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Gender discirmination PPT

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Gender discirmination PPT

  1. 1. GENDER DISCRIMATION A SERIOUS THREAT
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION – WHAT IS GENDER DISCRIMINATIOM • SEXISM OR GENDER DISCRIMINATION IS PREJUDICE OR DISCRIMINATION BASED ON A PERSON'S SEX OR GENDER • IT MAY INCLUDE THAT A PERSON OF ONE SEX IS INTRINSICALLY SUPERIOR TO A PERSON OF THE OTHER. • EXTREME SEXISM MAY FOSTER SEXUAL HARASSMENT, RAPE AND OTHER FORMS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE.
  3. 3. ORIGIN OF THE TERM GENDER DISCRIMINATION  According to Fred R. Shapiro, in American Speech (Vol. 60, No. 1, Spring 1985), the term "sexism" was most likely coined on November 18, 1965, by Pauline M. Leet during the Student-Faculty Forum at Franklin and Marshall College.  Also according to Shapiro, the first time the term "sexism" appeared in print was in Caroline Bird's speech "On Being Born Female", which was published on November 15, 1968, in Vital Speeches of the Day
  4. 4. HISTORY of Discrimination SATI PRACTICE Sati refers to a funeral practice in which a recently widowed woman immolates herself, typically on the husband's funeral pyre.  The term is derived from the name of the goddess Sati, also known as Dakshayani, who self-immolated because she was unable to bear her father Daksha's humiliation of her husband Shiva.
  5. 5. OCCUPATIONAL GENDER DISCRIMINATION • Occupational sexism refers to discriminatory practices, statements or actions, based on a person's sex, occurring in the workplace. One form of occupational sexism is wage discrimination. • Several studies have found that women earn a smaller average wage than men.
  6. 6.  Groups like the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Organization for Women are established to fight against this  Discrimination, leading to the creation of ground-breaking laws such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963. However, identifying and challenging sex discrimination in the workplace (on legal grounds) has been argued as being too difficult for the average person to attempt and even harder to prove in court. PROTESTS AGAINST OCCUPATIONAL GENDER DISCRIMINATION
  7. 7. OBJECTIFICATION  Objectification is treating a person, usually a woman, as an object.  By being objectified, a person is denied agency.  Sexual objectification is where a person is viewed primarily in terms of sexual appeal or as a source of sexual gratification. This is sometimes regarded as a form of Gender Discrimination.
  8. 8. TRANSGENDER DISCRIMINATION  Transgender discrimination is discrimination towards peoples whose gender identity differs from the social expectations of the biological sex they were born with.  Forms of discrimination include but are not limited to identity documents not reflecting one’s gender, sex-segregated public restrooms and other facilities, dress codes according to binary gender codes, and lack of access to and existence of appropriate health care services.
  9. 9. GENDER DISCIMINATION IN POLITICS  Gender has been used, at times, as a tool of discrimination against women in the political sphere.  Indeed,Women's suffrage was not achieved until 1893, when New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote.  Saudi Arabia was the last country to grant women the right to vote in 2011.  While almost every woman today has the right to vote, there is still progress to be made for women in politics.
  10. 10. Child marriage Controlling women's dressing attire Criminal justice Domestic violence Education Fashion Female infanticide and sex-selective abortion Forced sterilization and forced abortion Female genital mutilation Hate-motivated sexual assault Military service Misandry and Misogyny Sexual slavery Transphobia War rape Click to Jump to Respective Slide
  11. 11. CHILD MARRIAGE • A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are under 18. • Girls are disproportionately the most affected. • Child marriages are most common in South Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, but occur in other parts of the world, too. • The practice of marrying young girls is rooted in patriarchal ideologies of control of female behaviour, and is also sustained by traditional practices such as dowry and bride price. • Child marriage is also a strategy for economic survival as families marry off their daughters at an early age to reduce their economic burden.
  12. 12. CONTROLLING WOMENS DRESS ATTIRE • Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International, as a form of gender discrimination. • Amnesty International states that: “Interpretations of religion, culture or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress on those who choose to dress differently. States should take measures to protect individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community or religious groups or leaders.” • In many places, women who do not dress in socially and legally proscribed ways are often subjected to violence
  13. 13. CRIMINAL JUSTICE • Some studies in the United States have shown that for identical crimes, men are given harsher sentences than women. • Controlling for arrest offense, criminal history and other pre-charge variables, sentences are over 60 percent heavier for men. • Women are more likely to avoid charges entirely, and to avoid imprisonment if convicted. • The gender disparity varies according to the nature of the case. • This disparity occurs in U.S. federal courts, despite guidelines designed to avoid differential sentencing.
  14. 14. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE • Domestic violence takes a number of forms (including verbal, physical and psychological abuse), which vary across the gender spectrum. • Domestic violence is tolerated and even legally accepted in many parts of the world. • Honor killings are a form of domestic violence which continues to be practiced in several parts of the world. The victims of honor killings are usually women. • Dowry deaths are deaths of women or girls who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and violence by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry. Dowry deaths are most common in countries such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
