GOOD MORNING/AFTERNOON, LADIES AND GENTLEMAN. MY NAME IS FRANK KEENAN AND I’M THE EHS MANAGER FOR PPI ADHESIVE PRODUCTS. BEFORE I START, I MUST EMPHASISE THAT WHILE THE FOLLOWING PRESENTATION IS FOR YOUR DAILY WORK, DO NOT LEAVE THESE PROCEDURES IN WORK- THEY MUST ALSO BE USED THROUGHOUT YOUR DAILY LIFE AS WELL TO FULLY INSURE THAT YOU REDUCE THE CHANCES OF BACK PROBLEMS IN LATER LIFE.
THE TOPICS THAT I WILL BE COVERING IN THIS COURSE ARE ………..
AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THIS SLIDE THE GREATEST CONTRIBUTION TO ACCIDENT STATISTICS IS DUE TO POOR MANUAL HANDLING PRACTICES.
THE 5 AREAS OF LEGISLATION THAT ARE OF INTEREST IN THIS PRESENTATION: 1989 ACT , BROUGHT IRELAND INTO LINE WITH EU LEGISLATION. SETS DOWN THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS/EMPLOYEES AND PERSONS ONSITE WHO ARE NOT EMPLOYED THERE. ALSO SETS OUT THE RESPONSIBILITIES FOR MANUFACTURERS/DESIGNERS/IMPORTERS/SUPPLIERS WITH REGARDS TO SAFELY USING THEIR PRODUCT. SAFETY STATEMENT SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE SAFETY CONSULTATION HSA 1993 REGULATIONS – GENERAL H&S PROVISIONS AND EXTEND THE DUTIES OF THE EMPLOYERS/EMPLOYEES UNDER THE 1989 ACT. ALSO INCLUDE PROVISIONS FOR WORKPLACE, USE OF WORK EQUIPMENT, PPE, MANUAL HANDLING OF LOADS, VDU’S, ELECTRICITY, FIRST-AID, NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS/DANGEROUS OCCURRENCES. 2000 ACT: COVERS PREGNANT EMPLOYEES 2005 ACT: GREATER EMPHASIS ON SAFETY. DEFINITION OF DIRECTOR. LAYS OUT DETAILS OF FINES ETC. MOST ONEROUS LEGS IN EU 2007 REGULATIONS: BRINGS TOGETHER PREVIOUS AMENDMENTS AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS SINCE 1993. DEFINES REASONABLY PRACTICABLE. SETS OUT MIN TEMP FOR SEDENTARY WORK STATIONS (17.5 0 C)
Reasonably Practicable: Exercised all due care putting in place necessary protective/preventative measures after identifying risks to H&S likely to result in an accident/injury.
UNDER THE ’89 AND FURTHER EXTENDED BY THE ’93 LEGS AND REGS AND THE 2005 ACT AND 2007 GENERAL APLLICATIONS REGULATIONS UNDER THE 1993 REGULATIONS THE EMPLOYER IS REQUIRED TO REDUCE /ELIMINATE NEED FOR MANUAL HANDLING OF LOADS WHERE THERE IS A SERIOUS RISK OF INJURY: 1. THROUGH BETTER ORGANISATION 2. BY MECHANICAL MEANS 3. ADEQUATE TRAINING
H&S IS EVERYBODIES RESPONSIBILITY
2005 ACT DEFINED A COMPANY DIRECTOR AS SOMEONE WHO GIVES A WORK INSTRUCTION IMPLIES ANY SUPERVISOR. IF ACCIDENT OCCURS THEN MAY BE HELD LIABLE THOUGH UNLIKELY. 2007 SHWW MIN TEMPERATURE 17.5°C FOR SEDENTARY WORK (PREVIOUSLY ISSUED AS A GUIDELINE). MEASURED BY DRY BULB- ACCURATE?
