TERM PAPER On MATERIAL HANDLING TECHNIQUESSubmitted To : - Submitted By:-Name:-Jaspreet Singh Name: Praneet SinghReg no.:-14566 Reg.No. 11012571 Course Code :- MEC104 Roll No. RB5004A81
ACKNOWIEDGEMENTFirst and for most I think my teacher who hasassigned me this term paper to bring out mycreative capabilities. I express my gratitude to my parentsfor being a continuous source ofencouragement and for all their financial aidsgiven to me. I would like to acknowledge theassistance provided to me by the library staffof LPU PHAGWARA. My heart is full gratitude to my friends,and our respected physics teacher sir JaspreetSingh for helping me to complete my work intime. Thanking you
CONTENT1). Material handling a). Material b). Handling2). Manual handling a). Safe manal handling techniques3). Material handling techniques products4). Technique used a). Work stations designs b). Lifting and lowring c). Carring and holding d). Storage5). References
IntroductionFor most of us material handling refers to everything from the movement ofproducts on an assembly line to our luggage at the airport. Material handling issimply the physical movement of material from one location to another. Whilethere is nothing really wrong with this definition, it is too broad and doesntreally tell us much about material handling in the manufacturing industry. Tounderstand material handling, especially as we understand it here at Foremost,you have to look a little more carefully a t what we mean by "handling" and"material".Material handling from our standpoint, is simply the study of the systems andequipment required for the movement of a solid raw material with a saltationvelocity that is easily handled by the dilute or dens e phase methods ofpneumatic conveying. The critical question facing those in the manufacturingindustry is whether or not their particular kind of material can be moved bythese two methods of handling. These methods are not restricted to handlingonly plastic resins. If the material is a solid with the right kind of properties,i.e., the appropriate saltation velocity, there is no reason why these handlingmethods couldnt do the job.
MaterialFor the plastics industry, material handling is the study of systems andequipment required for the movement of plastic resin, whether it be pellet,granule, powder or flakes. When it comes to the manufacturing process ingeneral, the material being handle d can come in any size, shape, weight orform. It can be everything from raw material, partially assembled componentsto finished goods. The material, in our case, is a plastic resin - a raw materialthat has certain properties and acts in a certain way. F or more about plastic ingeneral see About Plastics.For most industries, material handling is about the movement of somethingatomic that occupies space, has mass, and is used to make things. While rawmaterial exists in either the form of a solid, liqui d or gas, the plastics industryworks primarily with a solid or a semi-solid polymer which is basically a long -chain of carbon-based molecules. As a solid or semi-solid, a plastic resin canexist in four possible forms: as pellets, granular, powdered or ev en flaked. Eachform comes with its own set of properties that must be considered when itcomes to their handling.HandlingAt Foremost we tend to restrict our expertise to the handling of material thatis delivered by truck or railcar. The handling of material can include everythingfrom the physical movement of a finished product like a car to the alteration ofan objects chemical composition. It can refer to everything from themovement, storage, control and protection of material throughout the processof its production, distribution, consumption, and disposal. We are concernedwith the handling of the plastic resin from its delivery by truck or railcar, to itsstorage in storage silos, to its distribution to the processing equipment, i.e., anextruder hopper. Since we are always dealing with bulk quantities of resin,
whether it be from a truck or a railcar, our methods of handling were designedspecifically for bulk materials.The first method, known as dilute phase pneumatic conveying, is a method ofhandling that uses a vacuum pump to pull the plastic resin from the railcarthrough a pipe up to the vacuum receiver on the s torage silo. The secondmethod, called dense phase pneumatic conveying, uses a vacuum/pressureblower assembly to pull the plastic resin from the railcar through a pipe to atransfer station where the resin is blown into the storage silo by the pressureblower. In both cases, material is moved through a pipe at a velocity such thatthe material is moved in a stream-like state of suspension. The main differenceis that the dilute phase method can produce a higher rate of air velocity thanthe dense phase method.In order to know which method to use, the material handling expert has knowwhat kind of material is to be moved and its saltation velocity, i.e., the velocityat which the material will fall from suspension in the pipe. The air velocity ofthe dilute phase method, for instance, is anywhere from 4000 to 8000 feet perminute (FPM). Since most plastic resins have a saltation velocity of 3500 FPM,it follows that most experts would recommend using the dilute phase methodto move them. There are of course, certain drawbacks to the dilute method,that must be considered. Some plastic resins, for example, cannot be movedabove a certain velocity or they begin to deteriorate. These issues areaddressed in detail in our article How To Choose Between Dilute and DensePhase Conveying. It is enough to know that by material handling we are talkingabout a certain kind of solid raw material and two competing methods ofhandling that material.Material handling from our standpoint, is simply the study of the systems andequipment required for the movement of a solid raw material with a saltationvelocity that is easily handled by the dilute or dense phase methods ofpneumatic conveying. The critical question facing those in the manufacturingindustry is whether or not their particular kind of material can be moved bythese two methods of handling. These methods are not restricted to handlingonly plastic resins. If the material is a solid with the right kind of properties,
