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BY:
SUJAN KHAREL
Introduction to
HEAT
EXCHANGERS(Shell
and tubes)
TRANSFER OF THERMAL
ENERGY BETWEE
TWO OR MORE FLUIDS
between a solid surface and a
fluid
between solid particulates and a
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
2
Heat exchanger
Classification of
Heat Exchangers
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
3
Based on transfer process
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
4
 Indirect Contact – Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers
 Direct Contact – Cooling Towers
Gas-Liquid exchangers
Liquid-Liquid exchangers
Gas-Gas heat exchangers
Based on phase of fluids
Based on construction
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
5
 Tubular
 Double pipe heat exchanger
 Shell and tube heat exchangers
 Spiral heat exchangers
 Plate-type
 Plate and frame heat exchangers
 Spiral plate heat exchangers
 Extended Surface
 Plate-fin exchanger
 Tube-fin exchanger
Based on flow arrangements
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
6
 Parallel flow / Co-current flow
 Counter flow
 Cross flow
Types of HE
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
7
 Double-pipe exchanger
 Shell and tube exchangers
 Plate and frame exchangers
 Plate-fin exchangers.
 Spiral heat exchangers.
 Air cooled heat exchangers
 Agitated vessels.
 Fired heaters.
SHELL & TUBE
HEAT EXCHANGERS
Shell & Tube Heat
Exchangers
C.R: Masood Karim
Shell and Tube Heat exchanger
 A system with Shell & Tubes used for heat
exchange.
 A shell (a large pressure vessel) with a
bundle of tubes inside it.
Working
 One fluid runs through the tubes,
and another fluid flows over the
tubes (through the shell) to
transfer heat between the two
fluids.
 The set of tubes is called a tube
bundle.
 See the Animation………
•Control Volume
Cross Section Area
HOT
COLD
Thermal Boundary Layer
Basic Structure
Types of shell & tube H.E
• Among the several types : given are most readily
used.
25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306)
16
Advantages
Less expensive as compared to Plate
type coolers
 Can be used in systems with higher
operating temperatures and
pressures
 Pressure drop across a tube cooler
is less
 Tube leaks are easily located and
plugged since pressure test is
comparatively easy

Disadvantages
 Heat transfer efficiency is less
compared to plate type cooler
 Cleaning and maintenance is
difficult since a tube cooler
requires enough clearance at one
end to remove the tube nest
 Requires more space in
comparison to plate coolers
Bafels
 Device used to restrain the flow of a fluid or to
prevent the spreading of fluid in a particular
direction.
 Flow-directing panel in some vessels such as
shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical
reactors, or static mixers.
Use of Baffles In Shell And Tube Heat
Exchangers
Why are baffles used?
To support the tube
To direct the fluid stream across the tube
To improve the rate of heat transfer Shell
Tubes
Baffle
Heat exchangers problems
 Exchanger
fouling
 Corrosion
 Vibration
Fouling
• Fouling occurs when any type of particles both
organic or inorganic plug or plate out on heat
transfer surfaces creating a resistance to
transfer energy
• There are two types of fouling
– Macro-fouling
– Micro-fouling
Macro Vs Micro Fouling
• Macro-fouling
– Sand
– Silt
– Scale
– Rust
– Mineral deposits
Example- CaCO3
• Micro-fouling
– Biological growth
– Algae
– Bacteria
– Mussels
• Micro-fouling is
controlled by water
treatment
2.Corrosion of heat exchangers
Another series problem in heat exchangers is corrosion
Severe corrosion can and does occur in tubing and very
often with common fluids such as water.
To avoid corrosion
►Proper material selection based on full analysis of the
operating fluids, velocities and temperatures is a must.
►Protection of the heat exchanger from corrosion [e.g.
cathodic protection]
►Treatment of the cooling water used and using inhibitors.
3.Heat exchangers vibration
Vibration of the tubes as a result of the flow of the
shell side past them is important phenomena
specially when the H.X size and flow quantities of
flow are increased
Vibration effects
►Vibration has a bad effect on both tubes and shell
►The joints between the tubes and tube sheet can
fail due to vibration causing leakage
►It causes leakage in the joints between shell and
tubes
►Increase the shut down time to repair the H.X
How to avoid vibration
Using inlet support baffles
Using double segmental baffles [improve
tube support]
Inlet support
baffles
Double-segmental baffles
Conclusion

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Heat Exchanger (Shell and tubes) by sujan kharel..

