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• Done by;
• Sujan kharel
• 2015-10-13
Geothermal EnergyGeothermal Energy
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
The term Geothermal originates from two Geek
words 'GEO' and 'THERM'. The Greek word ‘geo’
meant the earth whilst their word for ‘therm’ meant
heat from the earth.
Geothermal energy is the energy obtained from the
earth(geo) from the hot rocks present inside the
earth.
It is produced due to the fission of radioactive
materials in the earth’s core and some places
inside the earth become very hot. These are called
hot spots.
Different Geothermal EnergyDifferent Geothermal Energy
SourcesSources
•Hot Water Reservoirs: As the name implies these are
reservoirs of hot underground water. They are more
suited for space heating than for electricity production.
•Natural Stem Reservoirs: In this case a hole dug into
the ground can cause steam to come to the surface.
•Geo pressured Reservoirs: In this type of reserve,
brine completely saturated with natural gas in stored
under pressure from the weight of overlying rock. This
type of resource can be used for both heat and for
natural gas.
Generation of Electricity isGeneration of Electricity is
appropriate for sources >150appropriate for sources >150oo
CC
Dry Steam Plants: These were the first type of plants created. They use
underground steam to directly turn the turbines.
Flash Steam Plants: These are the most common plants. These systems pull
deep, high pressured hot water that reaches temperatures of 3600
F or more to
the surface. This water is transported to low pressure chambers, and the
resulting steam drives the turbines. The remaining water and steam are then
injected back into the source from which they were taken.
Binary Cycle Plants: This system passes moderately hot geothermal water
past a liquid, usually an organic fluid, that has a lower boiling point. The
resulting steam from the organic liquid drives the turbines. This process
does not produce any emissions and the water temperature needed for
the water is lower than that needed in the Flash Steam Plants (2500
F –
3600
F).
Casa Diablo
Hot Dry Rocks: The simplest models have one injection well and two
production wells. Pressurized cold water is sent down the injection well
where the hot rocks heat the water up. Then pressurized water of
temperatures greater than 2000
F is brought to the surface and passed
near a liquid with a lower boiling temperature, such as an organic liquid
like butane. The ensuing steam turns the turbines. Then, the cool water
is again injected to be heated. This system does not produce any
emissions. US geothermal industries are making plans to commercialize
this new technology.
•Electricity generated by geothermal plants saves 83.3
million barrels of fuel each year from being burned world
wide. This prevents 40.2 million tons of CO2 from being
emitted into the atmosphere.
•Direct use of geothermal energy prevents 103.6 million
barrels of fuel each year from being burned world wide.
This stops 49.6 tons of CO2 from being emitted into the
atmosphere.
Direct uses of geothermal energy isDirect uses of geothermal energy is
appropriate for sources below 150appropriate for sources below 15000
CC
• space heating
• air conditioning
• industrial processes
• drying
• Greenhouses
• Aguaculture
• hot water
• resorts and pools
• melting snow
Geothermal production of energy is 3rd highest among
renewable energies. It is behind hydro and biomass,
but before solar and wind.
Iceland is one of the more countries successful in
using geothermal energy:
-86% of their space heating uses geothermal energy.
-16% of their electricity generation uses geothermal
energy.
World Wide Geothermal Uses andWorld Wide Geothermal Uses and
PotentialPotential
Geothermal’s Harmful EffectsGeothermal’s Harmful Effects
• Brine(salt water) can salinate (losing one’s or its original nature)soil if the
water is not injected back into the reserve after the heat is extracted.
• Extracting large amounts of water can cause land subsidence, and this can
lead to an increase in seismic activity. To prevented this the cooled water
must be injected back into the reserve in order to keep the water pressure
constant underground.
• Power plants that do not inject the cooled water back into the ground can
release H2S, the “rotten eggs” gas. This gas can cause problems if large
quantities escape because inhaling too much is fatal.
• There is the fear of noise pollution during the drilling of wells.
