Letter of Credit 101

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Letter of Credit 101

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Letter of Credit 101

  1. 1. CMA Webinar Series T R E A S U R Y S E R V I C E S William Hindon Vice President LC 101 + 9AM – 10AM (PST) Tuesday, January 16, 2007
  2. 2. Risks <ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insolvency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protracted periods of non-payment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurrections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Boycotts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Expropriations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Central Bank’s failure to provide foreign exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Governmental subsidies </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Rules of the Game <ul><li>International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICP Pub 556 - Model International Sales Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICP Pub 560 / ICC Pub 620 / ICC Pub 616 - INCOTERMS 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICP Pub 623 - A to Z of International Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URC 522 - Uniform Rules for Collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCP 500 - Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URR 525 - Uniform Rules for Reimbursements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCP 500 - Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISP 98 - International Standby Practices </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sales Contract Buyer Issuing Bank Formal Agreement Proforma Invoice Purchase Order Exchange of Telexes CONTRACT = OFFER + ACCEPTANCE Seller
  5. 5. Sales Contract Provisions <ul><li>Merchandise Description - Be specific </li></ul><ul><li>Packing and Marking Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Instructions - Time and place </li></ul><ul><li>Price - Itemize goods and seller-supplied non-product services </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping Terms - Incoterms 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection - By whom and at what cost </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties - Type and duration </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable Law - CISG or other </li></ul><ul><li>Dispute Resolution Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Payment - CIA, L/C, DC , OA </li></ul>
  6. 6. Incoterms 2000 EXW FCA FAS FOB DAF DES DEQ DDU DDP CFR CIF CPT CIP Dock of Exportation Dock of Importation Transportation to Dock Transportation to Buyer Import Duty Loading onto Vessel Ocean Freight Marine Insurance Unloading Charges Price/Shipping Terms Cost - Risk Equation Beneficiary (Seller) Applicant (Buyer)
  7. 7. Methods of Payment Exporter’s uncertainty increases <ul><li>Cash in Advance </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of Credit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentary Collections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D/P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D/A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Account </li></ul>Importer’s uncertainty increases
  8. 8. Factors to Consider <ul><li>Buyer’s credit standing </li></ul><ul><li>Seller’s ability to fulfill order </li></ul><ul><li>Law of supply and demand </li></ul><ul><li>Political risks </li></ul><ul><li>Amount and Tenor </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Financing requirement of buyer and seller </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of bank services </li></ul><ul><li>Past experience….KYC </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sales Contract Bank Cash in Advance Open Account L/C Collections Bank Signing Shipment Receipt of Documents Receipt of Goods/ Acceptance JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL Seller Buyer
  10. 10. Documentary Collections
  11. 11. Documentary Collection <ul><li>Defined as the process by which a bank known as the Remitting Bank, acting upon the instructions of an exporter, presents document(s) associated with a sales transaction to the importer. This is done with the assistance of a second bank known as the Collecting Bank. Documents typically consist of one financial (bill of exchange) and multiple commercial (invoice, bill of lading, etc.) instruments. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Drawer = Exporter = Seller = Beneficiary </li></ul><ul><li>Drawee = Importer= Applicant = Buyer </li></ul><ul><li>Payee = Remitting Bank </li></ul>
  13. 13. Draft/Bill of Exchange TO: (TENOR) PAYEE DRAWEE (IMPORTER) EXPORTER DRAWER
  14. 14. Collection Cycle Draft B/L Invoice Instruction Letter (1) (1) (1) (2) (10) Seller (Drawer) Buyer (Drawee) Remitting Bank Sales Contract Collection Document Collecting Bank
  15. 15. Seller’s Risks <ul><li>Buyer unable or unwilling to honor demand </li></ul><ul><li>Added costs due to non-payment or non-acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demurrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return freight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slow pay due to system constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting bank procedures </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Documentary Letters Of Credit
  17. 17. Documentary Letter of Credit <ul><li>Defined as a written undertaking by a bank (Issuing Bank), acting at the request and on the instructions of its customer (Applicant) to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make payment to, or to the order of, a third party (Beneficiary); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept and pay bills of exchange (drafts) drawn by the Beneficiary; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorize another bank to effect such payment or to pay, accept, or negotiate such bills of exchange (drafts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>against stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions of the Credit are complied with </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Parties Involved Seller Beneficiary Exporter Buyer Applicant Importer
  19. 19. Applicant (Buyer) Issuing Bank Beneficiary (Seller) Sales Contract Beneficiary (Seller) Letter of Credit Applicant (Buyer) Bank Opening Bank SUBSTITUTES ITS NAME FOR THAT OF “ We the Buyer Obligate to pay Seller.” “ We the Bank Obligate to pay Seller.”
