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INTRODUCTION – WHAT IS GENDER DISCRIMINATIOM
• SEXISM OR GENDER DISCRIMINATION IS
PREJUDICE OR DISCRIMINATION BASED
ON A PERSON'S SEX OR GENDER
• IT MAY INCLUDE THAT A PERSON OF ONE
SEX IS INTRINSICALLY SUPERIOR TO A
PERSON OF THE OTHER.
• EXTREME SEXISM MAY FOSTER SEXUAL
HARASSMENT, RAPE AND OTHER FORMS
OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE.
ORIGIN OF THE TERM GENDER
According to Fred R. Shapiro, in American Speech (Vol. 60, No. 1, Spring
1985), the term "sexism" was most likely coined on November 18, 1965,
by Pauline M. Leet during the Student-Faculty Forum at Franklin and Marshall
Also according to Shapiro, the first time the term "sexism" appeared in print
was in Caroline Bird's speech "On Being Born Female", which was published on
November 15, 1968, in Vital Speeches of the Day
HISTORY of Discrimination
Sati refers to a funeral practice in which a recently widowed woman immolates
herself, typically on the husband's funeral pyre.
The term is derived from the name of the goddess Sati, also known
as Dakshayani, who self-immolated because she was unable to bear her
father Daksha's humiliation of her husband Shiva.
• Occupational sexism refers to discriminatory practices, statements or actions,
based on a person's sex, occurring in the workplace. One form of
occupational sexism is wage discrimination.
• Several studies have found that women earn a smaller average wage than
Groups like the American Civil Liberties Union and
the National Organization for Women are established
to fight against this
Discrimination, leading to the creation of ground-breaking
laws such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963.
However, identifying and challenging sex
discrimination in the workplace (on legal grounds) has
been argued as being too difficult for the average
person to attempt and even harder to prove in court.
PROTESTS AGAINST OCCUPATIONAL
Objectification is treating a
person, usually a woman, as
By being objectified, a
person is denied agency.
Sexual objectification is
where a person is viewed
primarily in terms of sexual
appeal or as a source of
sexual gratification. This is
sometimes regarded as a
form of Gender
Transgender discrimination is discrimination towards peoples
whose gender identity differs from the social expectations of
the biological sex they were born with.
Forms of discrimination include but are not limited to
identity documents not reflecting one’s gender, sex-segregated
public restrooms and other facilities, dress codes
according to binary gender codes, and lack of access to and
existence of appropriate health care services.
GENDER DISCIMINATION IN POLITICS
Gender has been used, at times, as a tool of discrimination
against women in the political sphere.
Indeed,Women's suffrage was not achieved until 1893, when
New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to
Saudi Arabia was the last country to grant women the right to
vote in 2011.
While almost every woman today has the right to vote, there is
still progress to be made for women in politics.
Controlling women's dressing attire
Female infanticide and sex-selective abortion
Forced sterilization and forced abortion
Female genital mutilation
Hate-motivated sexual assault
Misandry and Misogyny
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• A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are
• Girls are disproportionately the most affected.
• Child marriages are most common in South Asia, the Middle
East and Sub-Saharan Africa, but occur in other parts of the
• The practice of marrying young girls is rooted in patriarchal
ideologies of control of female behaviour, and is also sustained
by traditional practices such as dowry and bride price.
• Child marriage is also a strategy for economic survival as
families marry off their daughters at an early age to reduce
their economic burden.
CONTROLLING WOMENS DRESS ATTIRE
• Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human
rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, as a form of gender
• Amnesty International states that:
“Interpretations of religion, culture or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress
on those who choose to dress differently. States should take measures to protect
individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community
or religious groups or leaders.”
• In many places, women who do not dress in socially and legally proscribed ways are
often subjected to violence
• Some studies in the United States have shown that for identical crimes, men are
given harsher sentences than women.
• Controlling for arrest offense, criminal history and other pre-charge variables,
sentences are over 60 percent heavier for men.
• Women are more likely to avoid charges entirely, and to avoid imprisonment if
• The gender disparity varies according to the nature of the case.
• This disparity occurs in U.S. federal courts, despite guidelines designed to avoid
• Domestic violence takes a number of forms (including verbal,
physical and psychological abuse), which vary across the gender
• Domestic violence is tolerated and even legally accepted in many
parts of the world.
• Honor killings are a form of domestic violence which continues to
be practiced in several parts of the world. The victims of honor
killings are usually women.
• Dowry deaths are deaths of women or girls who are murdered or
driven to suicide by continuous harassment and violence by
husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
Dowry deaths are most common in countries such as India,
Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
• IMPROVEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CONTRIBUTES TO THE
• WOMEN HAVE TRADITIONALLY HAD LIMITED ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION.
