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Reflecting about the scholarship
of teaching and learning when
designing a PBL online course
about social media
Ann-Louise Davidson PhD ann-louise@education.concordia.ca
Nadia Naffi nadianaffi@gmail.com
Context
eLearning is a 50 billion dollar industry that
promises to:
reach broad audiences
reduce cognitive load (self-paced eLearning)
save money (50% less costly than instructor-led training)
save the environment (90% less energy than traditional courses)
grow
Online learning is growing in Canadian universities
1 million online course registrations (Bates 2012; Contact North 2012)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Very early into the century,
we realized that eLearning,
like all types of learning,
had its merits and its pitfalls.
ADDIE
The biggest criticism of
eLearning is that it tends to
value step-by-step structured
instruction and leaves very
little space for the learner.
Give us the content
and we’ll design it
Give us the content
and we’ll design it
Course design
Content
Experience
Design the learner experience
and they will find
the content
Partners in crime (we co-design and co-teach
online courses in a PBL approach)
An acknowledgement of the base of experience of
learners
An emphasis on students taking responsibility for
their own learning
A crossing of boundaries between disciplines
An intertwining of theory and practice
A focus on the processes of knowledge
acquisition rather than the products of such
processes
A change in staff role from that of instructor to that
of facilitator
A change in focus from staff assessment of
outcomes of learning to student self- and peer
assessment
A focus on communication and interpersonal skills
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PBL Characteristics
In a typical online learning experience, students use the
Internet to go through well-defined sequences of instruction
to complete learning activities and reach learning objectives
(Ally, 2008).
Whereas, when adopting an online problem based learning
(PBL) approach, students are the ones who are mapping
their learning experience and constructing their own
knowledge (Savin-Baden, 2006; Duncan, Smith, & Cook,
2013).
Typical Online Learning Experience
vs. Online Problem-Based Learning Experience
The purpose of this course is to examine the foundations and
evolution of digital communications technologies. Students
will explore the shift from analogue to digital technologies;
identify the range of digital communications technologies
currently in use, analyze the impact of these technologies on
commerce, the professions, education and society in general.
Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the social and
environmental impact of digital technologies, including issues
of equity and digital divide.
Digital Communicaton Technologies:
Course description
Digital Communicaton Technologies:
Competency
Exploit digital communication technologies
to solve problems in a social learning perspective
How Do We Proceed?
12 weeks = How many problems?
Is this...
1 problem per week? (problems around topics)
1 problem per x weeks? (problems around units)
Problems presented at the beginning and students
have 12 weeks to solve them?
•
•
•
Ill Structured Open-Ended
Problems/Scenarios/Cases
Pedagogical space
Pedagogical competencies
Pedagogical competencies
Desjardins, 2001, 2005
Novice Expert
http://theconversation.com/radical-rethink-how-to-design-university-courses-
in-the-online-age-9737
Model 1
PBL for
Epistemological
Competence
Model II
PBL for Professional
Action
Model III
PBL for
Interdisciplinary
Understanding
Model IV
PBL for
Transdisciplinary
Learning
Model V
PBL for Critical
Contestability
Knowledge Propositional
Practical and
performative
Propositional,
performative and practical
The examining and testing
out of given knowledge
and frameworks
Contingent, contextual
and constructed
Learning
The use and management
of a propositional body of
knowledge to solve or
manage a problem
The outcome-
focused acquisition
of knowledge and
skills for the work
place
The synthesis of
knowledge with skills
across discipline
boundaries
Critical though and
decentring oneself from
disciplines in order to
understand them
A flexible entity that
involves interrogation of
frameworks
Problem
scenario
Limited solutions already
known and are designed
to promote cognitive
understanding
Focused on a real-life
situation that
requires an effective
practical resolution
Acquiring knowledge to
be able to do, therefore
centred around
knowledge with action
Characterized by resolving
and managing dillemnas
Multidimentional, offering
students options for
alternative ways of
knowing and being
Students
Receivers of knowledge
who acquire and
understand propositional
knowledge through
problem-solving
Pragmatists inducted
to professional
cultures who can
undertake practical
action
Integrators across
boundaries
Independent thinkers who
take up a critical stance
towards learning
Explorers of underlying
structures and belief
systems
Facilitator
A guide to obtaining the
solution and to
understanding the correct
propositional knowledge
A demonstrator of
skills and a guide to
“best practice”
A coordinator of
knowledge and skill
acquisition across
boundaries or both
An orchestrator of
opportunities for learning
(in its widest sense)
A commentator, a
challenger, a decoder of
cultures, disciplines and
traditions
Assessment
The testing of a body of
knowledge to ensure
students have developed
epistemological
competence
The testing of skills
and competencies
for the work place
supported by a body
of knowledge
The examination of skills
and knowledge in a
context that may have
been learned out of
context
The opportunity to
demonstrate an integrated
understanding of skills and
personal and propositional
knowledge across
disciplines
Open-ended and flexible
Savin-Baden, 2000, p.126
PBL Models
Online Problem-Based Learning Experience
Pre-discussion of a
complex, ill-structured
problem (i.e.,
brainstorm) in the
tutorial group meeting.