UNDER THE ’93 REGULATIONS MANUAL HANDLING TASKS MUST BE CONTROLLED…. RISK ASSESSMENT MUST COVER: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LOAD- SIZE, SHAPE ETC PHYSICAL EFFORT REQUIRED- HOW HEAVY THE LOAD IS ETC. CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT- TEMPERATURE, LIGHTING ETC. REQUIREMENTS OF THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
NO MAXIMUM LEGAL WEIGHT SPECIFIED- EVERYBODY IS DIFFERENT THE GUIDELINES REFER TO 95% OF THE MALE POPULATION AND ~66%; REDUCE BY 1/3 FOR 95% TO COVER WOMEN THE GUIDELINES ASSUME THAT: THE LOAD IS READILY GRASPED BETWEEN THE TWO HANDS UNDER REASONABLE WORKING CONDITIONS (STABLE BODY CONDITION); INFREQUENT OPERATIONS (~30 OPERATIONS PER HOUR) AND THE PACE IS NOT FORCED, ADEQUATE PAUSES FOR REST, WEIGHT IS NOT SUPPORTED FOR ANY PERIOD OF TIME. GUIDELINE WEIGHTS ARE ALSO AFFECTED BY THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE TASK. ANY OPERATION INVOLVING WEIGHTS GREATER THAN TWICE THE GUIDELINES MUST BE ASSESSED.
2 GROUPS: AXIAL (80 BONES) SUPPORTS THE MAIN BODY AXIS WHICH IS OF INTEREST HERE AND THE APPENDICULAR (126 BONES) SUPPORTS THE ARMS AND LEGS. PROTECTS VITAL ORGANS, GIVES SHAPE AND ALLOWS MOVEMENT LONG BONES (UPPER AND LOWER LIMBS) SHORT BONES (HANDS/FEET) FLAT BONES (SKULL/RIBS) IRREGULAR BONES (SPINAL COLUMN/FEET/HANDS) 2 OR MORE BONES JOINING TOGETHER FOR MOVEMENT PURPOSES (BONE ENDS COVERED IN CARTILAGE) FIXED JOINTS (SKULL/SACRUM) MOVABLE JOINTS- (KNEE/FACET) PARTIALLY MOVABLE- (INTERVERTEBRAL/SACRO ILIAC)
7 CERVICAL: SMALL, LIGHTLY BUILT- CARRIES ONLY THE HEAD, SHAPED FOR FLEXIBILITY/MOVEMENT 12 THORACIC: LARGER, CARRIES MORE WEIGHT, EACH HAS A PAIR OF RIBS ATTACHED BY FACET JOINTS 5 LUMBAR: LARGE, CARRIES A GREAT DEAL OF WEIGHT FROM TOP HALF OF BODY, LIMITED MOVEMENT (8-10 O ), WHERE MAIN PROBLEMS OCCUR DUE TO LACK OF PROPER MANUAL HANDLING 5 SACRAL: FUSED 4 COCCYGEAL: FUSED, REMNANT OF YOUR TAIL BONE
YOU CAN APPRECIATE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE VERTIBRAE
PEDICLES- JOIN VERTEBRAL ARCH TO THE VERTEBRAL BODY. EACH HAS DEEP LOWER SURFACE AND SHALLOW UPPER SURFACE NOTCH. TRANSVERSE PROCESSES FOR MUSCLE ATTACHMENT- ALLOW THE SPINE TO BEND HENCE ALLOWING THE FUNCTIONAL UNIT TO OPEN LIGAMENTS ATTACH TO THE POSTERIOR SPINE- ATTACHED LIKE A STRIP OF TAPE, LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF BENDING OF TWO ADJACENT VERTEBRA BODIES DUE TO LOW ELONGATION SPINAL CORD PASSES THROUGH THE SPINAL CANAL AND AS IT DOES IT GIVES OFF MANY NERVES TO THE REST OF THE BODY. THE NERVES EXIT VERY CLOSE TO THE DISCS. SCIATIC NERVE EXITS AT THE 4 TH /5 TH LUMBAR VERTEBRA (ALSO BRANCHES TO OTHER AREAS). INTERVERTEBRAL DISC FIT BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAE
Joints with surfaces that face each other Glide upon each other It is because of their flat surfaces fitting into each other that prevents rotation in this region of the spine Unique to the lumbar region
OUTER LAYER: ANNULUS, FIBROUS (COLLAGEN) CENTRE CORE: NUCLEUS, 88% WATER WITHIN GELATINOUS MASS
THESE CAN BE SPRAINED/STRAINED RESULTING IN OVER STRETCHING OR TEARING OF THE STRUCTURES PROTECTING THE JOINTS
FLUID FROM THE DAMAGED DISC LEAKS THROUGH THE DAMAGED FIBRES. THE FLUID THEN INTERACTS WITH THE NERVE IN THE SPINAL COLUMN HENCE THE PAIN ASSOCIATED WITH THIS TYPE OF INJURY
LUMBAR REGION MOST LIKELY AFFECTED BY MECHANICAL INJURY SACRO ILIAC MOST AFFECTED IN PREGNANT WOMEN AS LIGAMENTS SLACKEN
THESE SHOULD BE APPLIED WHEREVER PRACTICABLE. THIS SLIDE SHOULD BE LEFT UP WHEN DEMONSTRATING THE LIFTING TECHNIQUE.
