By Ansar IqbalRutgers University- NewarkART AND WOMEN- FinalProject
The symbol P.B.U.H is a symbol of respect following the name of Muhammad, the founder of the religion of Islam. It is short for “peace be upon him”. The Videos in this project are NOT a supplement. They are PART of the project. The Videos have been time specified for making them short and related to the topic of discussion. Various book sources such as the Quran and Hadith are used to illustrate points in this presentation. They are obtained from various internet sources but are originally present in book form. Hadith are defined as recorded sayings and doings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H (Some Hadith do exist on the internet that are not authentic. Certain books of Hadith are unquestionably accepted while others are not.).
NOT expected to take care of the household alone.-There are examples from the life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H), where he is doing household chores, even sewing a button.Working is „optional‟ for women but necessary for men.Chaste and pious (going back to the time period of Sofonisba Anguissola).Sofonisba Anguissola was expected to be chaste as well.According to the Chadwick book, She could not paint nude images because it would take away the chaste element from her.
Women in Islam are expected to be chaste, just as men are expected to be chaste.Judy Chicago‟s The Dinner Party was discussed by Congress for an hour and twenty seven minutesIt was described by one Congressman as not being art but being pornography.Yet…the same could be said about male artists in the past painting nudes.But… there is no objection.Education is important for both males and females.
Greatest fear of man-being rejected by females. Greatest fear of women-the fear of men killing them. So Islam tries to calm both sides down. What do I mean? Islam places restrictions on men and females in different ways. Restrictions are placed in such a way that if one party fails to abide by the restrictions, the problem is still resolved. Example of this is that men are advised to keep their gazes down, while females are advised to cover themselves.
Another example: Islam advises females to be obedient to their husbands. At the same time, it advises males to calmly inform their wives of some misunderstanding. If that does not work, then separating beds is advised. (This serves as an anti beating mechanism for the man.). Before this teaching, Arabs used to brutally beat their wives. Either wife would be obedient and problem would be solved. Or… husband will eventually forgive wife and problem will be solved. (This does not mean that wife is always at fault. ) "…the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in absence what Allah would have then guard. " (Al-Nisa4:34) –The Holy Quran The Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) has never been reported to have beaten his wives. He has declared a person who beats his wife as the most indignant of men. A woman can seek a divorce from her husband, simply based on feeling incompatible. Examples on next slide.
“Barirah‟s husband was a slave, who was known as Mughith. I can almost see him, running after her and crying, with tears running down onto his beard. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) said to „Abbas, „O „Abbas, do you not find it strange, how much Mugith loves Barirah, and how much Barirah hates Mughith?‟ The Prophet (P.B.U.H) said (to Barirah), „Why do you not go back to him?‟ She said, „O Messenger of Allah, are you commanding me to do so?‟ He said, „I am merely trying to intervene on his behalf.‟ She said, „I have no need of him.‟” (Hadith). “O Messenger of Allah, I have nothing against Thabit ibn Qays as regards his religion or his behavior, but I hate to commit any act of kufr when I am a Muslim. The Prophet (P.B.U.H) said: “Will you give his garden back to him?” - her mahr had been a garden. She said, “Yes.” So Allah‟s Messenger sent word to him: “Take back your garden, and give her one pronouncement of divorce.” (Hadith). These Hadith support claims mentioned in previous slide. Kufr means “rejection”. Mahr is the dowry a man has to give to his wife upon marrige.
It is not mandatory for a female to work; but, if she does then her complete income is for herself. For a woman to work is not a crime in Islam. It is perfectly permissible.Video elaborating the topichttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MacbgnzjjH 0Lilly Martin Spencer was an exceptional artist who supported her family by means of her art work.
“Lilly Martin Spencer (1822-1902) is an exception among nineteenth-century American artists: a married woman from Ohio who depended on her art to support her thirteen children and her husband (who stayed home and assisted her in professional and domestic duties)”. (Chadwick, 213). Some exceptions, like Lilly Martin Spencer, also exist in the Islamic world and are perfectly allowed.
Definitely exists in Islam, but men in power are not to abuse it. Respect of women is HIGHLY important in Islam. Leadership of women is also seen in Islam. Prophet‟s wife Aisha led an army. Men and Women have equal rights but vary in their form. One might say that it is unfair that females must cover themselves but similar teachings exist telling males to keep their gazes down when walking.
Men are referred as guardians over women ONLY on the basis of them being given the responsibility of being the “bread winners.” In NO WAY is this intended to be used for displacing females as slaves of men or inferior to men in any shape or form. But… males are given an upper hand, but AGAIN, they are NOT to abuse it. There are cases in Islamic society where females support their husbands.