Formulation of
learning issues in
the tutorial group
meeting
Individual self-
directed learning
(SDL) activities
Sharing and critically
evaluating the
literature findings in
the subsequent
tutorial group
meeting
Loyens, Kirschner, & Paas, 2012, p.404 with modifications
1
Students are
presented with an
ill-structured
problem through
web-based material
including text,
videos, and
simulations (Savin-
Baden, 2006).
Group synchronous and
asynchronous
discussions are fostered
in a wide variety of Web
2.0 environments such
as chat rooms,
discussion boards,
forums, wikis and blog.
These Web 2.0
environments are either
built within learning
management systems,
such as Blackboard, or
in exterior Internet
platforms, such as
Wikispaces or Blogger
(Duncan et al., 2013;
Loyens et al., 2012).
Synchronous tutorials
are held in web-
conferencing
environments, such
as Adobe Connect.
Synchronous tutorials
are held in web-
conferencing
environments, such
as Adobe Connect.
PBL
ClassicalModelOnlinePBL
2 3 4
Discussion
about
Project
Team
Building
Project
Part 1
Peer
Feedback
Instructor
Formative
Feedback
Project
Part 1
Revision
Project
Part 2
Peer
Feedback
Instructor
Formative
Feedback
Project
Part 2
Revision
Project
Part 3
Peer
Feedback
Instructor
Formative
Feedback
Project
Part 3
Revision
Instructor
Summative
Feedback
Project
Done with
All Parts
Team
Evaluation
Team
Evaluation
PBL Project & Feedback Loops
Discussion
about
Project
Team
Building
Project
Part 1
Needs assessment:
identification of trouble
areas and
competencies to be
developed
Project
Part 1
Revision
Project
Part 2
Project
Part 2
Revision
Project
Part 3
Project
Part 3
Revision
Instructor
Summative
Feedback
Project
Done with
All Parts
Team
Evaluation
Team
Evaluation
PBL Project Phases
Evaluation:
creation of formative and
summative instruments
Learning material:
production of learning
program material
Online Interactions: 4 Possibilities
11:16 AM 08:26 PM
Same Place
Different Place
Synchronous Asynchronous
Course structure
12 modules
1.Problem-based learning
videos posted on
YouTube
2.One hour of compulsory
synchronous group
tutorial activities in Adobe
Connect (for any time
zone)
3.One hour devoted to
asynchronous online
activities such as forum
discussions, self-directed
learning activities, etc.
Technologies used
Google Docs
Prezi
Facebook
LinkedIn
Twitter
Instagram
Reddit
YouTube
Adobe Connect
BlackBoard
Wikispaces
Skype
Email
Dropbox
Designed for the mobile learning
culture
anywhere, anytime, through any device
Three overarching PBL Scenarios
Students will solve these problems through interacting in social media
and reading about concepts and principles of digital communication
technologies.
Commerce: Someone has a
business that is going down the
drain. The competition is high and
the competitors are tackling the
market from all perspectives.
They have a strong online
presence and their publicity is
targeted directly towards the
customer.
Education: Someone who has a language
school is trying to expand his/her business
beyond the brick and mortar school. The issue is
that he/she needs to change the pedagogy and
needs to make decisions regarding the
technologies through which this will happen.
Professions: Someone who is new to
Canada needs to find employment.
He/she has a wealth of experience in
his/her country of origin, but the job
market here in Canada is different.
Licenses and accreditations are not the
same, people search for jobs online and
much of the job market is invisible.
Pierre
Vicky
Harry
Ricardo
Jack
Mary
Joe
Week 1: Introduction
Week 2: Breaking traditional communication models
Week 3: Environments, netiquette and PBL scenarios
Week 4: Online presence and online identity management
Week 5: Networking yourself
Week 6: Commerce
Week 7: Liberal professions
Week 8: Education
Week 9: Aggregate, filter, connect
Week 10: Working in collaboration (group work and CoPs)
Week 11: Society
Week 12: Synthesis of the course and presentation of the model
Harry! That’s me! I’m
Harry. I need to get my
business online and I
don’t know how. If I can
do it for Harry, I can do
it for myself. Or vice
versa.
I realized I was Ricardo
and I really wanted to
solve his problem.
I associated a lot with
Mary. Not that I had a
language school or
anything like that. But I
am going through a
transition. At my school,
I have to use technologies
and I really don’t know
where to start. It was
nice to see someone else
had the same problem. I
liked having the help of
my classmates to solve
her problem.