AVOID WHERE POSSIBLE LIFTING TO AND FROM THE FLOOR/TO AND FROM A HEIGHT ALSO REMEMBER TEAM LIFTING. THE NEXT SLIDE PROVIDES THE PRINCIPLES ON HOW TO LIFT.
ONCE OFF TEST FOR ALL FACILITIES. GRANITE AREAS THE MOST LIKELY PLACE FOR PRESENCE OF RADON. TYPES OF RADIATION EMITTED: α , β, γ-RADIATION. MOST DANGEROUS ONCE TAKEN IN IS α-RADIATION. BOTH PPI FACTORIES TESTED AND PASSED, RESULTS ARE POSTED FOR ALL TO SEE.
REDUCTION FROM 83 TO 80 dB A FOR 1 ST ACTION LEVEL/2 ND ACTION LEVEL IS NOW AT 85 dB A. HEARING CAN ALSO BE AFFECTED BY OUTSIDE INFLUENCES (NIGHTCLUBS ETC.)
ENSURE THAT YOU ARE USING FACE AND HAND PROTECTION WHEN USING SOLVENT BASED MATERIALS
Manual Handling ofLoads Frank Keenan, EHS Manager, PPI Adhesive Products Ltd.20/02/13 1
WHAT IS MANUAL HANDLING ? Manual Handling is the transporting or supporting of a load by one or more people and includes And which by means of its characteristics or of unfavourable ergonomic conditions, involves risk, particularly of back20/02/13 2 injury
Manual Handling- a Life Tool Why Manual Handling courses? Legislation The skeleton How injuries occur Flexibility Ergonomics Principles of lifting20/02/13 3
WHY ATTEND THIS TRAINING DAY ?To prevent back injury & its consequences Pain & decreased mobility Affects hobbies, family & social life Financial consequences if unable to work 20/02/13 4
STATISTICS Accident statistics >30% in the Western world 80-90% will suffer back pain Build up over time Early return to work key to recovery20/02/13 5
Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act (2005) Replaces 1989 Act Defines “reasonably practicable” Extends employers responsibility to contractors etc. Allows for issues such as intoxicants and other psychosocial issues to be dealt with More detailed Safety Statement based on Risk Assessment20/02/13 7
Employer’s Responsibilities Provide a safe place to work Safe equipment/ safe systems PPE Safety devices Training and Information Supervision Emergency Plans Competent person to examine H&S issues20/02/13 8
Employee’s Responsibilities Must take reasonable care of own safety and others that may be affected by their activities To cooperate with management to comply with the law To use PPE provided for their own safety Not to misuse/interfere with equipment Report defects to the employer20/02/13 9
General Applications Regulations (2007) Extended responsibilities of all parties. Definition of “Director”. Covers areas such as VDU’s, PPE, workplace equipment, electricity, notification of accidents/ dangerous occurrences.20/02/13 10
MANUAL HANDLING REGULATIONS 2007 The employer must ………. Avoid Manual Handling (Organisational or Mechanical Means) If Manual Handling cannot be avoided carry out risk assessment T.I.L.E. If Manual Handling cannot be avoided take organisational measures, use appropriate means or give employee means to reduce the risk involved with manual handling Protect particularly sensitive risk groups (see next slide) Where tasks are entrusted to an employee, take their capabilities into account. Provide training & information (Weight & C.O.G. of load)20/02/13 11
SENSITIVE RISK GROUPS Children & Young Persons Pregnant, Post Natal & Breast Feeding Women Night Work & Shift Work20/02/13 12
