detailed planning for the project Implementing the Plan the plan to accomplish the project objective
  31. 31. Project Life Cycle Phase 4 : Terminating the Project When a project is completed, certain close-out activities need to be performed: – – – – – Confirming that all deliverables have been provided to and accepted by the customer All payments have been collected Evaluating performance of the project in order to learn what could be improved if a similar project were to be carried out in the future Obtain feedback from the customer to determine the level of the customer’s satisfaction and whether the project met the customer’s expectations. Obtain the feedback from the project team in the form of recommendations for improving performance of projects in the future
  32. 32. The Project Management Process Project Management involves a process of first establishing a plan and then implementing that plan to accomplish the project objective. The Planning effort includes the following steps: – – – – Clearly define the project objective Divide and subdivide the project scope into major “pieces” or work packages by preparing work breakdown structure (WBS) Define the specific activities that need to be performed for each work package in order to accomplish the project objective Graphically portray the activities in the form of a network diagram. This diagram shows the necessary sequence and interdependencies of activities to achieve the project objectives. – – – Make a time estimate for how long it will take to complete each activity. Make a cost estimate for each activity Calculate a project schedule and budget to determine whether the project can be completed within the required time, with the allotted funds and with the available resources.
  33. 33. Project Life Cycle Phase 1 : Needs Identification
  34. 34. Need Identification Need identification is the initial phase of the project life cycle. The customer identifies a need, a problem or an opportunity for a better way of doing something and therefore sees some benefit to undertaking a project that will result in an improvement or advantage over the existing condition This phase encompasses : Identifying needs and selecting projects Developing a request for proposal The proposal solicitation process
  35. 35. Need Identification : Project Selection Project Selection involves : 1. 2. 3. Evaluating various needs or opportunities Deciding which of these should move forward as a project to be implemented Benefits and consequences need to be considered and evaluated. They could be quantitative and qualitative, tangible and intangible The Steps in project Selection are : – – – Develop a set of criteria against which the opportunity will be evaluated List assumptions that will be used as the basis for each opportunity Gather data and information for each opportunity to help ensure an intelligent decision regarding project selection • • – Preliminary Financial Estimates associated with each opportunity Gather information about each stakeholder Evaluate the opportunity against the criteria
  36. 36. Need Identification : Request for Proposal The purpose of preparing a request for proposal is to state, comprehensively and in details, what is required from the customer’s point of view, to address the identified need A good RFP allows contractors or a project team to understand what the customer expects so that they can prepare a thorough proposal that will satisfy the customer’s requirement at a realistic price
  37. 37. Need Identification : Request for Proposal - Guidelines 1. An RFP must provide a statement of work (SOW) A SOW deals with the scope of the project, outlining the tasks or work elements the customer wants the contractor or project team to perform. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The RFP must include the customer requirements which define specifications and attributes The RFP should state what deliverable the customer expects the contractor or project team to provide The RFP should list any customer-supplied items. The RFP might state the approvals required by the customer Some RFPs mention the type of contract the customer intends to use An RFP might state the payment terms the customer intends to use The RFP should state the required schedule for completion of the project The RFP should provide instructions for the format and content of the contractor proposals The RFP should indicate the due date by which the customer expects potential contractors to submit proposals
  38. 38. Need Identification : Request for Proposal - Guidelines 11. An RFP may include the evaluation criteria. Criteria might include 1. The contractor’s experience with similar projects 2. Technical approach proposed by the contractor 3. The schedule. Will the contractor be able to meet or beat the required schedule? 4. The cost. 1. If the estimate is based on time and materials, are the costs reasonable? 2. Have any items be left out 3. Does it appear that the contractor has submitted a low cost estimate but will add costs after the project is under way, resulting in final costs that are much higher than the original estimate? 11. In rare cases an RFP will indicate the funds the customer has available to spend on the; project.
  39. 39. Need Identification : Soliciting Proposal Once the RFP has been prepared, the customer solicits proposals by notifying potential contractors that the RFP is available. One way for customers to do this is by identifying a selected group of contractors in advance and sending each of them a copy of the RFP Another approach to soliciting potential contractor is for the customer to advertise in certain business newspapers that the RFP is available and give instructions on how interested contractors can obtain a copy.
  40. 40. Proposed Solution
  41. 41. Proposed Solution Lecture Learning • • • • • • Proposal marketing strategies and the bid/no-bid decision The development of winning proposals The proposals preparation process and the elements that may be included in a proposal Pricing considerations The evaluation of proposals Types of contracts between the customer and the contractor
  42. 42. Proposed Solution : Bid / No Bid Decision Competition – Which other contractors might also submit a proposal in response to the RFP? – Do any of these contractors have a competitive advantage, because of either pre-RFP marketing efforts or their previous work for or reputation with the customer? Risk Is there a risk that the project will be unsuccessful – technically or financially? Mission Is the proposed project consistent with the contractor’s business mission Extension of Capabilities Would the proposed project provide the contractor with an opportunity to extend and enhance its capabilities Reputation – Has the contractor successfully completed projects for the same customer in the past or were the problems that left the customer
  43. 43. Proposed Solution : Bid / No Bid Decision Customer Funds – Does the customer really have funds available to go forward with the project? Or is the customer on a “fishing expedition” – issuing an RFP although unsure whether the project will ever be funded? A customer may issue an RFP with the best of intentions but do so prematurely, anticipating that the Board of Directors will approve funding. However, if the company is having financial difficulties, the board may decide to postpone the project indefinitely, even after proposals have been received from interested contractors Proposal Resource – Are appropriate resources available to prepare a quality proposal? It is not enough for a contractor to just prepare a proposal – It is imperative that the proposal be of sufficient quality to have a good chance of winning. To prepare a quality proposals, a contractor must have the appropriate people – that is, resource – to work on it. Project Resources Are appropriate resource available to perform the project if the contractor is selected as the winner? Contractors need to be sure that the appropriate individuals within their organizations will be available to work on the project.
