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  1. 1. STAFFING 1
  2. 2. Human Resource Management The integration of all processes, programs, and systems in an organization that ensure staff are acquired and used in an effective way 2
  3. 3. Human Resource Management (Contd.) HR is multidisciplinary: It applies the disciplines of Economics (wages, markets, resources), Psychology (motivation, satisfaction), Sociology (organization structure, culture) and Law (min. wage, labor contracts) What HR Professionals Do? HR planning Recruitment & Selection Training and development Compensation & Performance review Labor relations 3
  4. 4. Human Resource Planning Assessing Current Human Resources Assessing Future Human Resource Needs Developing a Program to Meet Needs 4
  5. 5. Human Resource Planning The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed 5
  6. 6. HR Planning We have found the gap, how do we fill this void? Internal Labour Supply Skill Inventory Succession Planning Replacement Planning Inventory Chart Present & Future staffing situations Helps in retention & expulsion strategy External Labour Supply 6
  7. 7. Job Analysis (Functional Job Analysis, Position analysis questionnaire) A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties Human Resource Planning Recruitment Selection Training and Development Job Descriptions Job Analysis Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits Job Specifications Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Knowledge Skills Abilities Legal Considerations 7 Job Analysis for
  8. 8. Definitions Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization (functional job analysis , position analysis questionnaire) Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job 8
  9. 9. Recruitment Process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable candidates Can be for current or future needs Critical activity for some corporations. What sources do we use for recruitment 9
  10. 10. Sources of Recruitment 10
  11. 11. School Placement Internal Searches Employee Referrals Recruitment Sources Employment Agencies Voluntary Applicants Advertisements 11
  12. 12. SELECTION A series of steps from initial applicant screening to final hiring of the new employee. Selection process. Step 1 Completing application materials. Step 2 Conducting an interview. Step 3 Completing any necessary tests. Step 4 Doing a background investigation. Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire. 12
  13. 13. Selection process Step 1 Completing application materials. Gathering information regarding an applicant’s background and experiences. Typical application materials. •Traditional application forms. •Résumés. •Sometimes tests may be included with application materials. Step 2 Conducting an interview. Typically used though they are subject to perceptual distortions. Interviews can provide rough ideas concerning the person’s fit with the job and the organization. 13
  14. 14. Selection process Step 3 Completing any necessary tests. Administered before or after the interview. Common examples of employment tests. •Cognitive, clerical, or mechanical aptitudes or abilities. •Personality. Step 4 Doing a background investigation. Can be used early or late in selection process. Background investigations include: •Basic level checks. •Reference checks. 14
  15. 15. Selection process Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire. Draws on information produced in preceding selection steps. A job offer is made. A physical examination may be required if it is relevant to job performance. Negotiation of salary and/or benefits for some jobs. Step 6 Socialization. The final step in the staffing process. Involves orienting new employees to: •The firm. •The work units in which they will be working. •The firm’s policies and procedures. •The firm’s organizational culture. 15
  16. 16. Performance Appraisal 16
  17. 17. Performance Appraisal The identification, measurement, and management of human performance in organizations. 17
  18. 18. Why Conduct Performance Appraisals? Make decisions about that person's future with the organization Identify training requirements Employee improvement Pay, promotion, and other personnel decisions Research Validation of selection techniques and criteria 18
  19. 19. A Model of Performance Appraisal Skills/Activities/Output Performance Appraisal System Reward/Training/Punishment 19
  20. 20. Techniques for Evaluating Managers Evaluation by superiors Evaluation by colleagues Peer ratings tend to be more favorable for career development than for promotion decisions Self‑evaluation Self‑ratings suffer from leniency Subordinate evaluation Effective in developing leadership Leads to improved performance 360 degree feedback (multi‑source) 20
  21. 21. 360° Feedback The combination of peer, subordinate, and self-review 21