After World War 2, males came back from war in the U.S. and females were advised to go back to the private sphere. A notion arose in the society that if a man could provide for the whole family, then the wife should stay home and not work. Islam is more concerned for females staying home for the sake of children. There are no restrictions placed on females preventing them from working. Although, similar to post World War 2 society, women might be culturally influenced to stay home.
Connection to Frida Kahlo. She accepted Diego Rivera‟s habit of cheating on her. Frida‟s situation was not exactly of polygyny, but it could be used to compare what is said in the video on this slide from mins 11-17 (The concept of acceptance of something difficult, specifically a man marrying more than once). Islam does not allow a male to have a second wife for his pleasure One circumstance for having a second wife would be an unequal ratio of men and women in society due to men dying from warfare. Strict conditions placed on men if willing to marry more than one wife 17-19:53mins http://www.alislam.org/v/1893.html Islam does not encourage or enforce to marry more than one wife so in a country like the U.S., one wife is only allowed. Video11-17minshttp://www.alislam.org/v/1893.html
Polygyny is an EXCEPTION and NOT a rule. “And if you fear that you will not be just in dealing with the orphans, then marry of other women as may be agreeable to you, two, or three, or four, and if you fear you will not be able to do justice, then marry only one or marry what your right hands possess. Thus it is more likely that you will not do injustice.” (Quran, 4:4). “The verse is important inasmuch as it permits polygamy under certain circumstances… (continued on next slide)
…Islam allows (though it certainly does not enjoin or encourage) a man to have more than one wife up to four at a time. As this permission has been given in connection with the subject of orphans, it should be taken primarily to be based on the question of the care of that much neglected class of society. There are cases when the interests of orphans can only be protected by marrying one or more wives from among the female wards or from other women as the exigencies of circumstances may require.” (Commentary of the verse from alislam.org)
Are women only expected to be righteous or men as well? Women and men BOTH have equal responsibility of living their lives in a righteous way. The husband should care for his wife and the wife should care for her husband. A pious woman should look for a pious man, while a pious man should look for a pious woman. It goes both ways. “Women impure are for men impure, and men impure for women impure, and women of purity are for men of purity, and men of purity are for women of purity . . . .”(Qur‟an 24:26) Comparison with Domenico Ghirlandaio‟s Giovanna Tornabuoni née Albizzi, a picture of a decorated female posed in a well mannered way. (explained further).
The picture in the previous slide shows an image of a wife who is decorated with the husband‟s family emblem. She is seen as a prize of the husband and is posed in a way that displays her pious nature to the spectator. It is said in the Chadwick book that during this time, around the 1400s, the mentality of men was that “a man must first seek beauty of mind, that is, good conduct and virtue.” (Chadwick, 76). Men did not have a similar obligation to be pious. The difference is seen since men were allowed to paint nudes, while females were not.
Their Lord responds to them: I will not let the deeds of any doer among you go to waste, male or female - you are both the same in that respect... (Quran, 3:195) Anyone who acts rightly, male or female, being a believer, We will give them a good life and We will recompense them according to the best of what they did. (Quran, 16:97) Men and women who are Muslims, men and women who are believers, men and women who are obedient, men and women who are truthful, men and women who are steadfast, men and women who are humble, men and women who give alms, men and women who fast, men and women who guard their private parts, men and women who remember Allah much: Allah has prepared forgiveness for them and an immense reward. (Quran, 33:35) Quran advocates for both, males and females, to be pious.
Kathe Kollwitz emphasized a relationship with mother and child. Mary Cassatt painted images as well on the subject matter. Mothers are HIGHLY respected in Islam -It was narrated by Abu Hurairah that a man came to the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and asked him, "Who amongst his near one had the greatest right over him?" The Prophet replied, "Your mother". The man then asked, "Who after that?" to which the Prophet replied again, "Your mother". Asked who is next, the Prophet again replied, "Your mother". When the man asked who after that, the Prophet said, "Your father". (Hadith). -”Paradise lies at the feet of mothers.” (Hadith). -”A man once came to the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and sought his advice about taking part in the Holy War (Jihad) with him. The Holy Prophet asked him whether his mother was alive? He answered in the affirmative. The Holy Prophet then told him. "Go back home and serve her as if heaven was under her feet." (Hadith).
He (The Prophet P.B.U.H) also said "Fear Allah (SWT) in respect of women; and, the best of you are they who behave best to their wives; and, a Muslim must not hate his wife, and if he is displeased with one bad quality in her, let him be pleased with one that is good; the more civil and kind a Muslim is to his wife, the more perfect in faith he is.“ (Hadith). "Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, god will enter him into paradise“(Hadith). "It is generous (in character) who is good to women and it is the wicked who insult them". (Hadith). Christine de Pizan‟s husband had encouraged her to pursue a career in art.