  15. 15. EDUCATION • IMPROVEMENT OF EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CONTRIBUTES TO THE WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT. • WOMEN HAVE TRADITIONALLY HAD LIMITED ACCESS TO HIGHER EDUCATION. • WHEN WOMEN WERE ADMITTED TO HIGHER EDUCATION, THEY WERE ENCOURAGED TO MAJOR IN LESS-INTELLECTUAL SUBJECTS. • WORLD LITERACY IS LOWER FOR FEMALES THAN FOR MALES. • LATEST DATA FROM CIA WORLD FACT BOOK SHOWS THAT 79.7% OF WOMEN ARE LITERATE, COMPARED TO 88.6% OF MEN (AGED 15 AND OVER) • IN SOME PARTS OF THE WORLD, GIRLS CONTINUE TO BE EXCLUDED FROM PROPER PUBLIC OR PRIVATE EDUCATION. • IN PARTS OF AFGHANISTAN, GIRLS WHO GO TO SCHOOL FACE SERIOUS VIOLENCE FROM SOME LOCAL COMMUNITY MEMBERS AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS
  16. 16. FASHION Feminists argue that some fashion trends have been oppressive to women; they restrict women's movements, increase their vulnerability and endanger their health. The fashion industry is dealing with a great deal of criticism, as their association of thin-models and beauty has said to encourage bulimia and anorexia nervosa within women, as well as locking female consumers into false feminine identities. The assigning of gender specific baby clothes from young ages is seen as sexist by some as it can instil in children from young ages a belief in strong gender stereotype.
  17. 17. Female infanticide and sex-selective abortion Female infanticide is the killing of very young female children. It is an extreme form of gender based violence. Female infanticide is more common than male infanticide, and is especially prevalent in parts of Asia, such as parts of India and China. Recent studies suggest that over 90 million girls and women are missing in China and India as a result of systematic sex discrimination.
  18. 18. FORCED STERLIZATION AND ABORTION  Forced sterilization and forced abortion are forms of gender-based violence.  Forced sterilization was practiced during the first half of the 20th century by many Western countries (including the US) and there are reports of this practice being currently employed in some countries, such as Uzbekistan and China.  Forced abortions are today associated mostly with China. Although they are not an official policy of the country, they result from government pressure on local officials who, in turn, employ strong-arm tactics on pregnant mothers. In 2012, a highly publicized case of a forced abortion involving the photo of the foetus has sparked international outrage.
  19. 19. HATE MOTIVATED SEXUAL ASSAULT • Rape and sexual assault are considered to be acts of hate. • Their relationship to sexism is the frequent desire on the part of the perpetrator for power over the victim. • The Centre for Women Policy Studies stated that "victims almost always are chosen for what they are rather than who they are"; a woman is more likely to be attacked because of her gender than her individuality. • Mary Odem, Jody Clay-Warner and Susan Brown Miller consider that sexist attitudes are propagated by a series of myths about rape and rapist.
  20. 20. MILITARY SERVICES  Military service has been considered a gender-specific duty.  Some countries, such as Israel, require military service regardless of gender.  Others (such as Finland,Turkey and Singapore) still use a system of conscription which only requires military service for men, although women are permitted to serve voluntarily.  In the United States, all men must register with the Selective Service System within 30 days of their 18th birthday.  The system does not require women to register, leading to criticism that it discriminates against men by forcing them into a dangerous role based on gender.
  21. 21. MISANDRY AND MISOGYNY Misandry is the hatred of men and boys as a societal group or as individuals. Misogyny is the hatred of women and girls as a societal group or as individuals.
  22. 22. SEXUAL SLAVERY  Sexual slavery occurs when people are coerced into slavery for sexual exploitation.  The incidence of sexual slavery by country has been studied and tabulated by UNESCO with the cooperation of a number of international agencies.  Sexual slavery also includes single-owner slavery, the ritual slavery associated with certain religious practices, slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where non-consensual sex is common and forced prostitution.
  23. 23. TRANSPHOBIA  Transphobia refers to prejudice against transsexuality and transsexual (or transgender) people based on their gender identification.  Whether intentional or not, transphobia can have negative consequences for the object of the negative attitude.  The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) movement opposes sexism against transsexuals.  One form of sexism against transsexuals is "women-only" and "men-only" events and organizations, which have been criticized for excluding trans women and trans men.
  24. 24. WAR RAPE • War rapes are rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict, war or military occupation, and are distinguished from in-service sexual assault and rape committed amongst troops. • It also encompasses situations in which women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power, • The war-torn Democratic Republic of the Congo has been described as the "rape capital of the world" with more than 400,000 rapes reported in just one year.
  25. 25. RECENT NEWS ABOUT GENDER DISCRIMINATION • United Nations hails Suriname for eliminating gender discrimination in nationality laws (July 28, 2014) • UN agency hails Suriname for eliminating gender discrimination in nationality laws (July 25, 2014)
  26. 26. DON’T KEEP CALM AND FIGHT FOR GENDER DISCRIMINATION WE CAN DO IT!!! THE END BY ANSH MEHTA STEP BY STEP HIGH SCHOOL – X-F

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