i.e., the appropriate saltation velocity, ther e is no reason why these handlingmethods couldnt do the job.Manual handlingManual handling of loads (MHL), manual material handling (MMH) o rmanutention involves the use of the human body to lift, lower, fill, empty, orcarry loads. The load can be animate (a person or animal) or inanimate (anobject). Most manufacturing or distribution systems require some manualhandling tasks. Though decreasing lately, the rate of workers in the EU -25 thatreport carrying or moving heavy loads, is still high (34.5 % ), reaching 38.0 % inthe EU-10. When performed incorrectly or excessively, these tasks may exposeworkers to physical risk factors, fatigue, and injury. A variety of MMHtechniques and tools exist to alleviate these potential problems.1 Manual handling hazards2 Safe manual handling techniques2.1 Lifting2.2 Climbing2.3 Pushing and pulling2.4 PivotingManual handling hazardsAny job that involves heavy labor or manual material handling may include ahigh risk for injury on the job. Manual material han dling entails lifting, but alsousually includes climbing, pushing, pulling, and pivoting, all of which pose therisk of injury to the back. MMH work contributes to a large percentage of a1.1 million cases of musculoskeletal disorders reported annually in the UnitedStates. Musculoskeletal disorders often involve strains and sprains to the lowerback, shoulders, and upper limbs. Potentially injurious tasks may involve
bending and twisting, repetitive motions, carrying or lifting heavy loads, andmaintaining fixed positions for a long time. MMH under these conditions canlead to damaged muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and bl ood vessels.Safe manual handling techniquesErgonomic intervention in manual handling can decrease injuries and increaseworker productivity.LiftingLifting containers can strain the lumbar vertebrae when done improperly.Ergonomic lifting techniques involve keeping loads close to the body and nearthe persons center of gravity, using diagonal foot positions, and moving loadsat waist height rather than directly from the floor.ClimbingWhen climbing with a load, safe material handling includes maintaining contactwith the ladder or stairs at three points (two hands and a foot or both feet anda hand). Bulky loads would require a second person or a mechanical device toassist.Pushing and pullingManual material handling may require pushing or pulling. Pushing is generallyeasier on the back than pulling. It is impor tant to use both the arms and legs toprovide the leverage to start the push.
PivotingWhen moving containers, handlers are safer when pivoting their shoulders,hips and feet with the load in front at all times rather than twisting their back.The lower back is not designed to torque or for repetitive twisting.Material Handling Techniques Products:Conveyor system"Conveyor" redirects here. For other uses, see Conveyor (disambiguation).This article is about conveyor systems. For information on conveyor belts, seeconveyor belts. For information on overhead conveyors, see overheadconveyors.An overhead chain conveyor conveys cars at Mercedes in GermanyA conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment thatmoves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful
in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials.Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety ofmaterials, which make them very popular i n the material handling andpackaging industries. Many kinds of conveying systems are available, and areused according to the various needs of different industries.Forklift truck"Pallet truck" redirects here. For the smaller pallet-moving tool sometimescalled a pallet truck, see pallet jack.A forklift (also called a lift truck, a high/low, a stacker -truck, trailer loader,sideloader, fork truck, tow-motor or a fork hoist) is a powered industrial truckused to lift and transport materials. The modern forklift was developed in the1920s by various companies including the transmission manufacturingcompany Clark and the hoist company Yale & Towne Manufacturing. Theforklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment inmanufacturing and warehousing operations.Lift tableA lift table is a device that employs a scissors mechanism to raise or lowergoods and / or persons. Typically they are used to raise large, heavy loads
through relatively small distances. Common applications include pall ethandling, vehicle loading and work positioning. Lift tables are a recommendedway to help reduce incidents of musculoskeletal disorders(www.hse.gov.uk/msd) by correctly re-positioning work at a suitable height foroperators. Lift tables lend themselves to being easily adapted to a specific use.They can work in hostile environments, be manufactured in stainless steel andhave equipment like conveyors, turn -tables, barriers and gates easily added totheir deckplates.Lift tables can come in a vast array of configurations and can be built to suitvarious highly specialized industrial processes. The most common lift tabledesign incorporates hydraulic cylinders and an electrically powered pump toactuate the scissor lifting mechanism. Lift tables can also be driven bypneumatic sources, trapezoidal threaded screw drives, push chains or byhydraulic foot pump when the load is not heavy. Lift tables can be mounted ina pit for floor-level loading, especially useful for acce ss by manual pallet-pumptrucks and the mobility impaired or wheelchair users.Automated guided vehicleThis articles introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents.To comply with Wikipedias lead section guidelines, please consider expan dingthe lead to provide an accessible overview of the articles key points. (July2010)
An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobilerobot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. Theyare most often used in industrial applications to move materials around amanufacturing facility or a warehouse. Application of the automatic guidedvehicle has broadened during the late 20th century and they are no longerrestricted to industrial environments.Crane (machine)A crane, can also be known as a bridge crane, overhead crane is a type ofmachine used for lifting, generally equipped with a winder (also called a wirerope drum), wire ropes or chains and sheaves, that can be used both to lift andlower materials and to move them horizontally. It uses one or more simplemachines like a hoist to create mechanical advantage and thus move loadsbeyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly employed inthe transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in theconstruction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturingindustry for the assembling of heavy equipment.