SCHEDULE 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LOAD Too heavy/large Un weildy/difficult to grasp Unstable/contents likely to shift Stooping/twisting Contours/consistency esp. in collision WORKING ENVIRONMENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE ACTIVITYPHYSICAL EFFORT REQUIRED Not enough Room (vertically) Over frequent/prolonged Physical Too strenuous Unable to handle loads at safe height effort of the spine Twisting movement of trunk Floor uneven/variations in levels Insufficient rest/recovery of the body Sudden movement of the load Floor or footrest unstable Excessive lifting, lowering, carryingMade with body in unstable posture Temperature, Humidity, Ventilation Distances INDIVIDUAL RISK FACTORS Employee Physically unsuited to carry out task Wearing unsuitable clothing, footwear Does not have adequate/appropriate 20/02/13 Knowledge or training 13
PROTECTION OF PREGNANT, POST NATAL & BREAST FEEDING EMPLOYEES 2007Applies to women The employer MUST…… WHO ………. Carry out a risk assessment Are Pregnant (Schedule 8) & Have recently given If necessary ↓ risk by…… Changing work conditions / birth (14 weeks) working hours Alternative work Are breastfeeding H & S leave (26 weeks) 20/02/13 14
Control of Manual Handling tasks Where there is a risk of injury- avoid manual handling If it is unavoidable, a risk assessment must be done Training and information must be provided to employees, who must accept this Competent person to examine H&S issues20/02/13 15
Guideline weights for Manual Handling Guideline weights20/02/13 16
Effects on the Guideline weights Twisting during lifting operation reduces weights by: 10 % twisting through 45o 20% twisting through 90o Frequency of operation also reduces guideline weights: 30% for 1/ 2 times per minute 50% for 5/ 8 times per minute 80% for >12 times per minute20/02/13 17
Points to note: Everybodys responsibility Legislation being updated regularly More awareness of your safety20/02/13 18
SOFT TISSUE INJURIES Overstretched Muscles are torn when cold Ligaments are torn because they are not elastic May become slack due to disc degeneration Overloaded Muscles are torn if load is too heavy AND IF Muscles do not have enough time to recover (repetitive work) 20/02/13 35
AVOID STOOPING AND TWISTINGX XSTOOPING TWISTING 20/02/13 38
BONE INJURY The partly movable joints: Facet joint (Arthritis due to wear and tear) Sacro iliac joint20/02/13 39
WHAT IS TO BE LEARNT As we do not always initially feel pain when we cause damage to our spine we may think all is o.k. But Be warned!!! Injuries can build up over time. Bad postures and bad handling techniques may cause problems later on in life.20/02/13 40
OBJECTIVES What is fitness? Muscles relevant to manual handling Safety when exercising Benefits of fitness Stretch break, How to use large leg muscles for manual handling (weight transference/ ankle, knee & hip movements)20/02/13 42
WHAT IS FITNESS “Ability to do ones daily work with enough energy left over” Strength Aerobic (Heart & lungs) Flexibility Endurance20/02/13 43
ELEMENTS OF SAFE STRETCH Warm up/cool down Avoid sudden jerky movements Stretch to point of slight discomfort Hold stretch for 30 seconds x 3 times Stretch for minimum of 6 weeks to restore flexibility20/02/13 45
BENIFITS OF FITNESS More stamina and energy Decreased risk of injury Improved mental alertness Improved sense of well-being May live longer!!! If not, you’ll definitely…. ‘Get more out of life !!!!!’.20/02/13 46
OBJECTIVES Definition of Ergonomics Manual Handling Assessment Benefit of Ergonomics20/02/13 48
Definition Ergonomics aims to “fit the job, environment and equipment to the person” instead of making the person fit the above (e.g. car, sports equipment, kitchen design. This will ensure that work is done in a way that minimises physical and mental effort while maximising efficiency. 20/02/13 49
RISK FACTORS Where, why & how to avoid at work? X STOOPING TWISTING20/02/13AWAY FROM BODYLOADS 50 OVER REACHING