  44. 44. Developing a Winning Proposal • • A selling document – not a technical report Convince the customer that you are the best one to solve the problem. That is the contractor – Understands what the customer is looking for – Can carry out the proposed project – Will provide the greatest value to the customer – Is the best contractor to solve the problem – Will capitalize on its successful experience with previous related projects – Will do the work professionally – Will achieve the intended results – Will complete the project within budge and on schedule – Will satisfy the customer • Highlight the unique factors that differentiate you from competing contractors Emphasize the benefits to the customer 9
  45. 45. Proposal Preparation • • • • • Can be a straightforward task performed by one person or a resource-intensive effort requiring a team May designate a proposal manager Schedule must allow time for review and approval by management Can be a few pages or hundreds of pages Customers do not pay contractors to prepare proposals 10
  46. 46. Proposal Contents Proposals are organized into three sections: • Technical Section • Management Section • Cost Section 11
  47. 47. Proposal Contents : Technical Section The objective of the technical section of the contractor proposal is to convince the customer that the contractor understands the need or problem and can provide the least risky and most beneficial solution. The elements of the Technical Section are 1. understanding of the problem – – 1. Contractor thoroughly understands the problem to be solved Establish the basis for the solution proposed later in the technical section proposed approach or solution – – – A description of how the contractor would collect, analyze and evaluate data and information about the problem – Confirmation that the proposed solution or approach would meet each of the physical, operational and performance requirement stated in the customer's RFP Methods that would be used by the contractor to evaluate alternative solutions or further develop the proposed solution to the problem The rationale for the proposed approach or solution. This rationale could be based on experiments previously conducted by the contractor, the contractor's experience in solving similar problems or a unique patented technology the contractor would use to solve the problem 11
  48. 48. Proposal Contents : Technical Section 3. benefits to the customer • • The contractor should state how the proposed solution or approach would benefit the customer. • This portion of the proposal should help convince the customer of the value of the proposed approach compared with proposals from competing contractors Benefits could be quantitative or qualitative and could include cost savings; reduced processing time; reduced inventory; better customer service; less scrap, rejects or errors, ; improved safety conditions; more timely information and reduced maintenance 11
  49. 49. Proposal Contents : Management Section Objective to convince the customer that the contractor can do the proposed work and achieve the intended results The Management Section should contain the following elements: – description of work tasks – deliverables – project schedule – project organization – related experience – equipment and facilities 12
  50. 50. Proposal Contents : Cost Section The objective of the cost section of the contractor proposal is to convince the customer that the contractor’s price for the proposed project is realistic and reasonable. The cost section usually consist of • • • • • • • • • • Labor : – – – estimated costs of the various classifications of people who are expected to work on the project. It might include the estimate hours and hourly rate for each person or classification The estimates should be realistic Materials subcontractors and consultants equipment and facilities rental travel documentation Overhead – Contractor will add a percentage to costs in items above to cover their normal overhead – the indirect costs of doing business, such as insurance, depreciation, accounting, general management, marketing and human resources escalation contingency or management reserve fee or profit 13
  51. 51. Pricing Considerations Be careful not to overprice or underprice the proposed project Consider: • reliability of the cost estimates – – • If the project involves an endeavor that has not been undertaken before, such as R&D, it may be necessary to include a large amount or contingency or management reserve funds. value of the project to the contractor customer’s budget – • Costs should be based on a recent similar project or, in the case of materials cost estimates, on current price lists, catalogues or quotations. Risk – • • Does the total cost of the proposed project is complete and accurate? Pre-RFP marketing may help to know the customer budget Competition 14
  52. 52. Proposal Submission and Follow-Up • • • Submit proposals on time Hand deliver expensive proposals or send 2 sets by different express mail services, if necessary Continue to be proactive even after submission 15
  53. 53. Customer Evaluation of Proposals • Some look at the prices and select only from the three lowest-priced proposals • Some screen out prices above budget or whose technical section doesn’t meet all the requirements • Some create a proposal review team that uses a scorecard • May submit a best and final offer (BAFO) 16
  54. 54. Customer Evaluation of Proposals (Cont.) • Criteria that might be used in evaluating: –compliance withofSOWproblem or need the –understandingthe proposed approach –soundness ofexperience and past success –contractor’sof key individuals –experience capability –management schedule of the –realismreasonableness, realism, and completeness –price – 17
  55. 55. Types of Contracts After selecting a contractor, a contract must be signed between the customer and the contractor A contract is: A vehicle for establishing customer-contractor communications and arriving at a mutual understanding and clear expectations An agreement between the contractor, who agrees to provide a product or service, and the customer, who agrees to pay Must clearly spell out the deliverables Two types of contracts: fixed price and cost reimbursement • • • • 18
  56. 56. Types of Contracts (Cont.) Fixed-price contract • Price remains fixed unless the customer and contractor agree • Provides low risk for the customer • Provides high risk for the contractor • Is most appropriate for projects that are well defined and entail little risk 19
  57. 57. Types of Contracts (Cont.) Cost-reimbursement contract • • • • Provides high risk for the customer Provides low risk for the contractor Is most appropriate for projects that involve risk Customer usually requires that the contractor regularly compare actual expenditures with the proposed budget and reforecast cost-at-completion 20
  58. 58. Contract Provisions Misrepresentation of costs - states that it is illegal for the contractor to overstate the hours or costs expended on the project. Notice of cost overruns or schedule delays - outlines the circumstances under which the contractor must notify the customer any schedule delays. Approval of subcontractor - indicates when the contractor needs to obtain approval before hiring a subcontractor. Customer-furnished equipment or information - lists the items that the customer will provide to the contractor throughout the project and the dates by which the customer will make these items available. Patents - covers ownership of patents that may result from conducting the project. Disclosure of proprietary information - prohibits one party from disclosing project confidential information, technologies, or processes. Termination - states the conditions under which the customer can terminate the contract, such as nonperformance by the contractor 21
  59. 59. Contract Provisions • • Terms of payment - addresses the basis on which the customer will make payments to the contractor. Bonus/penalty payments - some contracts have a bonus provision, whereby the customer will pay the contractor a bonus if the project is completed ahead of schedule or exceeds other customer performance requirements. On the other hand, some contracts include a penalty provision, whereby the customer can reduce the final payment to the contractor if the project is not completed on schedule or if performance requirements are not met. • Changes. Covers the procedure for proposing, approving, and implementing changes to the project scope or schedule. 21
  60. 60. Project Management Processes
  61. 61. Project Management Process • • • Project management is an integrative endeavor — an action, or failure to take action, in one area will usually affect other areas. The interactions may be straightforward and well-understood, or they may be subtle and uncertain. For example, a scope change will almost always affect project cost, but it may or may not affect team morale or product quality.
  62. 62. Project Management Process • • Projects are composed of processes. A process is "a series of actions bringing about a result" Project management processes can be organized into five following groups (Arrows represent flow of documents and documentable items)
  63. 63. Project Management Process Executing Processes Planning Level Processes of Activity Closing Initiating Processes Processes Phase Time Start Phase Finish Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase
  64. 64. 1. • Initiation – Committing the organization to begin the next phase of the project Initiating a process
  65. 65. 2. • • • • • Planning a Processes Planning is of major importance to a project because the project involves doing something which has not been done before. As a result, there are relatively more processes in this section. However, the number of processes does not mean that project management is primarily planning The amount of planning performed should be commensurate with the scope of the project and the usefulness of the information developed. The relationships among the project planning processes are shown in Figure on next slide These processes are subject to frequent iterations prior to completing the plan. For example, if the initial completion date is unacceptable, project resources, cost, or even scope may need to be redefined. • In addition, planning is not an exact science—two different teams could generate very different plans for the same project.
  66. 66. 2. • Planning process : Core processes Some planning processes have clear dependencies that require them to be performed in essentially the same order on most projects. For example, activities must be defined before they can be scheduled or costed. These core planning processes may be iterated several times during any one phase of a project. They include: • • • • • Scope Planning — developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project decisions. Scope Definition — subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components. Activity Definition - identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverables Activity Sequencing —identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies. Activity Duration Estimating — estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities
  67. 67. 2. • • • • • Planning process : Core processes Schedule Development —analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project schedule. Resource Planning —determining what resources (people, equipment, ma-terials) and what quantities of each should be used to perform project activities. Cost Estimating —developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of the resources needed to complete project activities. Cost Budgeting —allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items. Project Plan Development —taking the results of other planning process-es and putting them into a consistent, coherent document
  68. 68. 2. • Planning process : Facilitating processes Interactions among the other planning processes are more dependent on the nature of the project. – For example, on some projects there may be little or no identifiable risk until after most of the planning has been done and the team recognizes that the cost and schedule targets are extremely aggressive and thus involve considerable risk. Although these facilitating processes are performed intermittently and as needed during project planning, they are not optional. They include: – Quality Planning —identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. – Organizational Planning —identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. – Staff Acquisition —getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project. – Communications Planning —determining the information and communications needs of the stakeholders: who needs what information, when will they need it, and how will it be given to them
  69. 69. 2. Planning process : Facilitating processes – Risk Identification —determining which risks are likely to affect the project and documenting the characteristics of each. – Risk Quantification —evaluating risks and risk interactions to assess the range of possible project outcomes. – Risk Response Development —defining enhancement steps for opportunities and responses to threats. – Procurement Planning —determining what to procure and when. – Solicitation Planning —documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources
  70. 70. 3. • Executing Processes The executing processes include core processes and facilitating processes as described Planning Processes .Figure on the next slide illustrates how the follow-ing processes interact: – – – – – – – – Project Plan Execution —carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein. Scope Verification —formalizing acceptance of the project scope. Quality Assurance —evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. Team Development —developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance. Information Distribution —making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner. Solicitation —obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate. Source Selection — choosing from among potential sellers. Contract Administration —managing the relationship with the seller
  71. 71. Quality Assurance Quality Assurance Information Distribution Team Development Scope Verification Solicitation Source Selection Contract Administration
  72. 72. 4. • • Controlling Processes Project performance must be measured regularly to identify variances from the plan. Variances are fed into the control processes in the various knowledge areas. To the extent that significant variances are observed (i.e., those that jeopardize the project objectives), adjustments to the plan are made by repeating the appropriate project planning processes. • For example, a missed activity finish date may require adjustments to the current staffing plan, reliance on overtime, or tradeoffs between bud-get and schedule objectives. • Controlling also includes taking preventive action in anticipation of possible problems.