Advantages of Geothermal EnergyAdvantages of Geothermal Energy
1) It is a renewable source of energy.1) It is a renewable source of energy.
2) By far, it is non-polluting and environment2) By far, it is non-polluting and environment
friendly.friendly.
3) There is no wastage or generation of by-3) There is no wastage or generation of by-
products.products.
4) Geothermal energy can be used directly.4) Geothermal energy can be used directly.
In ancient times, people used this source ofIn ancient times, people used this source of
energy for heating homes, cooking, etc.energy for heating homes, cooking, etc.
5) Maintenance cost of geothermal power5) Maintenance cost of geothermal power
plants is very less.plants is very less.
6) Geothermal power plants don't occupy6) Geothermal power plants don't occupy
too much space and thus help in protectingtoo much space and thus help in protecting
natural environment.natural environment.
7) Unlike solar energy, it is not dependent7) Unlike solar energy, it is not dependent
on the weather conditions.on the weather conditions.
Disadvantages of Geothermal EnergyDisadvantages of Geothermal Energy
1) Only few sites have the potential of Geothermal1) Only few sites have the potential of Geothermal
Energy.Energy.
2) Most of the sites, where geothermal energy is2) Most of the sites, where geothermal energy is
produced, are far from markets or cities, where it needsproduced, are far from markets or cities, where it needs
to be consumed.to be consumed.
3) Total generation potential of this source is too small.3) Total generation potential of this source is too small.
4) There is always a danger of eruption of volcano.4) There is always a danger of eruption of volcano.
5) Installation cost of steam power plant is5) Installation cost of steam power plant is
very high.very high.
6) There is no guarantee that the amount of6) There is no guarantee that the amount of
energy which is produced will justify theenergy which is produced will justify the
capital expenditure and operations costs.capital expenditure and operations costs.
7) It may release some harmful, poisonous7) It may release some harmful, poisonous
gases that can escape through the holesgases that can escape through the holes
drilled during construction.drilled during construction.
THANK YOU!!THANK YOU!!

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Geothermal energy -ppt. by sujan kharel(Ansal university)

  • 1. • Done by; • Sujan kharel • 2015-10-13
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION The term Geothermal originates from two Geek words 'GEO' and 'THERM'. The Greek word ‘geo’ meant the earth whilst their word for ‘therm’ meant heat from the earth. Geothermal energy is the energy obtained from the earth(geo) from the hot rocks present inside the earth. It is produced due to the fission of radioactive materials in the earth’s core and some places inside the earth become very hot. These are called hot spots.
  • 4. Different Geothermal EnergyDifferent Geothermal Energy SourcesSources •Hot Water Reservoirs: As the name implies these are reservoirs of hot underground water. They are more suited for space heating than for electricity production. •Natural Stem Reservoirs: In this case a hole dug into the ground can cause steam to come to the surface. •Geo pressured Reservoirs: In this type of reserve, brine completely saturated with natural gas in stored under pressure from the weight of overlying rock. This type of resource can be used for both heat and for natural gas.
  • 5. Generation of Electricity isGeneration of Electricity is appropriate for sources >150appropriate for sources >150oo CC Dry Steam Plants: These were the first type of plants created. They use underground steam to directly turn the turbines.
  • 6. Flash Steam Plants: These are the most common plants. These systems pull deep, high pressured hot water that reaches temperatures of 3600 F or more to the surface. This water is transported to low pressure chambers, and the resulting steam drives the turbines. The remaining water and steam are then injected back into the source from which they were taken.
  • 7. Binary Cycle Plants: This system passes moderately hot geothermal water past a liquid, usually an organic fluid, that has a lower boiling point. The resulting steam from the organic liquid drives the turbines. This process does not produce any emissions and the water temperature needed for the water is lower than that needed in the Flash Steam Plants (2500 F – 3600 F). Casa Diablo
  • 8. Hot Dry Rocks: The simplest models have one injection well and two production wells. Pressurized cold water is sent down the injection well where the hot rocks heat the water up. Then pressurized water of temperatures greater than 2000 F is brought to the surface and passed near a liquid with a lower boiling temperature, such as an organic liquid like butane. The ensuing steam turns the turbines. Then, the cool water is again injected to be heated. This system does not produce any emissions. US geothermal industries are making plans to commercialize this new technology.