YOU MUST ASSESS YOUR JOB TO SEE IF YOU ARE CAPABLE OF DOING IT SAFELYT taskI individualL load20/02/13 51
T.I.L.E. TASK Loads away from the body Twisting/stooping Reaching upwards Long carrying distances Strenuous effort Large vertical movements LOAD Heavy ENVIRONMENT INDIVIDUAL Bulky/unweildy Poor floors Require unusual capabilitiesHazard to those with health problems Difficult to grasp Variations in levels Hazard to those who are pregnant Unsteady/unpredictable Constraints on posturesRequire special information/training Harmful – Lighting conditions Require PPE Co-operative Strong air movements Attachments Hot, cold humid conditions 20/02/13 Walking aids 52
SOLUTIONS SHORT TERM SOLUTIONS LONG TERM SOLUTIONS Extra staff Relocate Kitchen into main Improve lighting Hospital Fill Potholes Fix Wheels Contract out catering to outside company Training Put ramp at kerb Reflective clothing20/02/13 53
BENEFITS OF ERGONOMICS I f you assess your job, you will be… Better able to recognise potentially harmful tasks Safer – decreased risk of injury More comfortable – more energy, less stress More efficient & productive20/02/13 54
OBJECTIVES The thought process involved before loads are moved Principles of manual handling Team handling20/02/13 56
BEFORE ANY HANDLING TASK “Think before you begin” AVOID Must you do the task at all? If you must do the task, Assess – T.I.L.E Can the task be made more manageable by: Spliting the load Getting help from other staff member Using equipment 20/02/13 57
The 8 Principles of Lifting Assess the task (area & load)- TILE Bend the knees Ensure broad stable base Back straight (Neutral position & Avoid combined bending & twisting) Firm grip with palm of hand Arms in line with trunk Weight close to centre of gravity Turn feet in direction of movement20/02/13 58
5 Types of basic lift To and from the floor To and from a bench To and from a height Pushing Pulling20/02/13 60
TEAM HANDLING Be aware of limitations of team handling Work with people of similar height Appoint a leader Plan the manoeuvre Agree a command, to ensure a smooth co- co-ordinated movement (Ready, Steady lift.. pull…lower etc.)20/02/13 61
Conclusion This training course must be used outside work- LIFE TOOL Always follow the 8 Principles wherever you are (whenever possible) Remember- you only have one back- take care of it and it will “back” you up for life!20/02/13 62
The Radon Problem U-238 4.5 billion yr U-234 250,000 yr Pa-234 1.2 min Th-234 Th-230 24 days 77,000 yr Ra-226 1,600 yr Rn-222 3.8 days Po-218 Po-214 Po-210 3.05 min 164 microsec 138 days Bi-214 Bi-210 19.7 min 5.0 days Pb-214 Pb-210 Pb-206 Stable20/02/13 26.8 min 22 yr 63
Use of intoxicants Companies moving towards manditory testing/random testing. Can have a very serious impact on work H&S. Where possible let your employer know if on meds that affect work.20/02/13 64
Noise Reduction in exposure levels Obligations if levels are between 80 and 85 dB A and above 85 dB A If levels vary daily then a weekly average can be used Preventative audiometric testing20/02/13 65
Chemical Agents Use of PPE when using chemicals Personal hygeine is important Familiarise yourself with the material MSDS Use proper soap etc to claen affected areas NOT solvents20/02/13 66
Reviewing MSDS’s Check for associated hazards (Sec. 3) PPE to be used (Sec. 8) Toxicological information (Sec. 11) Other areas of interest (Sec. 4, 5 & 7) New material = new20/02/13 MSDS 67
Dignity at Work People need no longer feel threatened by other employees or managers Physical and sexual harassment dealt with through H&S Legs and Regs.20/02/13 68