  20. 20. Letter of Credit Application & Security Agreement Applicant (Buyer) Sales Contract Beneficiary (Seller) Letter of Credit Opening Bank (2) L/C Application and Security Agreement (1) (3)
  21. 21. Issuing Bank <ul><li>Definite Undertaking </li></ul><ul><li>Honor Without Recourse </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulated Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Drafts, if any </li></ul><ul><li>Terms and Conditions </li></ul>“ We Hereby Authorize You to Value on Us”
  22. 22. Advising Bank <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrutinizes* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Optional </li></ul></ul>This is solely an advice of a credit issued by the above named
  23. 23. Advising Bank <ul><li>May also be asked/nominated to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept draft(s) - if any </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create deferred payment obligation(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Confirmed vs. Unconfirmed <ul><li>Implication Constitutes a definite undertaking of confirming bank </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of the issuing bank’s obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose Mitigates or eliminates political risk factors </li></ul>Confirmation
  25. 25. Confirming Bank <ul><li>Acts upon request of issuer </li></ul><ul><li>A second promise </li></ul><ul><li>Definite undertaking </li></ul><ul><li>Honor without recourse </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulated Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Drafts, if any </li></ul><ul><li>Terms& Conditions </li></ul>“ We Confirm the Credit and Thereby Undertake…”
  26. 26. “Silent” Confirmation <ul><li>Agreement to Negotiate (ATN) </li></ul><ul><li>Definition : An undertaking by JPMorgan Chase Bank to negotiate documents and purchase the related drafts and/or documents under a Sight, Time or Deferred Payment L/C (usually on a without full recourse basis) at the request of a JPMorgan Chase Bank customer who is the Beneficiary of such L/C. </li></ul><ul><li>Notes : The bank’s commitment to negotiate is made prior to the negotiation. ATNs are offered to customers as an alternative if they are unable to obtain an “open” confirmation in their favor. ATNs covering Standby L/Cs are not authorized. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Types of Credit <ul><li>Irrevocable - Revocable </li></ul><ul><li>Straight - Negotiable </li></ul><ul><li>Sight - Time/Usance - Deferred </li></ul>
  28. 28. Irrevocable vs . Revocable <ul><li>Revocable: May be amended or cancelled </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>without prior notice to beneficiary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrevocable: Cannot be amended or cancelled </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>without agreement of all parties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Straight Credit <ul><ul><ul><li>Obligation of the Issuing Bank to pay/accept drafts, or to incur a deferred payment obligation extends only to the beneficiary of the credit. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Negotiable Credit <ul><li>The issuing bank’s obligation extended to a third party; usually a bank willing to negotiate. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation is usually with recourse unless otherwise agreed. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Sight Letters of Credit Payment effected immediately after presentation of conforming draft(s) and/or document(s) = $$
  32. 32. Time/Usance Letters of Credit Payment made at some specified time after presentation of conforming draft(s) and/or document(s) + = 2001 $$
  33. 33. Engagement Clauses <ul><li>Available with: </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted (Named) Nominated Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Freely Negotiable “Any Bank” = Nominated Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Available by: </li></ul><ul><li>Sight Payment </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred Payment </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Amendment <ul><li>Consent of Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issuer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beneficiary Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Acceptance </li></ul>“ We Hereby Amend Our Letter of Credit as Follows…”
  35. 35. Special Letter of Credit <ul><li>Assignment of Proceeds </li></ul><ul><li>Transferable </li></ul><ul><li>Revolving </li></ul><ul><li>Installment </li></ul><ul><li>Red Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Back-to-Back </li></ul>
  36. 36. Discrepancies <ul><li>Studies show that 60% of all document sets contain one or more discrepancies </li></ul>