  • 9. •Electricity generated by geothermal plants saves 83.3 million barrels of fuel each year from being burned world wide. This prevents 40.2 million tons of CO2 from being emitted into the atmosphere. •Direct use of geothermal energy prevents 103.6 million barrels of fuel each year from being burned world wide. This stops 49.6 tons of CO2 from being emitted into the atmosphere.
  • 10.
  • 11. Direct uses of geothermal energy isDirect uses of geothermal energy is appropriate for sources below 150appropriate for sources below 15000 CC • space heating • air conditioning • industrial processes • drying • Greenhouses • Aguaculture • hot water • resorts and pools • melting snow
  • 12. Geothermal production of energy is 3rd highest among renewable energies. It is behind hydro and biomass, but before solar and wind. Iceland is one of the more countries successful in using geothermal energy: -86% of their space heating uses geothermal energy. -16% of their electricity generation uses geothermal energy.
  • 13. World Wide Geothermal Uses andWorld Wide Geothermal Uses and PotentialPotential
  • 14. Geothermal’s Harmful EffectsGeothermal’s Harmful Effects • Brine(salt water) can salinate (losing one’s or its original nature)soil if the water is not injected back into the reserve after the heat is extracted. • Extracting large amounts of water can cause land subsidence, and this can lead to an increase in seismic activity. To prevented this the cooled water must be injected back into the reserve in order to keep the water pressure constant underground. • Power plants that do not inject the cooled water back into the ground can release H2S, the “rotten eggs” gas. This gas can cause problems if large quantities escape because inhaling too much is fatal. • There is the fear of noise pollution during the drilling of wells.
  • 15. Advantages of Geothermal EnergyAdvantages of Geothermal Energy 1) It is a renewable source of energy.1) It is a renewable source of energy. 2) By far, it is non-polluting and environment2) By far, it is non-polluting and environment friendly.friendly. 3) There is no wastage or generation of by-3) There is no wastage or generation of by- products.products. 4) Geothermal energy can be used directly.4) Geothermal energy can be used directly. In ancient times, people used this source ofIn ancient times, people used this source of energy for heating homes, cooking, etc.energy for heating homes, cooking, etc.
  • 16. 5) Maintenance cost of geothermal power5) Maintenance cost of geothermal power plants is very less.plants is very less. 6) Geothermal power plants don't occupy6) Geothermal power plants don't occupy too much space and thus help in protectingtoo much space and thus help in protecting natural environment.natural environment. 7) Unlike solar energy, it is not dependent7) Unlike solar energy, it is not dependent on the weather conditions.on the weather conditions.
  • 17. Disadvantages of Geothermal EnergyDisadvantages of Geothermal Energy 1) Only few sites have the potential of Geothermal1) Only few sites have the potential of Geothermal Energy.Energy. 2) Most of the sites, where geothermal energy is2) Most of the sites, where geothermal energy is produced, are far from markets or cities, where it needsproduced, are far from markets or cities, where it needs to be consumed.to be consumed. 3) Total generation potential of this source is too small.3) Total generation potential of this source is too small. 4) There is always a danger of eruption of volcano.4) There is always a danger of eruption of volcano.
  • 18. 5) Installation cost of steam power plant is5) Installation cost of steam power plant is very high.very high. 6) There is no guarantee that the amount of6) There is no guarantee that the amount of energy which is produced will justify theenergy which is produced will justify the capital expenditure and operations costs.capital expenditure and operations costs. 7) It may release some harmful, poisonous7) It may release some harmful, poisonous gases that can escape through the holesgases that can escape through the holes drilled during construction.drilled during construction.
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