  73. 73. Controlling Processes • The controlling process group contains core processes and facilitating processes as described in Planning Processes. Figure on the next slide illustrates how the following processes interact: – – – – – Overall Change Control —coordinating changes across the entire project. – Performance Scope Change Control —controlling changes to project scope. Schedule Control —controlling changes to the project schedule. Cost Control —controlling changes to the project budget. Quality Control —monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. Reporting information. This —collecting includes and status disseminating reporting, progress performance measurement, and forecasting. – Risk of the project. Response Control —responding to changes in risk over the course
  74. 74. Performance Reporting Overall Change Control change Control Schedule Control Quality Control Risk Response Control Scope Cost Control
  75. 75. Closing Processes Contract Close-out —completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of any open items. Administrative Closure —generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion
  76. 76. Customizing Process Interactions • The processes identified and their interactions meet the test of general acceptance—they apply to most projects most of the time. However, • For example: An organization that makes extensive use of contractors may explicitly describe where in the planning process each • The absence of a process does not mean that it should not be performed. The project management team should identify and manage all • Projects which are dependent on unique resources (commercial software development, biopharmaceuticals, etc.) may define roles and • Some process outputs may be predefined as constraints. For example, management may specify a target completion date rather than not all of the processes will be needed on all projects, and not all of the interactions will apply to all projects. procurement process occurs. the processes that are needed to ensure a successful project. responsibilities prior to scope definition since what can be done may be a function of who will be available to do it. allowing it to be determined by the planning process.
  77. 77. Customizing Process Interactions • Larger projects may need relatively more detail. For example, risk identification might be further subdivided to focus separately on identifying cost risks, • On subprojects and smaller projects, relatively little effort will be spent on processes whose outputs have been defined at the project level (e.g., a subcontractor schedule risks, technical risks, and quality risks. may ignore risks explicitly assumed by the prime contractor) or on processes that provide only marginal utility (there may be no formal communications plan on a four-person project). • When there is a need to make a change, the change should be clearly identified, carefully evaluated, and actively managed
  78. 78. Planning
  79. 79. Learning Objectives • • • • Clearly define the project Plan and objective Develop a work breakdown structure Develop a network diagram CASE STUDY : Utilize a project management methodology called the systems development life cycle for information systems development projects 2
  80. 80. Real World Example • • • The Olympics • • Less than 100 days remained, and it appeared that most construction projects would not be complete until a few days before the games • A project manager can help team members to stay on task with short-term goals to assure that the long-term goals are met on time Athens, Greece received the award to host the 2004 Olympic Games in 1997 Project work did not begin until 2000, after a warning was issued by the International Olympic Committee. $1.19 billion was added to the project cost because of construction delays and the need for increased security Olympic project team worked under a very tight time schedule, with little time for independent tasks. Network planning techniques are essential in these situations to define hierarchy of projects 3
  81. 81. Project Plan The project plan is a formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution. It Includes : – Project charter. – A description of the project management approach or strategy (a summary of the individual management plans from the other knowledge areas). – Scope statement, which includes the project deliverables and the project objectives. – Work breakdown structure (WBS) to the level at which control will be exercised. – Cost estimates, scheduled start dates, and responsibility assignments to the level of the WBS at which control will be exercised. 2
  82. 82. Project Plan : Purpose • A project Plan is used to : • • • • • • Guide project Execution Document Project Planning assumptions Document Project Planning decisions regarding alternatives chosen Facilitate communication among stakeholders Define key management review as to content, extend and timing Provide a baseline for progress measurement and project control 2
  83. 83. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) • The second step is to determine what activities need to be performed. – Approaches • Small Projects : Brainstorm • Complex Projects : WBS • • • • • A list of all the activities must be developed. The WBS is a hierarchical tree of end items to be accomplished. A work item is one small piece of the project. A work package is the lowest-level item. Criteria for deciding the “How Many Levels in WBS – The level at which a single individual or organization can be assigned responsibility and accountability for accomplishing the work package 6
  84. 84. Work Breakdown Structure for Festival Project
  85. 85. Responsibility Matrix • • • • • Displays in tabular format the individuals responsible for accomplishing the work items in WBS. It is a useful tool because it emphasizes who is responsible for each work item and shows each individual’s role in supporting the overall project “X” can be used to indicate who is responsible. “P” indicates who has primary responsibility. “S” indicates who has secondary responsibility. 7
  86. 86. Responsibility Matrix for Festival Project
  87. 87. Activities, Defined • • An activity is a piece of work that consumes time. It does not necessarily require the expenditure of effort by people – • For example: waiting for concrete to harden can take several days but does not require any human effort For work package “ Game Booths” in WBS the following eight detailed may be identified. 1.Design Booths 2.Specify material 3.Buy Material 4.Construct Booths 5.Paint Booths 6.Dismantle Booths 7.Move booths to 8.Dismantle festival site booths and and move to reassemble storage 8
  88. 88. Developing the Network Plan • After all activities have been defined, they are graphically portrayed in a network diagram that shows the appropriate sequence and interrelationships needed to accomplish the overall project work scope. • Two network planning techniques were developed in the 1950’s: – – • Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) Critical path method (CPM) Network Diagram shows the sequential flow and interrelationships of activities. 9
  89. 89. Gantt Charts • • Gantt charts, or bar charts, are popular due to their simplicity. The Gantt Charts combines the two functions of planning and scheduling – – – – • Activities are listed down the left-hand side. A time scale is shown along the bottom. The estimated duration for each activity is indicated by a line or bar spanning the period during which the activity is expected to be accomplished Column that indicate who is responsible for each task can be added to the chart. With Gantt Charts, the scheduling of activities occurs simultaneously with their planning 10
  90. 90. Gantt Charts (Cont.) • • • Do not display the interrelationships of activities. If one activity is delayed, it is not obvious how that will affect other activities. Most project management software can show interdependencies with arrows. 11
  91. 91. Gantt Chart for Consumer Market Study Project
  92. 92. Network Diagram Techniques • • • Network Techniques separate the planning and scheduling functions A Network Diagram is the result or output of the planning functions and is not drawn to a time scale From this diagram a schedule is developed. – • Separating the two functions makes it much easier to revise a plan and calculate an updated schedule Different formats can be used to draw the Network diagram: – Activity in the box (AIB) OR A – Activity on the arrow (AOA) ctivity on the node (AON)
  93. 93. Activity in the Box (AIB) • • Each activity is represented by a box. The activity description is written in the box. Get Volunteers 7 • • • • • Activity consume time, and their description usually starts with a verb Each activity is represented by one and only one box. Each box is assigned a unique activity number. Activities have a precedential relationship. Some activities may be done concurrently. 13
  94. 94. AIB : Sequential and Concurrent Activities Wash Car 3 Dry Car 4 Dismantle Booth Get Volunteers 11 7 Construct Booth Buy Materials 8 9 10 Paint Booth Clean Up 12
  95. 95. Activity on the Arrow (AOA) • • Each activity is represented by an arrow. The activity description is written above the arrow. Collect Data • • • • Each activity is represented by one and only one arrow The tail of the arrow designates the start of the activity. The head of the arrow designates the completion of the activity. The length and slope of the arrow are in no way indicative of the activity’s duration or importance 14