• WHEN WOMEN WERE ADMITTED TO HIGHER EDUCATION, THEY WERE ENCOURAGED
TO MAJOR IN LESS-INTELLECTUAL SUBJECTS.
• WORLD LITERACY IS LOWER FOR FEMALES THAN FOR MALES.
• LATEST DATA FROM CIA WORLD FACT BOOK SHOWS THAT 79.7% OF WOMEN ARE
LITERATE, COMPARED TO 88.6% OF MEN (AGED 15 AND OVER)
• IN SOME PARTS OF THE WORLD, GIRLS CONTINUE TO BE EXCLUDED FROM PROPER
PUBLIC OR PRIVATE EDUCATION.
• IN PARTS OF AFGHANISTAN, GIRLS WHO GO TO SCHOOL FACE SERIOUS VIOLENCE
FROM SOME LOCAL COMMUNITY MEMBERS AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS
Feminists argue that some fashion trends have been
oppressive to women; they restrict women's movements,
increase their vulnerability and endanger their health.
The fashion industry is dealing with a great deal of criticism,
as their association of thin-models and beauty has said to
encourage bulimia and anorexia nervosa within women, as well
as locking female consumers into false feminine identities.
The assigning of gender specific baby clothes from young ages
is seen as sexist by some as it can instil in children from young
ages a belief in strong gender stereotype.
Female infanticide and sex-selective abortion
Female infanticide is the killing of very young female children.
It is an extreme form of gender based violence.
Female infanticide is more common than male infanticide, and is especially
prevalent in parts of Asia, such as parts of India and China.
Recent studies suggest that over 90 million girls and women are missing in
China and India as a result of systematic sex discrimination.
FORCED STERLIZATION AND ABORTION
Forced sterilization and forced abortion are forms of gender-based
Forced sterilization was practiced during the first half of the 20th
century by many Western countries (including the US) and there are
reports of this practice being currently employed in some countries,
such as Uzbekistan and China.
Forced abortions are today associated mostly with China. Although
they are not an official policy of the country, they result from
government pressure on local officials who, in turn, employ strong-arm
tactics on pregnant mothers. In 2012, a highly publicized case
of a forced abortion involving the photo of the foetus has sparked
HATE MOTIVATED SEXUAL ASSAULT
• Rape and sexual assault are considered to be acts of hate.
• Their relationship to sexism is the frequent desire on the part of the
perpetrator for power over the victim.
• The Centre for Women Policy Studies stated that "victims almost
always are chosen for what they are rather than who they are"; a
woman is more likely to be attacked because of her gender than her
• Mary Odem, Jody Clay-Warner and Susan Brown Miller consider
that sexist attitudes are propagated by a series of myths about rape
Military service has been considered a gender-specific duty.
Some countries, such as Israel, require military service regardless
Others (such as Finland,Turkey and Singapore) still use a system
of conscription which only requires military service for men,
although women are permitted to serve voluntarily.
In the United States, all men must register with the Selective
Service System within 30 days of their 18th birthday.
The system does not require women to register, leading to
criticism that it discriminates against men by forcing them into a
dangerous role based on gender.
MISANDRY AND MISOGYNY
Misandry is the hatred of men and boys as a
societal group or as individuals.
Misogyny is the hatred of women and girls as a
societal group or as individuals.
Sexual slavery occurs when people are coerced
into slavery for sexual exploitation.
The incidence of sexual slavery by country has been studied and
tabulated by UNESCO with the cooperation of a number of
Sexual slavery also includes single-owner slavery, the ritual slavery
associated with certain religious practices, slavery for primarily non-sexual
purposes where non-consensual sex is common and forced
Transphobia refers to prejudice against transsexuality and transsexual (or
transgender) people based on their gender identification.
Whether intentional or not, transphobia can have negative consequences for
the object of the negative attitude.
The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) movement opposes sexism
One form of sexism against transsexuals is "women-only" and "men-only"
events and organizations, which have been criticized for excluding trans
women and trans men.
• War rapes are rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians
during armed conflict, war or military occupation, and are distinguished
from in-service sexual assault and rape committed amongst troops.
• It also encompasses situations in which women are forced into prostitution
or sexual slavery by an occupying power,
• The war-torn Democratic Republic of the Congo has been described as the
"rape capital of the world" with more than 400,000 rapes reported in just
RECENT NEWS ABOUT
• United Nations hails Suriname for eliminating gender discrimination in
nationality laws (July 28, 2014)
• UN agency hails Suriname for eliminating gender discrimination in nationality
laws (July 25, 2014)
DON’T KEEP CALM AND
FIGHT FOR GENDER
WE CAN DO IT!!!
BY ANSH MEHTA
STEP BY STEP HIGH
SCHOOL – X-F