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EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES/STRATEGIES 
By: Ann Vitug
WHAT AREINSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES? 
•Instructional strategies are methods that are used in the lesson to ensure that the se...
EFFECTIVE TEACHING BEGINS WITH EFFECTIVE PLANNING 
•The vital part of that planning includes determining the instructional...
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGY 
•Interactive 
•Integrated 
•Introspective/Reflective 
•Contextualized 
...
"Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching. 
E...
Teaching is not an exact science, where one approach fits all. A carefully planned lesson might inspire one student to cra...
•Effective teaching requires flexibility and creativity. As special educators or as general educators, we must constantly ...
•Good teachers draw upon their collection of strategies in order to meet the needs of diverse learners. They also use evid...
EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES: 
1.REFLECTIVE TEACHING 
2.COOPERATIVE LEARNING 
3.EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING 
4.DIRECT INSTRUCTION 
5.C...
•A laboratory teaching experience in a supportive environment that allows one to teach a lesson that serves as basis for s...
Example: 
•Have students answer a checklist on good nutrition that involves healthy eating habits. 
•Let students reflect ...
2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH 
•Aka Student-Team Learning. Students working in groups and rewarded for collective effort
2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH 
•Includes: preparation (getting students ready to engage in teamwork), delivery (setting...
2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH
2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH5 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: PIGSFace
2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH
3. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING 
•Also called HANDS-ON LEARNING 
•Involves students in the context to be studied 
•Makes students...
3. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING 
Examples: 
•Rather than telling your students using watercolors that if they want to use green, ...
•Highly teacher-directed teaching strategy 
•Most commonly used 
•Effective for providing information or developing step-b...
•Effective in teaching: 
–History (colonization of Philippines) 
–Math (solving mathematical algebraic equation, roman num...
Techniques: 
•Review previous day‟s work 
•Present new content or skills 
•Provide practice, check for understanding 
•Giv...
Methods: 
•Lecture 
•Didactic Questioning 
•Explicit Teaching 
•Practice And Drill 
•Demonstrations 4. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
5. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH 
•Aka Active learning (students are directly involved in finding something out for themselves) ...
•Learners should engage in authentic, challenging and situated activities 
•Tasks should be: 
–Concrete rather than abstra...
Lesson parts: 
•Purpose of a lesson (a challenge) 
•Establishing group and group activities 
–Takes place best in communit...
Examples: 
Scaffolding 
•Dots activity for alphabet 
•Tracing paper for drawing5. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH
6. INQUIRY TEACHING 
•"Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand." The last part of this s...
•Inquiry learning begins when students are presented with questions to be answered, problems to be solved, or a set of obs...
•If the method is implemented effectively, the students should learn to: 
1.Formulate good questions 
2.Identify and colle...
–Problem-solving 
–Project-based Learning 
–Discovery Learning 
–Interactive Lecture 
–Discussion 
–Simulation 
–Service L...
Techniques: 
•Structured inquiry (students are given a problem and an outline for how to solve it) 
•Guided inquiry (stude...
7. CONCEPT TEACHING 
•Concepts are basic building blocks which people organize their thinking. 
•Developed to teach key co...
7. CONCEPT TEACHING 
•Proceeds through 4 primary phases: 
1.Clarify goals & conditions 
-teacher explains procedures for t...
7. CONCEPT TEACHING 
•Grouping into colors, animals, 
•Patterns 
•Roletangkapalaran
•The Science/Technology/Society or STS approach is defined as the “teaching and learning of science and technology in the ...
•The bottom line in STS is the involvement of learners in experiences and issues, which are directly related to their live...
9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS 
•Collections and displays of materials are used to interest learners in themes or topics. 
•...
9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS 
3 Types: 
•ENRICHMENT CENTERS 
–Painting a mural on the stages of plant growth 
•SKILL CENTE...
9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS 
•Title 
•Furniture 
•Storage 
•Space 
•Materials 
•Location 
•Responsibility 
•Learning alte...
9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERSSuggested Learning Centers for your classroom: 
Elementary 
Middle School/Secondary 
ABC/Spell...
Examples: 
•Students may bring to school and display family belongings that reflect their ethnic heritage/ the intention m...
Arends, Richard I., (2009) Learning to Teach Eight Edition, Mc. Graw-Hill International International Edition, New York. 
...
Educational strategies Part One
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Educational strategies Part One

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Educational strategies Part One

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES AND TECHNIQUES/STRATEGIES By: Ann Vitug
  2. 2. WHAT AREINSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES? •Instructional strategies are methods that are used in the lesson to ensure that the sequence or delivery of instruction helps students learn. •The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles.