  96. 96. Activity on the Arrow (AOA) (Cont.) • • • • Activities are linked by circles called events. An event represents the finish of activities entering it and the start of activities leaving it. Each event is assigned a unique activity number. For example, the activities shown below, “Wash Car” and “Dry Car”, have a serial relationship and are linked together by event 2. Event 2, represents the completion of “Wash Car” and the start of “Dry Car” 1 Wash Car 2 Dry Car 3 The event at the beginning (tail of the arrow) of the activity is known as the activity’s predecessor event, and the event at the end (head of the arrow) of the activity is known as the activity’s successor event 15
  97. 97. Activity on the Arrow (AOA) (Cont.) • All activities going into an event (circle) must be finished before any activities leading from that event can start. 6 Get Volunteers Dismantle Booth 8 7 • Buy Materials Construct Booth 9 Paint Booth 11 10 Clean Up 12 Rules: • Each event (circle) in the network diagram must have a unique event number – that is, not two events in the network diagram can have the same event number • Each activity must have a unique combination of predecessor and successor event numbers 15
  98. 98. Dummy Activities • In the activity-on-the-arrow format, there is a special type of activity known as a dummy activity, which consumes zero time and is represented by a dashed arrow in the network diagram • Used only in the activity-on-the-arrow format for two reasons – To help in the unique identification of activities and to show certain precedential relationships that otherwise could not be shown. • • • • Used in the AOA format. Consumes zero time. Represented by a dashed arrow. Needed for: – Helping in the unique identification of activities. – Showing certain precendential relationships that otherwise could not be shown. 16
  99. 99. Dummy Activities • Activities A and B below both have the predecessor-successor event number combination 1 – 2. A 1 • 3 B This is not allowed in an AOA network diagram, because if someone referred to activity 1-2, it would not be clear whether activity A or activity B was being discussed 16
  100. 100. Dummy Activities • The insertion of a dummy activity, as shown below, allows activities A and B to have unique predecessor-successor event number combinations. 1 A B 3 2 16
  101. 101. Dummy Activities • For example Draw AOA: Activities A an B can be done concurrently. When activity A is finished, activity C can start. When both activity A and activity B are finished, activity D can start 1 A C 4 Incorrect 3 2 1 2 D B A B 3 4 C D 5 5 6 16
  102. 102. Dummy Activities • An advantage of the Activity-in-the-box format is that the logic can be shown without the use of dummy activities. A 1 C 3 B 2 D 4 16
  103. 103. Loops • Not allowed because it portrays a path of activities that perpetually repeats itself. A 1 C 3 D 4 17
  104. 104. Laddering • Used for projects that have a set of activities that are repeated several times. For example, consider a project involving the painting of three rooms. Painting each room requires (1) preparing the room to be painted (2) painting the ceiling and walls and (3) painting the trim. Assume that three experts will be available – one to do the preparation, one to paint the ceilings and walls and one to do the trim. 18
  105. 105. Activities Performed Serially
  106. 106. Activities Performed Concurrently Concurrent processing is not possible in this case, as only one expert is available for each type of activity
  107. 107. Laddering
  108. 108. Preparing the Network Diagram • Ask the following questions regarding each activity: – Which activities must be finished immediately before this activity can be started? – Which activities can be done concurrently with this activity? – Which activities cannot be started until this activity is finished? 19
  109. 109. Preparing the Network Diagram (Cont.) • • • • • Should flow from left to right. Not drawn to a time scale. Can vary in how detailed the diagram should be. AIB vs. AOA is a matter of personal preference. AIB is the most common in project management software packages. 20
  110. 110. Guidelines for Preparing the Network Diagram • • If a work breakdown structure has been prepared for the project, then activities should be identified for each work package. For example, figure on next slide shows a WBS for a project involving a consumer market study and the activities that have been identified for each work package 20
  111. 111. Work Breakdown Structure for Consumer Market Study Project
  112. 112. Guidelines for Preparing the Network Diagram (contd…) • It may be preferable to draw a summary-level network first and then expand it to a more detailed network. – A summary network contains a small number of higher-level activities rather than a large number of detailed activities. • The level of detail may be determined by certain obvious interface or transfer points : – If there is a change in responsibility – that is, a different person or organization takes over responsibility for continuing the work – it should define the end of one activity and the start of other activities • For example, if one person is responsible for building an item and another person is responsible for packaging it, these should be two separate activities. 20
  113. 113. Guidelines for Preparing the Network Diagram (contd…) • Activities should not be longer in estimated duration than the time intervals at which actual project progress will be reviewed and compared to planed progress. – For example, if the project is a three-year endeavor and the project team plans to review project progress monthly, then the network should contain no activities with estimated durations greater than 30 days. – If there are activities with longer estimated durations, they should be broken up into more detailed activities with durations of 30 days or less • Finally, when the entire network diagram has been drawn, it’s necessary to assign a unique activity number to each activity 20
  114. 114. Example : Network Diagram for Consumer Market Study Project
  115. 115. Exercise Draw a network diagram representing the following logic: As the project starts, activities A and B can be performed concurrently. When A is finished, activities C and D can start. When B is finished, activities E and F can start. When activities D and E are finished, activity G can start. The project is complete when activities C, F, and G are finished. Use both the activity-in-the-box and the activity-on-the-arrow formats . C A D Start Finish B E G F 21
  116. 116. Exercise Activity Immediate Predecessor 1. Problem Definition — 2. Study Current System 1 3. Define User Requirements 1 4. Logical System Design 3 5. Physical System Design 2 6. System Development 4, 5 7. System Testing 6 8. Convert Database 4, 5 9. System Conversion 7, 8 1 2 5 6 3 4 7 9 8 21
  117. 117. Exercise Draw a network diagram representing the following logic: • As the project starts, activities A and B can be performed concurrently. When A is finished, activities C and D can start. When B is finished, activities E and F can start. When activities D and E are finished, activity G can start. The project is complete when activities C, F, and G are finished. Use both the activity-in-the-box and the activity-on-the-arrow formats . 21
  118. 118. Information System, Defined • An information system (IS) is a computer-based system that accepts data as input, processes the data, and produces useful information for users. 21
  119. 119. Planning for Information Systems Development • • The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is used to help plan, execute and control IS development projects. Many people view the SDLC as a classic problem-solving approach. 22
  120. 120. Steps of the SDLC • • • • • • Problem definition System analysis System design System development System testing System implementation 23
  121. 121. Project Management Software You are advised to prepare the following • • • • WBS Responsibility Matrix Gant Chart Network Diagram 24
  122. 122. Scheduling
  123. 123. Learning Objectives • • • • • • Estimate the duration for each activity Establish the estimated start time and required completion time for the overall project Calculate the earliest times at which each activity can start and finish, based on the project’s estimated start time Calculate the latest times by which each activity must start and finish in order to complete the project by its required completion time Determine the amount of positive or negative slack Identify the critical (longest) path of activities 2
  124. 124. Real World Example US Census 2000 Project • A US Census takes place every 10 years in the form of a questionnaire from the US Census Bureau. Census information helps the government in making policies regarding health, education, transportation, community services etc. • • • Census participation takes only a few minutes, but it takes years for the employees of the Census Bureau. Census 2000 was a 13-year project that’s total life cycle cost $65 billion Planning for data collection is important. 520 local census offices across the US verify and collect as many addresses as possible Project’s goal was 70% response rate to the 2000 Census. The Bureau implemented a plan to spread the word about the census and stress its importance. A non-response plan was also established to reach those that failed to complete the census • The 2000 Census was considered to be the most accurate population count in US history. For the first time, census data was made available on the Internet 4