  37. 37. Discrepancies <ul><li>Act as impartial arbitrator and “trusted” intermediary </li></ul><ul><li>Determine whether to accept or refuse the documents </li></ul><ul><li>Notify presenter immediately if documents are refused </li></ul>Job of the Bank
  38. 38. Most Common Discrepancies <ul><li>1. Late Shipment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Late Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Credit Expired </li></ul><ul><li>4. Credit Overdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>5. Missing Documents </li></ul>
  39. 39. Implications for Seller <ul><li>Delayed payment </li></ul><ul><li>Increased/extended credit exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Higher processing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Demurrage </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity costs </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of control over transaction </li></ul>
  40. 40. Implications for Buyer <ul><li>Delayed payment </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed clearance of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Option to refuse goods </li></ul><ul><li>Option to negotiate </li></ul>
  41. 41. Discrepancies <ul><li>Correct documents </li></ul><ul><li>Direct bank to cable for authority to honor </li></ul><ul><li>Direct bank to send documents on approval basis </li></ul><ul><li>Request bank to pay under reserve/guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>Never instruct bank to send documents on collection basis </li></ul>Beneficiary’s options:
  42. 42. Discrepancies <ul><ul><li>Approach Applicant for waiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give notice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without delay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By telecommunication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stating all discrepancies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advice if documents are being held or returned </li></ul></ul></ul>Issuing Bank’s Options:
  43. 43. <ul><li>Not to Exceed 7 Banking Days </li></ul><ul><li>Examine </li></ul><ul><li>Determine </li></ul><ul><li>Give Notice </li></ul>Reasonable Time xx 20 1 7 CONFIDENTIAL This Document can not be duplicated, re-transmitted, or circulated without the permission of JPMorganChase - Global Trade Finance Group.
  44. 44. Standby Letters of Credit
  45. 45. Standby Letters of Credit <ul><li>Standby L/C is defined as any Letter of Credit or similar arrangement however named or described which represents an obligation to the beneficiary on the part of the issuer </li></ul>
  46. 46. Standby Letters of Credit <ul><li>1. To repay money borrowed by or advanced to or for the account of the account party </li></ul><ul><li>2. To make payment on account of any indebtedness undertaken by the account party </li></ul><ul><li>3. To make payment on account of any default by the account party in the performance of an obligation </li></ul>
  47. 47. OCC Safety and Soundness Criteria <ul><li>Conspicuously state that it is a Letter of Credit or be conspicuously entitled as such </li></ul><ul><li>Contain a specified expiration date or be a definite term </li></ul><ul><li>Be limited in amount </li></ul><ul><li>Bank is to pay only upon presentation of required documents. Bank must not determine question of fact or law at issue between account party and beneficiary </li></ul><ul><li>Bank’s customer should have an unqualified obligation to reimburse the Bank </li></ul>
  48. 48. Standby Letters of Credit <ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assure payment of such obligations as: - Promissory Notes - Deferred insurance premiums - Invoices for open account sales - Commodity margin requirements on futures contracts - Loan by a foreign bank to a corporation’s overseas subsidiary </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Standby Letters of Credit <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>To assure performance under contractual obligations such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Bid bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Performance bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Advance payment bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Warranty/Maintenance/Retention bonds </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Risk-based Capital Adequacy Conversion Factor Commercial L/C 20% Performance Standby 50% Financial Standby 100%
  51. 51. Commercial L/C Standby L/C Primary Bank of Obligation Primary Primary Payment Mechanism for Underlying Transaction Secondary Commercial Documents: Financial Documents: Invoice, Packing List Statement, Certificate of Origin Certificate, Inspection Certificates, Draft Transport Document
  52. 52. COMPARISON

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