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CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGECENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                  Stability of Colour                  Photo...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                                  Research Questions                                  • Wha...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE      Context: The National Archives                                                 What m...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE    Looking at what causes change    THE ARCHIVAL ENVIRONMENT
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE   Environmental Conditions in Archives                                   Temperature      ...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE   The Archival Environment: Pollutants                            140           Ozone     ...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE    Looking at Change    Materials Research
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                                             Dye Analysis                                  ...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                                                                    0.12                   ...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE        Experimental Methodologies Traditional Experimentation                  Statistical...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                          Degradation Studies    @ 80 °C    ΔERGB /year                    ...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE    Looking at how change is perceived    Determining Damage
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                           Assessment workshops based on                        psychophysi...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                                   NO                                   YES   Do assessor c...
CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE                             SummaryEnvironmental monitoring at TNA to      Accelerated deg...
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Stability of Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections

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Presentation given at the Royal Society of Chemistry ChemCareers 2011 postgraduate competition final.

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Stability of Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections

  1. 1. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGECENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Stability of Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections Ann Fenech ChemCareers 2011 Postgrad competition
  2. 2. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Research Questions • What are the principle degradation factors in the storage environment? • Can the stability of chromogenic prints be characterised in a rapid and non-destructive manner? • How is material change perceived by users of archival photographs?
  3. 3. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Context: The National Archives What materials are stored in boxes? 75% paper, 0.7% photographs 99% of original record available within 60mins Information it contains What are the public service How is the material to standards expected? be archived chosen?
  4. 4. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Looking at what causes change THE ARCHIVAL ENVIRONMENT
  5. 5. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Environmental Conditions in Archives Temperature ? Relative Pollutants Humidity Temperature & RH: continuously monitored in archival collections Pollutants: sporadically monitored, if at all
  6. 6. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE The Archival Environment: Pollutants 140 Ozone 130 Nitrogen Monoxide 120 Nitrogen Dioxide Indoor generated pollutants, particularly 110 Sulphur Dioxide acetic acid, by far the most abundant 100 tVOCs pollutants within archival boxes Concentration (ppb) 90 Acetic Acid Volatile Aldehydes 80 Formaldehyde 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 External Environment Repository Archival Boxes Fenech A, Strlič M, Cigid IK, Levart A, Gibson LT, de Bruin G, Ntanos K, Kolar J, Cassar M (2010) ‘Volatile Aldehydes in Libraries and Archives’ Atmospheric Environment 44(17): 2067-2073
  7. 7. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Looking at Change Materials Research
  8. 8. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Dye Analysis Chromatography Developed methodology for extracting and separating photographic dyes Colorimetry Compared spectroscopic data of individual dyes extracted from a photograph to colorimetric data obtained prior to extraction Non-destructive Monitoring of Dye Concentrations Identified sRGB as the best colour system to monitor changes in dye concentrations Fenech A, Strlič M, Degano I, Cassar M. (2010) ‘Stability of Chromogenic Prints in Mixed Archives’ Polymer Degradation and Stability 95(12): 2481-2485
  9. 9. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE 0.12 Effect of Pollutants 0.10 R G B 0.08 Rate of Change (Day-1) 0.06 Rate of Change 0.12 0.04 0.10Conditions of Ageing 0.02Closed vial ageing 1998, unknown 0.08 0.00Temperature: 80 °C 0.06 -0.02RH: 60% 0.04 R G Control Acetic Acid Formaldehyde Nitrogen dioxide -0.04Pollutant: 250 ppb B Rate of Change 0.12 0.02 0.11 Control Acetic Acid Formaldehyde Nitrogen dioxide 2000, Fujifilm 0.10 0.00 0.09 0.08Acetic acid causes the -0.02 0.07greatest rate of change 0.06 -0.04 R 0.05 G and is also the most 0.04 B Rate of Change abundant pollutant in 0.03 0.02 archival boxes. 0.01 2005, Kodak 0.00 -0.01 -0.02 Control Acetic Acid Formaldehyde Nitrogen dioxide -0.03 -0.04 Fenech A, Strlič M, Degano I, Cassar M. (2010) ‘Stability of Chromogenic Prints in Mixed Archives’ Polymer Degradation and Stability 95(12): 2481-2485
  10. 10. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Experimental Methodologies Traditional Experimentation Statistical Experimental Design x varied; y and z constant y varied; x and z constant z varied; x and y constant y z x k=f(x)+f(y)+f(z) k=f(x, y, z) Statistical experimental design principles for designing degradation studies provides information on factor effects as well as factor interactions
  11. 11. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Degradation Studies @ 80 °C ΔERGB /year * Fenech A, Strlic M, Ntanos K, Bell N and Cassar M. (2011) Lifetime of Chromogenic Colour Photographs in Mixed Archival Collections Preprints 16th Triennial Conference Lisbon, 19-23 September 2011, ICOM International Committee for Conservation
  12. 12. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Looking at how change is perceived Determining Damage
  13. 13. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE Assessment workshops based on psychophysical principles carried out with stakeholders to answer the following question: How do you evaluate the information content in the degraded colour photograph in comparison to the original? Favourable [5] Acceptable [4] Just Acceptable [3] Unacceptable [2] Poor [1]
  14. 14. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE NO YES Do assessor characteristics affect Do image characteristics affect acceptability outcomes? acceptability outcomes? • Job • Content Type (landscape, • Experience people, technical) • Interests • Age of original image • Knowledge rating • Fading Profile (selective dye fading vs equal dye fading) • Detail in image
  15. 15. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE SummaryEnvironmental monitoring at TNA to Accelerated degradation experiments identify the most abundant under different environmental pollutants conditions to investigate image stability Non-destructive material Lifetime determination based on characterisation using colorimetry acceptability considerations determined by stakeholder input

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