Just like how Christine de Pizan was ENCOURGED by her husband to pursue a career in art, Islam also puts forth the same encouragement. Education is a must for both males and females. “Acquisition of knowledge is binding on all Muslims (both men and women without any discrimination)” (Hadith). “Acquire knowledge even if you may have to go to China for it. Verily acquisition of knowledge is binding on every Muslim” (Hadith).
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3IXO2wDUe0 12-13:18mins for the above video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksLFe1PjFf8 The videos describe the rights given to women with the advent of Islam. Guerrilla Girls‟ book describes the condition of women in ancient Greece and Rome by saying: “Women could not vote or engage in transactions worth more than a grain of barley.” (Guerrilla Girls, 12). “A Greek woman who gave birth after a divorce was compelled by law to offer the child to her former husband.” (Guerrilla Girls, 12).
“In Athens, a widow could inherit her husband‟s property only if she immediately married one of his close male relatives and ceded it all to him.” (Guerrilla Girls, 12). “Women from the lower classes in Greece could be sold by their fathers as concubines. When they aged and their master no longer wanted them, they became servants to the family.” (Guerrilla Girls, 12). With the coming of Islam, cruelties in Arabia similar to the ones mentioned above were abolished.
“My father married me to his nephew, and I did not like this match, so I complained to Allah‟s Messenger (sallallahu „alayhi wa sallam). He said to me: „Accept what your father has arranged.‟ I said, „I do not wish to accept what my father has arranged.‟ He said, „Then this marriage is invalid, go and marry whomever you wish.‟ I said, „I have accepted what my father has arranged, but I wanted women to know that fathers have no right in their daughter‟s matters (i.e. they have no right to force a marriage on them).‟” (Hadith). Females gained rights to inherit property in Islam, though not equal to men. Females are given half of what is given to men. Reason? Whatever female earns or receives as property is hers alone while males have to share it further on with entire family. 1:25-4:52mins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcVbpTxy1Yw
16-17:09mins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3IXO2wDU e0 The Prophet‟s wife was a great source of guidance after his death. She often sat at legal preceding after the time of the prophet‟s death. This guidance given by her was for the betterment of the Muslim people after the prophet‟s (P.B.U.H) death. Kathe Kollwitz connection-women can work for the betterment of mankind. She made people realize the suffering around them.
Benazir Bhutto Pakistan is a Muslim nation. It was separated from India in 1947 so that Indian Muslims could have their own country. Yet…..Benazir Bhutto is a female who held the position of Prime Minister. She is a perfect example of how females are allowed to work in Islam. Pakistan is the first Muslim nation to allow a female to hold such a position. (However, because of Pakistan‟s radical conditions arising from CULTURE, she was assassinated.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O3jh91p98Hw
Islam has a very high caliber of respect and protection of the rights for women. A good summary of this project would be in this video from mins 7:40-12:20. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hbYGWx QzJ-Y For further reading on the topic of this presentation, please see this reading: http://www.alislam.org/books/pathwaytopa radise/LAJ-chp2.htm
Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art and Society. 4th ed. New York: Thames & Hudson world of art, 2007. Print. Girls, Guerrilla. “Do‟s and Don‟ts for Women in Ancient Greece and Rome" Guerrilla Girls. 1998: 12. Print. Ahmed, Shaad. "Hadiths: The Marriage Process in Islam." SunniPath. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec 2011. http://www.sunnipath.com/Library/Articles/AR00000213.aspx „Ali Al-Hashimi, Muhammad. "The Ideal Muslim Woman and Her Husband." WEFOUND. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec 2011. http://www.wefound.org/texts/Ideal_Muslims_files/herhusband.htm Sher, Ali. "English with Short Commentary." AL ISLAM. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, n.d. Web. 5 Dec 2011. http://www.alislam.org/quran/tafseer/?page=195®ion=EN&CR=E1,E2 &CR=E1,E2 Yahya, Harun. "THE EMINENCE ISLAM ATTACHES TO WOMEN." Woman in the Quran.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec 2011. http://www.womaninthequran.com/articles_02.html
. "Women in Islam." Deenislam.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec 2011. http://www.deenislam.co.uk/women/winisla m.htm Ahmad Abbasi, Rahiq. "Women Education in Islam." Minhaj-ul-Quran International. N.p., 27 May 2009. Web. 5 Dec 2011. http://www.minhaj.org/english/tid/8535/W omen-Education-in-Islam-article-by-dr-raheeq- ahmad-rahiq-ahmed-abbasi-nazim-e-aala-mqi- minhaj-ul-quran.html