  • 2. TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY BETWEE TWO OR MORE FLUIDS between a solid surface and a fluid between solid particulates and a 25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306) 2 Heat exchanger
  • 4. Based on transfer process 25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306) 4  Indirect Contact – Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers  Direct Contact – Cooling Towers Gas-Liquid exchangers Liquid-Liquid exchangers Gas-Gas heat exchangers Based on phase of fluids
  • 5. Based on construction 25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306) 5  Tubular  Double pipe heat exchanger  Shell and tube heat exchangers  Spiral heat exchangers  Plate-type  Plate and frame heat exchangers  Spiral plate heat exchangers  Extended Surface  Plate-fin exchanger  Tube-fin exchanger
  • 6. Based on flow arrangements 25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306) 6  Parallel flow / Co-current flow  Counter flow  Cross flow
  • 7. Types of HE 25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306) 7  Double-pipe exchanger  Shell and tube exchangers  Plate and frame exchangers  Plate-fin exchangers.  Spiral heat exchangers.  Air cooled heat exchangers  Agitated vessels.  Fired heaters.
  • 8. SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
  • 9. Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers C.R: Masood Karim
  • 10. Shell and Tube Heat exchanger  A system with Shell & Tubes used for heat exchange.  A shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it.
  • 11. Working  One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.  The set of tubes is called a tube bundle.  See the Animation………
  • 12. •Control Volume Cross Section Area HOT COLD Thermal Boundary Layer Basic Structure
  • 13. Types of shell & tube H.E • Among the several types : given are most readily used.
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  • 16. 25-11-2015Transport Phenomenon (CH 306) 16 Advantages Less expensive as compared to Plate type coolers  Can be used in systems with higher operating temperatures and pressures  Pressure drop across a tube cooler is less  Tube leaks are easily located and plugged since pressure test is comparatively easy  Disadvantages  Heat transfer efficiency is less compared to plate type cooler  Cleaning and maintenance is difficult since a tube cooler requires enough clearance at one end to remove the tube nest  Requires more space in comparison to plate coolers
  • 17. Bafels  Device used to restrain the flow of a fluid or to prevent the spreading of fluid in a particular direction.  Flow-directing panel in some vessels such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reactors, or static mixers.
  • 18. Use of Baffles In Shell And Tube Heat Exchangers Why are baffles used? To support the tube To direct the fluid stream across the tube To improve the rate of heat transfer Shell Tubes Baffle
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  • 20. Heat exchangers problems  Exchanger fouling  Corrosion  Vibration
  • 21. Fouling • Fouling occurs when any type of particles both organic or inorganic plug or plate out on heat transfer surfaces creating a resistance to transfer energy • There are two types of fouling – Macro-fouling – Micro-fouling
  • 22. Macro Vs Micro Fouling • Macro-fouling – Sand – Silt – Scale – Rust – Mineral deposits Example- CaCO3 • Micro-fouling – Biological growth – Algae – Bacteria – Mussels • Micro-fouling is controlled by water treatment
  • 23. 2.Corrosion of heat exchangers Another series problem in heat exchangers is corrosion Severe corrosion can and does occur in tubing and very often with common fluids such as water. To avoid corrosion ►Proper material selection based on full analysis of the operating fluids, velocities and temperatures is a must. ►Protection of the heat exchanger from corrosion [e.g. cathodic protection] ►Treatment of the cooling water used and using inhibitors.
  • 24. 3.Heat exchangers vibration Vibration of the tubes as a result of the flow of the shell side past them is important phenomena specially when the H.X size and flow quantities of flow are increased Vibration effects ►Vibration has a bad effect on both tubes and shell ►The joints between the tubes and tube sheet can fail due to vibration causing leakage ►It causes leakage in the joints between shell and tubes ►Increase the shut down time to repair the H.X
  • 25. How to avoid vibration Using inlet support baffles Using double segmental baffles [improve tube support] Inlet support baffles Double-segmental baffles