•Why do we help?•Is helping "baked" in our genes?•Why do we sometimes run a great risk to help others?•Is helping only favorable for the people that we help, or is it also beneficial to ourselves?
•Sociobiology: Instinctand Genes.•Social Exchange: Thecost of Helping.•Empathy and Altruism:The Pure Motive forHelping.
•Individual Difference: The Altruistic Personality•Gender Differences in Prosocial Behavior•The Effect of Mood on Helping:Feel Good , Do Good
•Rural Versus Urban Environment•The Number of Bystanders: The Bystander Effect•Characteristics of the Victim
Two Fundamental Assumptions1. Many social behavior have genetic roots, so that people who have certain genes are more likely to perform these behavior.2. That evolutionary pressures have favored some of these social behaviors over others , so that they are fixed part of our genetic heritage.
Notion of Kin Selection: The idea that behaviors that help agenetic relative are favored by natural selection
Norm of Reciprocity :The assumption that others will treat us the way we treat them(e.g. if we help someone, he / she will help in return) back
The theory that social relationships are best understood by people’s desire to maximize their benefits and minimize their cost
Rewarding in three Ways:1.Concept of reciprocity2.Relieves the personal distress of bystander3.To obtain recognition and positive feedback at low cost back
EmpathyThe ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person – to experience events and emotion the way that person experiences them.
Empathy – Altruism Hypothesis The theory holding that when we feelempathy for a person, we will attempt to help him or her, regardless of what we have to gain
• Altruistic is sometimes motivated by self – interest• Self rewards should come into play only when people do not feel much empathy• Motivated by egoistic desire to relive their sadness, not by a completely altruistic concern.
YOU WILL HELP ONLY IF IT IS YOUR SELF-INTEREST NO (REWARD OUTWEIGHT COST) DO FEELEMPHATY FORTHIS PERSON? YOU WILL HELP REGARDLESS OF YES WETHER IT IS IN YOUR SELF-INTEREST TO DO SO
Three Basic Motives Underlying Prosocial Behavior1.The idea of helping is an instinctive reaction to protect and promote the welfare of those genetically similar and that we have to evolved genetically to follow the norm of reciprocity.2. the notion that the rewards of helping outweigh the costs, making it in the people ‘s self interest to help (social exchange theory).
3. The concept that under some conditions, powerful feelings of empathy & compassion for the victim prompt selfless giving (empathy – altruism hypothesis). back
Believing we are helping someone in order to get areward diminishes our view ofourselves as altruistic, selfless people
Children learn prosocial behavior by imitatingothers, as in this family, wherethe children help their parents carry in the groceries
Altruistic Personality•Those aspects of a person’smakeup which are said to makehim or her likely to help others inwide variety of situation back
IN WESTERN CULTURE:MALE SEX ROLE: Chivalrous & HeroicAs A Result: We expect men to helpmore in situations that call forbrief Chivalrous & Heroic acts
IN WESTERN CULTUREFEMALE SEX ROLE: Nurturing & Caring(valuingclose, long-term relationship)As a Result: We expect women toinvolve in less dangerous butmore committed acts. back
The mood the people happen to be in at the time can strongly affect their behavior – in this case, whether or not they will offer help
1. Good moods make us look on the bright side of life.2. “Feel good, Do good” occurs because it is an excellent way of prolonging our good mood.3. Good moods increases self- attention.
1. Reducing Guilt Feeling: The idea that good deeds, cancel bad deeds.2. Relive their Own Sadness & Distress: Help someone else with the goal of helping self
3. Repair Moods in Some Other Way: When we feel blue, we are also likely to help in some totally unrelated way.
Potential Problem of Negative – State Relief:•It only focuses on the short– term benefits “I will help only if thereare immediate benefits fromme”
NEGATIVE – STATE RELIEF HYPOTHESIS: The idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress. back
WHO HELPS MORE?: RURAL AREA: URBAN AREA:• People who grow up • People who grows in in small town learn large cities might to be more learn, you can’t trust neighborly. strangers.• Neighborliness • That it is to mind makes them more your own business. trusting and altruistic.
URBAN – OVERLOAD HYPOTHESIS:The theory that people livingin cities are likely to keep tothemselves in order to avoid being overloaded by all the stimulations they receive. back
THE BYSTANDER EFFECTThe finding that the grater the number of bystanders whowitness an emergency, the less likely anyone of them is to help.
INTERPRET THE KNOW INTERVENE & NOTICE ASSUME APPROPRIATE IMPLEMENTTHE EVENT EVENT AS AN RESPONSIBILITY FORM OF DECISION OFFER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE ASSISTANCE DIFFUSION OF LACK OFDISTRACTED PLURALISTIC NO RESPONSIBILITY DANGER TO SELF; IGNORANCE KNOWLEDGE; FAILED TO (fail to assume / EEMBARASMENT; INTERVENTION/ (interpret as personal LEGAL CONCERNS NOTICE non emergency) responsibility) COMPETENCE NO HELP GIVEN
PLURALISTIC IGNORANCE The phenomenon whereby bystanders assume that nothing is wrong in anemergency, because one else is concerned.
DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY The phenomenon hereby each bystander’s sense ofresponsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases. back
CHARACTERISTICS OF VICTIMWe are more likely to help topeople who are similar to us than dissimilar
MORE INCLINED TO HELPSTRANGERS RATHER THAN FRIENDS It hurts to see a close frienddo better than us in an area of keen importance to our self – esteem.
WE WOULD LIKE TO THANK: PROF. GERALDINE SANTOS & BS Clinical Psychology II-1FROM GROUP IX: Batara, Rona Lyn CABUENAS, Ann Margaret B. GARCES, Jericho GARCIA, Justine Mae PAYUMO, Nazarene