  125. 125. Activity Duration Estimates – The first step in scheduling is to estimate how long each activity will take. – The duration estimate is the total elapsed time for the work to be done PLUS any associated waiting time. – The person responsible for performing the activity should help make the duration estimate. However, for large projects it may not be practical to have each person provide activity duration estimates. – An activity’s duration estimate must be based on the quantity of resources expected to be used on the activity. 6
  126. 126. Network Diagram for Consumer Market Study Project, Showing Duration Estimates
  127. 127. Project Start and Finish Times • • • It is necessary to select an estimated start time and a required completion time for the overall project. The project’s required completion time is normally part of the project objective and stated in the contract. If a project must be completed in 130 working days, we define the project’s estimated start time as 0 and its required completion time is day 130. 7
  128. 128. Schedule Calculations • A project schedule includes: – the earliest times (or dates) at which each activity can start and finish, based on the project's estimated start time (or date) – the latest times (or dates) by which each activity must start and finish in order to complete the project by its required completion time (or date) 8
  129. 129. Earliest Start and Finish Times • • • • • Earliest start time (ES) is the earliest time at which a particular activity can begin. Earliest finish time (EF) is the earliest time by which a particular activity can be completed. EF = ES + Duration Estimate The ES and EF times are determined by calculating forward through the network diagram. Rule: 1 – The earliest start time for a particular activity must be the same as or later than the latest of all the earliest finish times of all the activities leading directly into that particular activity 9
  130. 130. Earliest Start Times
  131. 131. Network Diagram for Consumer Market Study Project, Showing Earliest Start and Finish Times
  132. 132. The ES and EF times are sometimes listed in a separate schedule table
  133. 133. Latest Start and Finish Times • Latest finish time (LF) is the latest time by which a particular activity must be finished in order for the entire project to be completed by its required completion time, calculated on the basis of the project’s required completion time and the duration estimates for succeeding activities. • Latest start time (LS) is the latest time by which a particular activity must be started in order for the entire project to be completed by its required completion time, calculated by subtracting the activity’s duration estimate from the activity’s latest finish time: • • • LS = LF – Duration Estimate The LF and LS times are determined by calculating backward through the network diagram. Rule 2: The latest finish time for a particular activity must be the same as or earlier than the earliest of all the latest start times of all the activities emerging directly from that particular activity. 11
  134. 134. Latest Finish Times
  135. 135. Network Diagram for Consumer Market Study Project, Showing Latest Start and Finish Times 12
  136. 136. Latest Start and Finish Times • The very first activity, “Identify Target Consumers,” has an LS of –8! This means that in order to complete the entire project by its required completion time of 130 days, the project must start 8 days earlier than it is estimated to start. • Like the earliest start and earliest finish times, the latest start and latest finish times are sometimes shown in a separate schedule table
  137. 137. Schedule for Consumer Market Study Project, Showing Latest Start and Finish Times
  138. 138. Total Slack, Defined • The difference between the calculated earliest finish time of the very last activity and the project’s required completion time is the total slack (TS), sometimes called float. • If total slack is positive, it represents the maximum amount of time that the activities on a particular path can be delayed without jeopardizing completion of the project by its required completion time. • On the other hand, if total slack is negative, it represents the amount of time that the activities on a particular path must be accelerated in order to complete the project by its required completion time. • Total Slack = LF – EF or Total Slack = LS – ES 13
  139. 139. Critical Path • • • • This longest path in the overall network diagram is called the critical path. One way to determine which activities make up the critical path is to find which ones have the least slack. All the activities with this value are on the critical path of activities. The values of total slack for the consumer market study project are shown in Figure on next slide 14
  140. 140. Schedule for Consumer Market Study Project, Showing Total Slack Values
  141. 141. Critical Path • • • • The lowest value is –8 days. The activities that have this same value of total slack make up the path 1–2–3–4–6–9–11–12–13. To eliminate the –8 days of slack, the estimated durations of one or more activities on this critical path need to be reduced. Suppose we reduce the estimated duration of “Mail Questionnaire & Get Responses” from 65 days to 55 days. The total slack changes from –8 days to +2 days. • Those paths with positive values of total slack are sometimes referred to as noncritical paths, while those paths with zero or negative values of total slack are referred to as critical paths. • n this case the longest path is often referred to as the most critical path. 15
  142. 142. Free Slack • • • • Free slack is the amount of time a particular activity can be delayed without delaying the earliest start time of its immediately succeeding activities. It is the relative difference between the amounts of total slack for activities entering into the same activity. It is always a positive value In the network diagram (Figure on Next slide), there are three instances where a particular activity has more than one activity entering into it: – – – Activity 9, “Mail Questionnaire & Get Responses,” has activities 5 and 6 entering into it. Activity 10, “Test Software,” has activities 7 and 8 entering into it. Activity 11, “Input Response Data,” has activities 9 and 10 entering into it. 16
  143. 143. Free Slack 17
  144. 144. Free Slack • • • The values of total slack for activities 5 and 6 are 0 and –8 days, respectively. The lesser of these two values is –8 days for activity 6. The free slack for activity 5 is the relative difference between its total slack, 0, and –8. This relative difference is 8 days: 0 – (–8) = 8 days. 16
  145. 145. Scheduling-PERT
  146. 146. PERT Programme Evaluation and Review Technique • PERT developed in 1956-58 by a research team to aid in the planning and scheduling of the US Navy’s Polaris Missile Programme which involved over three thousand different contracting organization. • • The objective of the team was to efficiently plan and produce the Polaris missile system. Since 1958, PERT has proved to be useful for all jobs or projects which have an element of uncertainty in the matter of estimation of duration, as in the case with new types of projects the like of which have never been taken up before 20
  147. 147. CPM- Critical Path Method • • CPM was developed jointly by E.I DuPont Company and Remington Rand Univac Division. The aim behind its development was to have a better planning in controlling the overhaul and maintenance of chemical plants. PERT and CPM both are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling that determines the most critical activities to be controlled so as to meet the completion date of the project 20
  148. 148. PERT • Since PERT was developed in connection with an R&D work, therefore it has to cope with the uncertainties which are associated with R&D activities. In PERT, total project duration is regarded as a random variable and therefore associated probabilities are calculated so as to characterize it. • It is an event-oriented network because in the analysis of network emphasis is given on important stages of completion of task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach to a particular event or task • • A pert is normally used for projects involving activities of non-repetitive nature in which time estimates are uncertain. It helps in pin pointing critical areas in a project so that necessary adjustment can be made to meet the scheduled completion date of the project. 20
  149. 149. Probability Considerations Activity Duration Estimates • • • Optimistic time: time to complete an activity if everything goes perfectly well. Most likely time: time to complete an activity under normal conditions. Pessimistic time: time to complete an activity under adverse circumstances. 20
  150. 150. The Beta Probability Distribution • • When using three time estimates, it is assumed that they follow a beta probability distribution. The expected duration and variance is calculated using the following formula: 1 t e = ( t o + 4t m + t p ) 6 1  σ =  (t p − t o ) 6  2 2 21 1
  151. 151. Estimation of Project Completion Time As we are expecting a variability in the activity duration, the total project may not be completed exactly in time. Thus, it is necessary to calculate the probability of actually meeting the scheduled time of the project as well as activities Probability of completing the project by scheduled time (t ) is given by s The standard normal variate is given by Where = expected completion time of the Project number of standard deviations the scheduled time lies from the expected (mean time) Variance activities of the critical path can be known by adding variances of the critical 21 1