  3. 3. EFFECTIVE TEACHING BEGINS WITH EFFECTIVE PLANNING •The vital part of that planning includes determining the instructional strategy to be utilized in order to deliver the instruction. •What does effective mean? –Effective means that student performance improves when the instructional strategies are used.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGY •Interactive •Integrated •Introspective/Reflective •Contextualized •Relevant •Experiential •Collaborative
  5. 5. "Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching. Effective teachers do not use the same set of practices for every lesson… Instead, what effective teachers do is constantly reflect about their work, observe whether students are learning or not, and, then adjust their practice accordingly.” (Glickman, 1991)
  6. 6. Teaching is not an exact science, where one approach fits all. A carefully planned lesson might inspire one student to craft anamazing story, commit to improving her grades, and go on to college to become a journalist. That same lesson might leave another child confused and discouraged.
  7. 7. •Effective teaching requires flexibility and creativity. As special educators or as general educators, we must constantly „monitor and adjust‟ our teaching techniques. What we don‟t haveto do is reinvent the wheel for every lesson.
  8. 8. •Good teachers draw upon their collection of strategies in order to meet the needs of diverse learners. They also use evidence-based practices shown through research to improve student learning.
  9. 9. EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES: 1.REFLECTIVE TEACHING 2.COOPERATIVE LEARNING 3.EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING 4.DIRECT INSTRUCTION 5.CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH 6.INQUIRY TEACHING 7.CONCEPT TEACHING 8.SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY-SOCIETY 9.INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS
  10. 10. •A laboratory teaching experience in a supportive environment that allows one to teach a lesson that serves as basis for subsequent analysis and introspection. •Reflective teaching is mainly student-centered. 1. REFLECTIVE TEACHING
  11. 11. Example: •Have students answer a checklist on good nutrition that involves healthy eating habits. •Let students reflect on their own habit and figure out for themselves if they are doing it right. 1. REFLECTIVE TEACHING
  12. 12. 2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH •Aka Student-Team Learning. Students working in groups and rewarded for collective effort
  13. 13. 2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH •Includes: preparation (getting students ready to engage in teamwork), delivery (setting team goals) and closure (remind students what they have learned) •Purpose: to engender in students as a collative caring: al for one, one for all philosophy •Higher achieving students can assist low achievers
  14. 14. 2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH
  15. 15. 2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH5 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: PIGSFace
  16. 16. 2. COOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH
  17. 17. 3. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING •Also called HANDS-ON LEARNING •Involves students in the context to be studied •Makes students experience learning by learning how to learn •Learning is viewed as a process and not an outcome •Focuses on the way how to learn and not what to learn •Multi-sensory and dynamic
  18. 18. 3. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Examples: •Rather than telling your students using watercolors that if they want to use green, use mix blue and yellow, the teacher asks tem to mix two colors to find out the result. •Rather than telling students the life cycle of a frog, the instructor makes learners observe & record it. •For Biology, if the school has a garden teachers can use this to let children experience the plants, soil, etc. •Story telling strategy –Have them produce sounds
  19. 19. •Highly teacher-directed teaching strategy •Most commonly used •Effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills. •Works well for introducing other teaching methods, or actively involving students in knowledge construction. 4. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
  20. 20. •Effective in teaching: –History (colonization of Philippines) –Math (solving mathematical algebraic equation, roman numerals) –Grammatical concepts: what a sentence is •For teaching younger & less able learners 4. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
  21. 21. Techniques: •Review previous day‟s work •Present new content or skills •Provide practice, check for understanding •Give feedback & correction (re-teach) •Allow for independent student practice •Review frequently 4. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
  22. 22. Methods: •Lecture •Didactic Questioning •Explicit Teaching •Practice And Drill •Demonstrations 4. DIRECT INSTRUCTION
  23. 23. 5. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH •Aka Active learning (students are directly involved in finding something out for themselves) •Learners come to learn though purposeful experiences. •Constructivist teachers believe in teaching for understanding and engage students on active learning, want learners to draw heir own conclusions & opinions and willing to provide necessary assistance.
