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Understanding Social Skills Deficits and Interventions in ASD

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A presentation for general educators on social skills in students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Understanding Social Skills Deficits and Interventions in ASD

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICITS AND INTERVENTIONS IN STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS Ann Kennedy
  2. 2. SOCIAL SKILL DEFICITS IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS Impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction. Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level. Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people. Lack of social and emotional reciprocity. Social avoidance and withdrawal. (Boutot & Myles, 2011)
  3. 3. EXAMPLES OF DEFICITS IN SOCIAL COMMUNICA TION Failure to establish eye contact . Failure to make inferences. Failure to use social non-verbal cues. Indifference to others’ facial expressions.
  4. 4. EXAMPLES OF DEFICITS IN SOCIAL INITIATION Rarely initiate interactions Interact frequently, but inappropriately
  5. 5. Examples of Deficits in Social Reciprocity  Inability to engage in give- and-take; hijacking the conversation. Failure to maintain joint attention.
  6. 6. Examples of Deficits in Social Cognition  Understanding and behaving according to social norms. Understanding idioms and figures of speech (Boutot & Myles, 2011)
  7. 7. Assessment of SocialSkill Development  * Interviews with Caregivers  * Rating Scales  *Direct Observation  Naturalistic  Structured  Functional BehavioralAnalysis  Autism DiagnosticObservation Schedule (ADOS)  SocialSkills Rating Scale (SSR)  School Social Behavior Scales, 2nd edition  Home & CommunitySocial Behavior Scales (HCSBS)  (Heflin & Alaimo, 2007)
  8. 8. SocialSkills Acquisition Tools and Methods  Social Stories  Video Modeling andVideo Self-Modeling  Social Problem-Solving  Pivotal ResponseTraining  Social Scripts
  9. 9. SocialStories  Stories written to teach a particular skill or behavior  Useful for teaching  How to initiate interaction  How to make smooth transitions between settings and activities  How to follow the rules of a game  What to expect when going on a field trip.
  10. 10. Example of a SocialStory What Can I Do On the Playground? The playground has a lot of fun equipment.There are swings.There is a slide.There is a climbing wall. I like the swings.Other children like the swings, too.When other children are on the swings, I can use the slide or climb. If I want to swing, I can say, “May I have a turn on the swing?”When the other child gets off of the swing, I can say, “Thank you!” and then I can swing.When another child asks for a turn on the swing, I can get off of the swing and play on the other equipment. It is fair for everyone to have a turn.
  11. 11. Video Modeling & VideoSelf- Monitoring (VSM)  Videos of the student (VSM) or another person (adult or child) acting out a situation to model correct behavior. Requires sufficient attention from the student. Benefits include:  Visual field can be reduced so that extraneous information is reduced and student can focus attention on correct issue.  Reduced stress for the student because human interaction is limited.  Children tend to love to watch videos, so motivation to attend in naturally reinforced.
  12. 12. Example of Video Monitoring Video teaching how to raise hands to answer questions at school.
  13. 13. Social Problem Solving  SPSTeaches children to analyze and interpret social situations.  1. Describe a scenario  2. Have students predict consequences  3. Select alternative response to scenario  4. Have children predict new consequences  5. Select best outcome.
  14. 14. Social Problem Solving Example
  15. 15. Pivotal Response Training (PRT) PRT  Teaches a child to respond to multiple cues  Teaches a child to initiate interactions  Enhances motivation by offering the child choices and using natural reinforcers in the environment.  Teaches greater self-management by fading prompt levels so that the child is less dependent of prompts to respond.  (Hall, 2013)
  16. 16. Example of PRT
  17. 17. SocialScripts  Social Scripts are rehearsed lines to be used in specific social situations.  Once learned, scripts can be faded and generalization can be promoted.
  18. 18. Example of a SocialScript “Hello. My name is Bea. I go to Jefferson School. I am in the third grade.” “Hello. My name is Bea. I go to Jefferson School….”
  19. 19. Scripting Usedtoteachwhattosayin specificconversationaland playsituations. Studentsmaybecome dependentonthescriptand havedifficultywith spontaneity. Requiresfadingtechnique afterscriptislearned. Video Modeling  Combines visually-cued instruction with modeling strategies.  Effective for teaching communication, appropriate behavior, and functional skills.  Has been shown to promote lasting skill acquisition and transfer to novel situations. Social Problem Solving  Used to teach children with ASD how to analyze and interpret social situations.  Requires the child to have sufficient cognitive skills.  Has not been shown to have carry-over into novel situations. Comparison
  20. 20. Self- Monitoring  Students who are taught to monitor and regulate their own behavior can have increased social interaction, decreased off- task behavior, and greater generalization of skills across settings.  (Boutot & Myles, 2011) Self Monitoring Strategies:  Setting Goals  Self-recording techniques  Reinforcement  Self-Graphing  Video monitoring (Hall, 2013)
  21. 21. How to Initiate Social Interactions withStudents who have ASD  * Questions can be tricky – start with a statement instead. “I like to go to the gym” rather than “Where do you like to go?”  * Allow some extra time for a response – processing sometimes takes longer in students with ASD.  *Take some time to find out about the student’s special interests and include some content about those interests.  *Take sensory needs into consideration – if the room is too bright, or too noisy, or has strong smells, or has a lot of visual clutter, it may be too distracting for the student to maintain attention in one area. (Boutot & Myles, 2011; Heflin & Alaimo, 2007; Hall, 2013)
  22. 22. References  Boutot, E. A., & Myles, B. S. (2011) Autism spectrum disorders: Foundations, characteristics, and effective strategies. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education  Hall, L. J. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: From theory to practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education  Heflin, L. J., & Alaimo, D. F. (2007). Students with autism spectrum disorders: Effective instructional practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education
  • shereahmed50

    Feb. 26, 2017
  • LeeBrown6

    May. 29, 2014

A presentation for general educators on social skills in students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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