  152. 152. Example - PERT A project is represented by the network shown below and has the following data Task A B C D E F G H I Optimistic 5 18 26 16 15 6 7 7 3 Pessimistic 10 22 40 20 25 12 12 9 5 Most likely 8 20 33 18 20 9 10 8 4 Determine the following a) Expected task times and their variance b) The earliest and latest expected times to reach each event c) The critical path d) The probability of an event occurring at the proposed completion date if the original contract time of completing the project is 41.5 weeks F 3 B 1 I 6 E A 2 7 H D G 5 C 4 22
  153. 153. Solution Activity 1 -2 1-3 1-4 2–5 2–6 3–6 4–7 5–7 6-7 5 18 26 16 15 6 7 7 3 10 22 40 20 25 12 12 9 5 8 20 33 18 20 9 10 8 4 7.8 20.0 33.0 18.0 20.0 9.0 9.8 8.0 4.0 0.696 0.444 5.429 0.443 2.780 1.000 0.694 0.111 0.111
  154. 154. Solution E1=0 E2 = E1+ T1-2 = 0 + 7.8 E3 = E1+ T1-3 = 0 + 20.0 = 20.0 E4 = E1+ T1-4 = 0 + 33.0 = 33.0 E5 = E2+ T2-5 = 7.8 + 18.0 = 25.8 E6 = max {Ei + ti,6 } = max {E2 + t2,6 ; E3 + t3,6} =max {7.8 + 20.0 ; 20 +9.0}= 29.0 E7 = max {Ei + ti,7 } = max {E5 + t5,7 ; E6 + t6,7 ; E4 + t4,7} =max {25.8 + 8 ; 29 +4; 33+9.8}= 42.8 Earliest Start and Earliest Finish ( Forward Pass) Expected Length of Critical Path = Variance of Critical Path =
  155. 155. It is given that =41.5, and Therefore, probability of meeting the schedule time is given by = Prob = 0.30 from normal distribution table Thus, the probability that the project can be completed in less than or equal to 41.5 weeks is 0.30. In other words, probability that the project will get delayed beyond 41.5 weeks is 0.70
  156. 156. Schedule Control
  157. 157. Learning Objectives • • • • • Perform the steps in the project control process Determine the effects of actual schedule performance on the project schedule Incorporate project changes into the schedule Calculate an updated project schedule Control the project schedule 2
  158. 158. Project Control Process The project control process involves : – Regularly gathering data on project performance, – Comparing actual performance to planned performance – Taking corrective actions if actual performance is behind planned performance
  159. 159. P o r e j t c C o t n o r l P o r c e s s
  160. 160. Project Control Process • • • The key to effective project control is to measure actual progress and compare it to planned progress on a timely and regular basis and to take necessary corrective action immediately. Establish a regular reporting period. During each reporting period, collect: – – • data on actual performance information on any changes to project scope, schedule and budget. If changes are incorporated, a new plan must be established. Project management is a proactive approach to controlling a project, to ensure that the project objective is achieved even when things don't go according to plan 5
  161. 161. Effects of Actual Schedule Performance • • • Throughout a project, some activities will be completed on time, some will be finished ahead of schedule, and others will be finished later than the schedule Actual Progress – whether faster or slower than planned – will have an effect on the schedule of the remaining uncompleted activities of the project Actual finish times (AFT) of completed activities will determine the earliest start and earliest finish times for the remaining activities. 6
  162. 162. Incorporating Project Changes into the Schedule • • • • Changes might be initiated by the customer or the project team, or they might be the result of an unanticipated occurrence. The degree of impact may depend on when the changes are requested. If they’re requested early in the project, they may have less impact on cost and schedule When the customer requests a change, additional costs might need to be charged. 7
  163. 163. Network Diagram for Consumer Market Study Project, Showing the Critical Path
  164. 164. Revised Schedule for Consumer Market Study Project
  165. 165. Updating the Project Schedule • Once data have been collected on the actual finish times of completed activities and the effects of any project changes, an updated project schedule can be calculated based on the actual finish times of completed activities. • Changes in the Network diagram studied in last class – Completed Activities Activity 1: “Identify Target Consumers” actually finished on day 2 Activity 2: “Develop Draft Questionnaire” actually finished on day 11 Activity 3 : “Pilot-Test Questionnaire” actually finished on day 30 – Project Changes • It was discovered that the database to be used to prepare the mailing labels was not up to date. A new database needs to be purchased before the mailing labels can be prepared. This new database was ordered on day 23. It will take 21 days to get it from the supplier • A preliminary review of comments from the pilot test of the questionnaire indicates that substantial revisions to the questionnaire are required. Therefore, the duration estimate for activity 4 needs to be increased from 5 days to 15 days 8
  166. 166. Network Diagram for Consumer Market Study Project, Incorporating Actual Progress and Changes
  167. 167. Updated Schedule for Consumer Market Study Project Consumer Market Study Project
  168. 168. Approaches to Schedule Control Four Steps Schedule control involves four steps: – Analyzing the schedule to determine which areas may need corrective action – Deciding what specific corrective actions should be taken – Revising the plan to incorporate the chosen corrective actions – Recalculating the schedule to evaluate the effects of the planned corrective actions • If the planned corrective actions do not result in an acceptable schedule, these steps need to be repeated 9
  169. 169. Approaches to Schedule Control (Cont.) • • A change in the estimated duration of any activity on that path will cause a corresponding change in the slack for that path. When analyzing a path of activities that has negative slack, you should focus on two kinds of activities: – – Activities that are near term (that is, in progress or to be started in the immediate future). Activities that have long estimated durations 10
  170. 170. Reducing the Estimated Durations There are various approaches to reducing the estimated durations of activities. – One obvious way is to apply more resources to speed up an activity. Sometimes, however, adding people to an activity may in fact result in the activity’s taking longer. – Another approach is to assign a person with greater expertise or more experience to perform or help with the activity. – Reducing the scope or requirements for an activity is another way to reduce its estimated duration. – In an extreme case, it may be decided to totally eliminate some activities. – Increasing productivity through improved methods or technology is yet another approach. 11
  171. 171. Approaches to Schedule Control (Cont.) • In most cases, eliminating negative slack by reducing durations of activities will involve a trade-off in the form of an increase in costs or a reduction in scope. • Some contracts include a bonus provision, whereby the customer will pay the contractor a bonus if the project is completed ahead of schedule. • Conversely, some contracts include a penalty provision, whereby the customer can reduce final payment to the contractor if the project is not completed on time. • The key to effective schedule control is to aggressively address any paths with negative or deteriorating slack values as soon as they are identified. 12
  172. 172. Schedule Control for Information Systems Development • Controlling the schedule for the development of an information system is a challenge. • Among the changes that commonly become necessary during IS development projects are the following: –Changes to input screens –Changes to reports –Changes to on-line queries –Changes to database structures –Changes to software processing routines –Changes to processing speeds 13
  173. 173. Project Management Software • • • • The software allows you to perform various control functions. The percent complete for each task can be entered. Changes to the duration estimates can be entered. The software will automatically revise the project schedule and the corresponding network diagrams. 14
  174. 174. Resource Considerations
  175. 175. Learning Objectives • • • • Learn how to take resource constraints into account Determine the planned resource utilization for a project Level the use of resources within the required time frame Determine the shortest project schedule with limited resources 2
  176. 176. Technically Constrained Activity Sequence
  177. 177. Resource-Constrained Planning • • • Nearly all projects have limits on available resources. Project delays often occur due to certain resources being unavailable. A network diagram can be drawn to reflect the availability of a limited number of resources. 4
  178. 178. Resource-Constrained Planning
  179. 179. Planned Resource Utilization • If resources are to be considered in planning, it’s necessary to indicate the amounts and types of resources needed to perform each activity. Painting Project Showing Needed Resources 5
  180. 180. Planned Resource Utilization
  181. 181. Planned Resource Utilization Resource Profile for Painters : Uneven Utilization of Painters