  24. 24. •Learners should engage in authentic, challenging and situated activities •Tasks should be: –Concrete rather than abstract –Real rather than symbolic •Teachers must provide learners with assistance or scaffolding that maybe needed for them to progress 5. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH
  25. 25. Lesson parts: •Purpose of a lesson (a challenge) •Establishing group and group activities –Takes place best in communities of learners –Learning by doing and sharing •Bridging –Learners should relate new onto to that which they already have •Question posing •Exhibits •Reflection –Learners should reflect or think about what is being learned5. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH
  26. 26. Examples: Scaffolding •Dots activity for alphabet •Tracing paper for drawing5. CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH
  27. 27. 6. INQUIRY TEACHING •"Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I understand." The last part of this statement is the essence of inquiry- based learning. •Inquiry implies involvement that leads to understanding. •Furthermore, involvement in learning implies possessing skills and attitudes that permit you to seek resolutions to questions and issues while you construct new knowledge. •
  28. 28. •Inquiry learning begins when students are presented with questions to be answered, problems to be solved, or a set of observations to be explained. –What if… –What happens…. –Why… 6. INQUIRY TEACHING
  29. 29. •If the method is implemented effectively, the students should learn to: 1.Formulate good questions 2.Identify and collect appropriate evidence 3.present results systematically 4.Analyze and interpret results, formulate conclusions, and 5.Evaluate the worth and importance of those conclusions6. INQUIRY TEACHING
  30. 30. –Problem-solving –Project-based Learning –Discovery Learning –Interactive Lecture –Discussion –Simulation –Service Learning –Independent Study6. INQUIRY TEACHINGMethods:
  31. 31. Techniques: •Structured inquiry (students are given a problem and an outline for how to solve it) •Guided inquiry (students must also figure out the solution method) •Open inquiry (students must formulate the problem for themselves) •Teacher inquiry (teacher posesquestions) •Learner inquiry (questions are posed by the students) 6. INQUIRY TEACHING
  32. 32. 7. CONCEPT TEACHING •Concepts are basic building blocks which people organize their thinking. •Developed to teach key concepts that serve as foundations for student higher-level thinking to provide a basis for mutual understanding and communication. •Involves the learning of specific concepts, the nature of concepts, and the development of logical reasoning & critical thinking •Not designed to teach large amounts of information to students
  33. 33. 7. CONCEPT TEACHING •Proceeds through 4 primary phases: 1.Clarify goals & conditions -teacher explains procedures for the lesson and gets students ready to learn 2.Illustrate examples &nonexamples 3.Students provide examples &nonexamplesto demonstrate attainment of concept 4.Guide students to think about their own thinking (decisions, choices, how concept fits in with bigger picture) •Concept learning is essentially a process of putting things into classes or categories.
  34. 34. 7. CONCEPT TEACHING •Grouping into colors, animals, •Patterns •Roletangkapalaran
  35. 35. •The Science/Technology/Society or STS approach is defined as the “teaching and learning of science and technology in the context of human experience” (National Science Teachers Association [NSTA], 1990-91) 8. SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY-SOCIETY APPROACH(STS)
  36. 36. •The bottom line in STS is the involvement of learners in experiences and issues, which are directly related to their lives. •STS develops students with skills, which allow them to become active, responsible citizens by responding to issues, which impact their lives. 8. SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY-SOCIETY APPROACH(STS)
  37. 37. 9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS •Collections and displays of materials are used to interest learners in themes or topics. •Corners in the classroom that stimulate student‟s interest
  38. 38. 9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS 3 Types: •ENRICHMENT CENTERS –Painting a mural on the stages of plant growth •SKILL CENTERS –math facts, phonics elements, or other tasks requiring memorization and/or repetition. •INTEREST AND EXPLORATORY CENTERS –designed to capitalize on the interests of students –students engaging in their own selection of activities during free time, upon arrival in the morning, as a “free- choice” activity during the day
  39. 39. 9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS •Title •Furniture •Storage •Space •Materials •Location •Responsibility •Learning alternatives •Instructions •Sequence of activities •Number of centers •Assignment •Duration of centers •Management system •Time •Help! •Assessment
  40. 40. 9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERSSuggested Learning Centers for your classroom: Elementary Middle School/Secondary ABC/Spelling Center Listening Center Art Center Writing Center Pocket Chart Center Readers Theatre Center Free Reading Center Free Reading Center Storytelling Center Drama Center Big Book Center Poetry Center Numbers Center Map and Chart Center Puzzles/Blocks Center Invention Center Science Center Biography Center Water Center Weather Center
  41. 41. Examples: •Students may bring to school and display family belongings that reflect their ethnic heritage/ the intention may be to interest the class in the notion of culture. •Teacher might arrange a display of measurement devices to prompt interest in and exploration of that topic. 9. INTEREST LEARNING CENTERS
  42. 42. Arends, Richard I., (2009) Learning to Teach Eight Edition, Mc. Graw-Hill International International Edition, New York. Shelton, Carla F., Pollingue, Alice B., (2007) The Exceptional Teacher's Handbook: The First-Year Special Education Teacher. Corwin Press. Davis, P. &Florian, L. (2004) Teaching Strategies and Approaches for Pupils with Special Educational Needs: A Scoping Study. DfESResearch Report 516 http://www.youtube.com http://www.wikipedia.comREFERENCES:

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