  22. 22. Key Steps in Implementing 360° Appraisal Top management communicates the goals Employees and managers are involved in the development of the appraisal criteria and process. Employees are trained in giving & receiving feedback. Employees are informed of the nature of the 360° appraisal instrument and process. The 360° system undergoes pilot testing Management continuously reinforces the goals of the 360° appraisal and is ready to change the process when necessary. 22
  23. 23. Measurement Tools 23
  24. 24. Relative and Absolute Judgment Relative Judgment An appraisal format that asks supervisors to compare an employee's performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job. Absolute Judgment An appraisal format that asks supervisors to make judgments about an employee’s performance based solely on performance standards. 24
  25. 25. Rating Methods Performance rating scales Supervisors indicate how or to what degree a worker possesses a relevant job characteristic Ranking technique Supervisors list the workers in order from highest to lowest Paired‑comparison technique Compares the performance of each worker with that of every other person in the group Forced choice technique Raters are presented with groups of descriptive statements and are asked to select the phrase in each group that is most descriptive of the worker being evaluated 25
  26. 26. Rating Methods Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Appraisers rate critical employee behavior Critical‑incident behaviors are established These behaviors are used as standards for appraising effectiveness The BARS items can be scored objectively by indicating whether the employee displays that behavior Behavioral observation scales (BOS) Appraisers rate the frequency of critical employee behaviors The ratings are assigned on a five point scale The evaluation yields a total score Management by objectives (MBO) 26
  27. 27. Appraising Managers as Managers 27
  28. 28. Organizational Change 28
  29. 29. Concept of Organizational Change Defined as adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization. Organizations need to continuously adapt to new situations if they are to survive and prosper 29
  30. 30. Planned and Unplanned Organizational Changes Organizational Change Planned Changes Planned Changes •• Changes in products and Changes in products and services services •• Changes in administrative Changes in administrative systems systems •• Changes in organizational Changes in organizational size or structure size or structure •• Introduction of new Introduction of new technologies technologies •• Advances in information Advances in information processing and processing and communication communication Unplanned Changes Unplanned Changes •• Changing employee Changing employee demographics demographics •• Performance gaps Performance gaps •• Governmental regulations Governmental regulations •• Economic competition in the Economic competition in the global arena global arena 30
  31. 31. Workforce World Politics Social Trends Technology Forces For Change Economic Shocks Competition 31
  32. 32. Resistance to Change - Forms Overt and immediate Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and deferred Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism 32
  33. 33. Resistance to Change Selective Information Processing Force of Habit Individual Fear of the Unknown Need for Security Economic Factors 33
  34. 34. Resistance to Change Structural & Group Inertia Threat to establish resource allocation Organization Limited Focus Threat to Expertise Threat to establish power relationship 34
  35. 35. Overcoming Resistance to Change Education and Communication Participation Negotiation Facilitation and Support Manipulation and Cooptation Coercion 35
  36. 36. Organizational Change Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Lewin’s Three-Step Process 36
  37. 37. Unfreezing the Status Quo Desired State Restraining Forces Status Quo Driving Forces Time 37
  38. 38. Definition of OD OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory. 38
  39. 39. Organization Development is... a systemwide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness. 39
  40. 40. Organizational Development - The Premises Respect for people Trust and support Power equalization Confrontation Participation 40
  41. 41. OD Process Diagnosis Intervention . Evaluation 41
  42. 42. OD Interventions Intergroup development Process consultation Sensitivity training Third Party Intervention Survey feedback Team building Culture Change 42
  43. 43. Manager Development On the Job Training Planned Progression Job Rotation Creation of “assistant-to” Temporary promotion Committees Off the Job Training Conference MDPs Business Simulations 43
  44. 44. Organizational Conflicts 44
  45. 45. Sources of Conflict        Competition for scarce resources Time pressure Unreasonable standards, policies, rules or procedures Communication breakdowns Personality clashes Ambiguous or overlapping jurisdictions Unrealized expectations 45
  46. 46. Managing Conflicts       Avoidance Problem solving Compromise Forcing Smoothing Structural change 46