  182. 182. Planned Resource Utilization • • • Sometimes it’s preferable to have a more uniform, or level, application of resources. Resource utilization based on each activity’s earliest start time are said to be based on an as-soon-as-possible (ASAP) schedule. Resource utilization charts based on each activity’s latest start time are said to be based on an as-late-as-possible (ALAP) schedule. 5
  183. 183. Resource Leveling • Resource leveling, or smoothing, is a method for developing a schedule that attempts to minimize the fluctuations in requirements for resources. • This method levels the resources so that they are applied as uniformly as possible without extending the project schedule beyond the required completion time. • • Non critical activities are delayed beyond their earliest start times in order to maintain a uniform level of required resources Example : Utilization of Painters Looking at Figure we can see that “Bathroom” could be delayed up to 2 days, “Basement Rooms” could be delayed up to 8 days, and “Bedrooms” could be delayed up to 6 days—all without extending the project completion time 6
  184. 184. Resource Leveling Two alternative actions could be taken: – Alternative 1. Delay the activity with the most positive slack—“Basement Rooms” (+8 days slack)—by 6 days so that it will start after “Bedrooms” is finished. – Alternative 2. Delay “Bedrooms” so that it will start on day 4, after “Basement Rooms” is completed. 6
  185. 185. Resource-Leveled Utillization
  186. 186. Resource-Leveled Profile for Painters
  187. 187. Resource-Limited Scheduling • Resource-limited scheduling is a method for developing the shortest schedule when the number or amount of available resources is fixed and cannot be exceeded. • • This method will extend the project completion time if necessary in order to keep within the resource limits. When several activities need the same limited resource at the same time, the activities with the least slack have first priority 7
  188. 188. Effect of Limited Resource Availability what would happen if only a limited number of painters— two—were available to do the painting project.
  189. 189. Original Resource Utilization Figure below shows that, as the project starts, three activities require a total of four painters Since “First Floor Rooms” has a slack of 0 the two painters will be allocated to the first floor rooms and will continue to be assigned to that activity until it is finished
  190. 190. First Resource Allocation This first resource allocation is shown in Figure below with the project completion going from day 12 to day 14.
  191. 191. Second Resource Allocation • The second resource allocation is shown in Figure below with the project completion date going from day 14 to day 16.
  192. 192. Third Resource Allocation • The third resource allocation is shown in Figure below with the project completion date remaining at day 16
  193. 193. Project Management Software • • • • • Provides excellent features for handling resource considerations within a project. Allows you to create and maintain a list of resources. Resources can be assigned to various tasks within a project. The user is informed if any resources have time conflicts or if they are over-allocated. Numerous resource allocation reports can be generated. 8
  194. 194. Software Project Planning
  195. 195. Objective • To provide a framework that enables the manager to make reasonable estimates of resources, cost and schedule.
  196. 196. Task set for Project Planning • • • • • • Establish project scope Determine feasibility Analyze Risks Define required resources Estimate cost and effort Develop a project schedule
  197. 197. Various steps of planning activity Size Estimation Cost Estimation Development Time Resources Requirements Project scheduling
  198. 198. Size Estimation • • The estimation of size is very critical and difficult area of the project planning. It is difficult to establish the unit of measurement.
  199. 199. Line of Code • • • • First measurement attempt. Advantage of being easily recognizable and counted. Disagreement on what is included in line of code. Early users of LOC did not include data declarations, comments, or any other lines that did not result in object code.
  200. 200. Line of Code (contd…) • • Conte has defined the lines of code as: “A line of code is any line of program text that is not a comment or blank line, regardless of the number of statements or fragments of statements on the line. This specifically include all lines containing program header, declarations and executable and non executable statements.”
  201. 201. Disadvantage of using LOC • • It is language dependent • Measuring software size in terms of LOC is analogous to measuring a car stereo by the number of resistors, capacitors and integrated circuits involved in it They also reflect what the system is rather than what it does. production.
  202. 202. Function Count • • • Alan Albercht (IBM 1970) developed a technique called Function Point Analysis. It measures functionality from users point of view. It deals with functionality being delivered
  203. 203. Function Point Analysis • • • The principle of Function Point Analysis is that a system is decomposed into functional units The five function units are divided in two categories: Data function types – – • Internal Logical files External Interface files Transactional Function Types – – – External Inputs External Outputs External Inquiry
  204. 204. Function Point Analysis external interface files external inputs internal logical files external inquiries external outputs
  205. 205. Special Features • • FPA is independent of the language, tools or methodologies used for implementation Function points can be estimated from requirement specification of design specifications, thus making it possible to estimate development effort in early phases of development. • • Function Points are directly linked to the statement of requirements; any change of requirements can easily be followed by a re-estimate They are based on the system user’s external view of the system
  206. 206. Counting Function Points • • The five functional units are ranked according to their complexity i.e. Low, Average or High. Organization that use FP methods develop criteria for determining whether a particular entry is Low, Average or High
  207. 207. Counting Function Points Weighing Factors Functional Units Low Average High External Inputs 3 4 6 External Output 4 5 7 External Inquiries 3 4 6 Internal Logical files 7 10 15 External Interface files 5 7 10
  208. 208. Unadjusted Function Point Functional Units Count complexity Complexity totals Low x 3 Internal Logical files = Average x 5 High x 7 = = Average x 4 High x 6 = Low x 7 External Inquiries = = Low x 3 External Outputs Average x 4 High x 6 Low x 4 External Inputs = = = = Average x 10 = = High x 15 Low x 5 External Interface Files = Average x 7 High x 10 = = Functional Unit Totals
  209. 209. Procedure for Calculating UFP Where i indicates the row and j indicates the column of Table “Functional Units with weighing factors : It is the entry of the ith row and jth column of Table “Functional Units with weighing factors : It is the count of the number of functional units of Type i that have been classified as having the complexity corresponding to column j
  210. 210. Complexity adjustment Factor • The final number of function points is arrived at by multiplying the UFP by an adjustment factor that is determined by considering 14 aspects of processing complexity. • • This adjustment factor allows the UFP count to be modified by at most ± 35%. The final adjusted FP count is obtained by using the following relationship FP= UFP * CAF Where CAF = 0.65 + x Σ Fi
  211. 211. Complexity adjustment Factor 0 No Influence Rate each factor on a scale of 0 to 5 1 2 3 4 Incidental Moderate Average Significant 1. Does the system require reliable backup and recovery? 2. Is data communication required? 3. Are there distributed processing functions? 4. Is performance critical? 5. Will the system run in an existing heavily utilized operational environment? 6. Does the system require online data entry 7. Does the online data entry require the input to be built over multiple screens or operations 5 Essential
  212. 212. Complexity adjustment Factor 0 No Influence Rate each factor on a scale of 0 to 5 1 2 3 4 Incidental Moderate Average Significant 8. Are the master files updated online? 9. Is the inputs, outputs, files or inquiries complex? 10. Is the internal processing complex? 11. Is the code designed to be reusable? 12. Are conversion and installation included in the design? 13. Is the system designed for multiple installations in different organizations? 14. Is the application designed to facilitate change and ease of use by the user? 5 Essential
  213. 213. Problem • • • • • • • Consider a project with the following functional units: no. of user inputs = 50 No. of outputs = 40 No. of user enquiries = 35 No of user files = =06 No of external interfaces = 04 Assume all CAF and weighting factors are average. Compute the FP for the project
  214. 214. Answer UFP = 50*4+40*5+35*4+6*10+4*7 =200+200+140+60+28=628 =(0.65+0.01(14*3)) = 0.65 + 0.42 = 1.07 FP = UFP * CAF =628 * 1.07 = 672
  215. 215. Problem • • An application has the following: 10 low external inputs, 12 high external outputs, 20 low internal logical files, 15 high external interface files, 12 average external inquiries and a value of CAF of 1.10. • What are the unadjusted and adjusted FP counts?
