PRESENTED BY: ANIRUDH SHARMA(12148) PALKIN SHAH(12142) RUSHABH SHAH (12143)SUBMITTED TO :DR SHARIFF MENON
The first demonstration of electric light in Calcutta was conducted on 24 July 1879 by P W Floury & Co. Mumbai saw electric lighting demonstration for the first time in 1882 at Crawford Market, and Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company (B.E.S.T.) set up a generating station in 1905 to provide electricity for the tramway. The first hydroelectric installation in India was installed near a tea estate at Sidrapong for the Darjeeling Municipality in 1897.The first electric train ran between Bombays Victoria Terminus and Kurla along the Harbour Line, in 1925. In 1931, electrification of the meter gauge track between Madras Beach and Tambaram was started.
Power development in India was first started in1897 in Darjeeling, followed by commissioning of ahydropower station at Sivasamudram inKarnataka during 1902.Since 1990, India has been one of the fastestgrowing markets for new electricity generationcapacity.The countrys annual electricity generationcapacity has increased in last 20 years by about 120GW, from about 66 GW in 1991to over 100 GW in2001,to over 185 GW in 2011.
State-owned and privately owned companies aresignificant players generating electricity in India.As of August 2011, the states and union territoriesof India with power surplus were HimachalPradesh, Sikkim, Tripura, Gujarat,Delhi and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Indias central government and stategovernments jointly regulate electricity sector inIndia.
The table below presents the electricity generationcapacity, as well as availability to Indias end userand their demandITEM VALUE DATE REPORTEDTotal installed 201.64 April 2012capacity (GW)Available baseload supply 837374 May 2011(MU)Available peakload supply 118.7 May 2011(GW)Demand base 933741 May 2011load (MU)Demand peak 136.2 May 2011load (GW)
MAIN SOURCESo Thermal power Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into electricity and heat. Possible fuels include coal, natural gas, petroleum products, agricultural waste and domestic trash waste. India expects that its projected rapid growth in electricity generation over the next couple of decades is expected to be largely met by thermal power plants.
o HYDRO POWER -It is a renewable energy resource. -2700 twh is generated every year. -5th rank. -contributes 21.5%. The power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha were established in 1898 and 1902 respectively are first in Asia
o NUCLEAR POWER -Indigenous Nuclear Power Program. -Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty. -Thorium reserves. -Nuclear Power supplies. -Reactor years. -Shortage of fossil fuels drive the nuclear investment. India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with nuclear power by 2032. Indias largest nuclear power plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur, Maharashtra in partnership with Areva, France.
o SOLAR POWERo WIND POWERo BIOMASS POWERo GEOTHERMAL ENERGYo TIDAL WAVE ENERGY
Thar Desert project.Solar Power Reception.Average Solar Energy incident over India. GUJRATLeader in Solar Power Generation.Asia’s biggest Solar park.Park generates 214 MW Solar Power.Awarded for being ecofriendly.
Development of Wind Power increased.India ranks 5th.Total installed capacity 16078 MW.Generates 1.6% of the country’s power. GUJRATRise in the capacity to generate power.Total wind power generation in Gujrat is 2884 MW.
Suited for rural areas. Helps in efficient utilization of renewable biological sources. Low cost Resource. Ability to have small kw. Scale Power production as low as 20 KW.
Good potential of producing 10600 MW power. Not yet Exploited. Ecofriendly means of power generation.
Total potential 9000MW Gulf of Cambay & Gulf of Kutch. Ganges Delta in Sundarban In west Bengal. Gujrat government’s approval for the Gulf of Kutch. Urea Global Ltd. In association with U.S based company Ocean Energy Industries.
Of the 1.4 billion people of the world who have no access to electricity in the world, India accounts for over 300 million. 800 million Indians use traditional fuels – fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass cakes – for cooking and general heating needs The five states with largest power demand and availability, as of May 2011, were Maharashtra, Andhra pradesh ,Tamil nadu, Uttar pradesh and gujarat
According to a sample of 97,882 households in 2002, electricity was the main source of lighting for 53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993 India currently suffers from a major shortage of electricity generation capacity, even though it is the worlds fourth largest energy consumer after United States, China and Russia.The International Energy Agency estimates India needs an investment of at least $135 billion to provide universal access of electricity to its population.
Gujarat was declared a power surplus state, with about 2–3 GW more power available than its internal demand Over 2010–11, Indias industrial demand accounted for 35% of electrical power requirement, domestic household use accounted for 28%, agriculture 21%, commercial 9%, public lighting and other miscellaneous applications accounted for the rest.
Indias demand for electricity may cross 300 GW, earlier than most estimates REASONS1) Indias manufacturing sector is likely to grow faster than in the past2) Domestic demand will increase more rapidly as the quality of life for more Indians improve3) About 125,000 villages are likely to get connected to Indias electricity grid
1) Government giveaways such as free electricity for farmers, partly to curry political favour, have depleted the cash reserves of state-run electricity-distribution system.2) Shortages of fuel: despite abundant reserves of coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal. The country isnt producing enough to feed its power plants. Some plants do not have reserve coal supplies to last a day of operations.
3) The giant new offshore natural gas field has delivered less fuel than projected 4) hydroelectric power projects in Indias mountainous north and northeast regions have been slowed down by ecological, environmental and rehabilitation controversies, coupled with public interest litigations. 5) The July 2012 blackout, affecting the north of the country, was the largest power grid failure in history by number of people affected.
6) In 2010, electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution were about 24%, while losses because of consumer theft or billing deficiencies added another 10–15%7) Power cuts are common throughout India and the consequent failure to satisfy the demand for electricity has adversely effected Indias economic growth.8) Over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to electricity. Over one third of Indias rural population lacked electricity, as did 6% of the urban population
Indias Ministry of Power launched Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana as one of its flagship programme in March 2005 with the objective of electrifying over one lakh un- electrified villages and to provide free electricity connections to 2.34 crore rural households This free electricity program promises energy access to Indias rural areas, but is in part creating problems for Indias electricity sector
A Ministry of Renewal and New Energy announcement claims State Renewable Energy Agencies are being supported to organize short-term training programmes for installation, operation and maintenance and repair of renewable energy systems in such places where intensive RE programme are being implemented Renewable Energy Chairs have been established in IIT Roorkee and IIT Kharagpur.