The firs c s ruc ion cranes were invente by the Ancient Gree s and were ¢¡ £ ¤powered by men or beasts of burden, such as donkeys These cranes were ¥used for the construction of tall buildings Larger cranes were later developed, ¥employing the use of human treadwheels, permitting the lifting of heavierweights In the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to load and ¥unload ships and assist with their construction ʹ some were built into stonetowers for e tra strength and stability The earliest cranes were constructed ¦ ¥from wood, but cast iron and steel took over with the coming of the IndustrialRevolution.Techniques used: o t tion esi nReduce the distance over which the load has to be moved by relocatingproduction and storage areas.Design work stations so that workers §
can store and handle all material between knuckle and shoulder height; waistheight is most desirable can begin and end handling material at the same height can face the load and handle materials as close to the body as possible do not have to handle loads using awkward postures or an extended reach,and do not handle loads in confined spaces that prevent them from using goodbody mechanicsFacilitate access to material by: providing workbenches and other work stations with toe cut -outs, so thatworkers can get closerto the load supplying bins and totes with removable sides removing obstructions, such as unnecessary railings on binsWork PracticesLifting and LoweringEliminate the need to lift or lower manually by providing and ensuring properuse of: lift trucks, cranes, hoists, scissor lifts, drum and barrel dumpers, stackers,work dispensers, elevating conveyors, articulating arms and other mechanicaldevices gravity dumps and chutes power lift tail gates on trucks, and hand trucks to ensure easy transfer ofmaterial from the truck to ground level portable ramps or conveyors to lift and lower loads on to work stations
Pushing and PullingEliminate pushing or pulling by ensuring the use of: powered conveyors, powered trucks, slides, chutes, monorails, air tables andsimilar mechanical aidsMake loads easier to push or pull by ensuring the use of: carts, hand trucks and dollies with large diameter casters and good bearings,and grips or handles on loads or mechanical aids, placed to provide optimal pushforce and prevent awkward posturesInstruct employees to: push rather than pull avoid overloading ʹ limit the load pushed or pulled at one time ensure the load does not block vision never push one load and pull another at the same timeCarrying and HoldingReduce carrying and holding forces by: evaluating the work flow ʹ determine if heavy loads can be movedmechanically over any distance converting the operation into a pushing or pulling task providing carts, slings or trolleys providing portable containers in which to plac e awkward loads providing grips or handles on loads limiting the distance over which the load is moveEnvironmental Factors
Maintain an optimum environment by ensuring that: the temperature of the work area is at an acceptable level in a hot environmentʹ workers take frequent breaks away from the heatʹworkers drink frequently from liquids provided near the work site in a cold environment,ʹ workers wear good insulating clothingʹ loads areeasy to handle when gloves and heavy clothing are worn humidity is at an acceptable level lifting instructions can be heard in a noisy environment lighting levels are adequate for the work place the layout of the work area provides better access to the load the aisles are clear of obstacles signs are posted where there are gradients in the slope of the floor;whenever possible, limit such slopes to 10 degreesStorageProvide proper storage facilities such as: storage boxes and containers that can be lifted mechanically rather than requiring manual handling avoid deep shelving that make retrieving or placing a load difficult racks or shelf trucks to store material, thus eliminating the need for liftingthe containers storage bins and containers with fold down sides for easier access to loadsWhen storing loads, employees should: store loads in easy to access locations store loads between knuckle and shoulder height .