  216. 216. Answer 5 3 I= 1 J= 1 UFP = ∑ ∑ ij wij Z = 10*3 + 12*7 + 20*7 + 15*10 + 12*4 = 30 + 84 + 140 + 150 + 48 = 452 FP = UFP * CAF = 452 * 1.10 = 497.2
  217. 217. Example Consider a project with the following parameters. i) External Inputs a) 10 with low complexity b) 15 with average complexity c) 17 with high complexity ii) External outputs: a) 6 with low complexity b) 13 with high complexity iii) External inquiries: a) 3 with low complexity b) 4 with average complexity c) 2 with high complexity
  218. 218. Example iv) Internal logical files: a) 2 with average complexity b) 1 with high complexity v) External Interface files a) 9 with low complexity In addition to above system required • • • • Significant data communication Performance is very critical Designed code may be moderately reusable System is not designed for multiple installations in different organizations. Other complexity adjustment factors are treated as average. Compute the function points for the project
  219. 219. The factor given in table may be calculated as 14 ∑ F = 3+4+3+5+3+3+3+3+3+3+2+3+0+3=41 i i=1 CAF = (0.65 + 0.01 ×∑ F ) i = (0.65 × 0.01 × 41) = 1.06 FP = UFP × CAF = 424 × 1.06 = 449.44
  220. 220. Software Project Planning
  221. 221. Software Project Planning The overall goal of project planning is to establish a pragmatic strategy for controlling, tracking, and monitoring a complex technical project. Why? So the end result gets done on time, with quality!
  222. 222. Project Planning Task Set-I • • • • Establish project scope Determine feasibility Analyze risks Define required resources – Determine require human resources – Define reusable software resources – Identify environmental resources
  223. 223. Project Planning Task Set-II • Estimate cost and effort – – Develop two or more estimates using size, function points, process tasks or use-cases – • Decompose the problem Reconcile the estimates Develop a project schedule – Scheduling Establish a meaningful task set • Define a task network • Use scheduling tools to develop a timeline chart • Define schedule tracking mechanisms
  224. 224. Estimation • Estimation of resources, cost, and schedule for a software engineering effort requires – – – • experience access to good historical information (metrics the courage to commit to quantitative predictions when qualitative information is all that exists Estimation carries inherent risk and this risk leads to uncertainty
  225. 225. Write it Down! Project Scope Estimates Risks Schedule Control strategy Softwar e Project Plan
  226. 226. To Understand Scope ... • • • • • • Understand the customers needs understand the business context understand the project boundaries understand the customer’s motivation understand the likely paths for change understand that ... Even when you understand, nothing is guaranteed!
  227. 227. What is Scope? • Software scope describes – – – – • the functions and features that are to be delivered to end-users the data that are input and output the “content” that is presented to users as a consequence of using the software the performance, constraints, interfaces, and reliability that bound the system. Scope is defined using one of two techniques: • • A narrative description of software scope is developed after communication with all stakeholders. A set of use-cases is developed by end-users.
  228. 228. Resources number software tools skills hardware people environment location project OTS components reusable software full-experience components new components part.-experience components network resources
  229. 229. Project Estimation • • • • • Project scope must be understood Elaboration (decomposition) is necessary Historical metrics are very helpful At least two different techniques should be used Uncertainty is inherent in the process
  230. 230. Estimation Techniques • • Past (similar) project experience Conventional estimation techniques – – • • task breakdown and effort estimates size (e.g., FP) estimates Empirical models Automated tools
  231. 231. Estimation Accuracy • Predicated on … – – – – the degree to which the planner has properly estimated the size of the product to be built the ability to translate the size estimate into human effort, calendar time, and dollars (a function of the availability of reliable software metrics from past projects) the degree to which the project plan reflects the abilities of the software team the stability of product requirements and the environment that supports the software engineering effort.
  232. 232. What makes a Successful Project? Delivering: Stages: agreed functionality 1. set targets on time 2. Attempt to achieve targets at the agreed cost with the required quality
  233. 233. Difficulties/Problems of estimation • • • • The uniqueness of project Changing technology Subjective nature of estimating Political implications (conflicting interests of major stakeholders)
  234. 234. Cost Estimation • • • Necessary to know the cost and development time. Estimates are needed before development is initiated. In many cases estimates are made using past experience as the only guide.
  235. 235. Cost Estimation A number of estimation techniques have been developed and are having following attributes in common: • • • Project scope must be established in advance. Software metrics are used as a basis from which estimates are made. The project is broken into small pieces which are estimated individually.
  236. 236. Cost Estimation To achieve reliable cost and schedule estimates, a number of options arise: • • • • Delay estimation until late in project. Use simple decomposition techniques to generate project cost and schedule estimates. Develop empirical models for estimation. Acquire one or more automated estimation tools. Unfortunately, the first option, however attractive, is not practical. Cost estimates must be provided up front
  237. 237. Cost Estimation Models • • • An Estimation model for computer software uses empirically derived formulas to predict effort as a function of LOC or FP. The empirical data that support most estimation models are derived from limited sample of projects. For this reason, no estimation model is appropriate for all classes of software and in all development environment.
  238. 238. Model • • • • The model is concerned with the representation of the process to be estimated. A model may be static or dynamic. In static model, a unique variable is taken as a key element for calculating all others. In dynamic model, all variables are interdependent and there is no basic variable as in static model
  239. 239. Model • • Single variable model: When a model makes use of a single basic variable to calculate all others it is said to be a single variable model. Multivariable model: In some models , several variables are needed to describe the software development process, and selected equations combine these variables to give the estimate of time and cost. The variables, single or multiple that are input to the model to predict the behaviour of a software development are called predictors The choice of handling of these predictors are most crucial activity in estimating methodology
  240. 240. Static Single Variable Models • • • Methods using this model use an equation to estimate the desired values such as cost, time, effort. Estimated values depend on same predictor (e.g. size) Most common equation C = aLb C is the cost (effort expressed in any unit of manpower, e.g. man-months L is the size, generally given in number of LOC Constants a and b are derived from historical data of the organization (Since variables a and b depend on the local development environment, these models are not transportable to different organizations)
  241. 241. Static Single Variable Models Software Engineering Laboratory of the University of Maryland has established a model, the SEL Model. This model is a typical example of a Static Single-variable Model E= 1.4 L0.93 Doc = 30.4 L0.90 D= 4.6 L0.26 Effort (E in man-months), Documentation (DOC, in number of pages) and duration (D in months) are calculated from the number of LOC (L, in thousands of lines) used as a predictor