Reflective analysis
Instructor #1
Planning: designing the learner experience, finding
relevant/authentic problems, finding a way to design a course
in collaboration with another instructor
Doing: providing feedback without correcting content, facilitating
discussions, encouraging social media interactions, managing
group work
Challenges: student knowledge, group work, managing
tensions without being present
Benefits: development of relevant 21st century skills, increased
creativity
Reflective analysis
Instructor #2
Planning: designing a course with no content, designing
assignments for students coming from different backgrounds
and taking the course for different reasons
Doing: being present on social media platforms, participating to
students’ discussions, being available for questions and for
formative feedback on different platforms
Challenges: facilitating discussion in tutorials instead of
lecturing, encouraging students to participate in discussions,
dealing with outsiders and left behind students
Benefits: teaching within a growing community, having new
knowledge continuously pushed towards you, reflecting on this
new knowledge and using it
Conclusion
Was it worth the trouble? Absolutely!
Would we do it again? Yes!
Did the students benefit from the experience? The are
demanding more!
What would we do differently?
Assignments: simplifying steps
Feedback loop: providing templates for students
•
•
•
•
•
•
Thank you!

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Reflecting about the scholarship of teaching and learning when designing a PBL online course about social media

  • 1. Reflecting about the scholarship of teaching and learning when designing a PBL online course about social media Ann-Louise Davidson PhD ann-louise@education.concordia.ca Nadia Naffi nadianaffi@gmail.com
  • 2. Context eLearning is a 50 billion dollar industry that promises to: reach broad audiences reduce cognitive load (self-paced eLearning) save money (50% less costly than instructor-led training) save the environment (90% less energy than traditional courses) grow Online learning is growing in Canadian universities 1 million online course registrations (Bates 2012; Contact North 2012) • • • • • • • •
  • 3. Very early into the century, we realized that eLearning, like all types of learning, had its merits and its pitfalls. ADDIE The biggest criticism of eLearning is that it tends to value step-by-step structured instruction and leaves very little space for the learner. Give us the content and we’ll design it
  • 4. Give us the content and we’ll design it Course design Content Experience Design the learner experience and they will find the content
  • 5. Partners in crime (we co-design and co-teach online courses in a PBL approach)
  • 6. An acknowledgement of the base of experience of learners An emphasis on students taking responsibility for their own learning A crossing of boundaries between disciplines An intertwining of theory and practice A focus on the processes of knowledge acquisition rather than the products of such processes A change in staff role from that of instructor to that of facilitator A change in focus from staff assessment of outcomes of learning to student self- and peer assessment A focus on communication and interpersonal skills • • • • • • • • PBL Characteristics
  • 7. In a typical online learning experience, students use the Internet to go through well-defined sequences of instruction to complete learning activities and reach learning objectives (Ally, 2008). Whereas, when adopting an online problem based learning (PBL) approach, students are the ones who are mapping their learning experience and constructing their own knowledge (Savin-Baden, 2006; Duncan, Smith, & Cook, 2013). Typical Online Learning Experience vs. Online Problem-Based Learning Experience
  • 8. The purpose of this course is to examine the foundations and evolution of digital communications technologies. Students will explore the shift from analogue to digital technologies; identify the range of digital communications technologies currently in use, analyze the impact of these technologies on commerce, the professions, education and society in general. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the social and environmental impact of digital technologies, including issues of equity and digital divide. Digital Communicaton Technologies: Course description
  • 9. Digital Communicaton Technologies: Competency Exploit digital communication technologies to solve problems in a social learning perspective
  • 10. How Do We Proceed? 12 weeks = How many problems? Is this... 1 problem per week? (problems around topics) 1 problem per x weeks? (problems around units) Problems presented at the beginning and students have 12 weeks to solve them? • • •
  • 12. Pedagogical space Pedagogical competencies Pedagogical competencies Desjardins, 2001, 2005 Novice Expert
  • 14. Model 1 PBL for Epistemological Competence Model II PBL for Professional Action Model III PBL for Interdisciplinary Understanding Model IV PBL for Transdisciplinary Learning Model V PBL for Critical Contestability Knowledge Propositional Practical and performative Propositional, performative and practical The examining and testing out of given knowledge and frameworks Contingent, contextual and constructed Learning The use and management of a propositional body of knowledge to solve or manage a problem The outcome- focused acquisition of knowledge and skills for the work place The synthesis of knowledge with skills across discipline boundaries Critical though and decentring oneself from disciplines in order to understand them A flexible entity that involves interrogation of frameworks Problem scenario Limited solutions already known and are designed to promote cognitive understanding Focused on a real-life situation that requires an effective practical resolution Acquiring knowledge to be able to do, therefore centred around knowledge with action Characterized by resolving and managing dillemnas Multidimentional, offering students options for alternative ways of knowing and being Students Receivers of knowledge who acquire and understand propositional knowledge through problem-solving Pragmatists inducted to professional cultures who can undertake practical action Integrators across boundaries Independent thinkers who take up a critical stance towards learning Explorers of underlying structures and belief systems Facilitator A guide to obtaining the solution and to understanding the correct propositional knowledge A demonstrator of skills and a guide to “best practice” A coordinator of knowledge and skill acquisition across boundaries or both An orchestrator of opportunities for learning (in its widest sense) A commentator, a challenger, a decoder of cultures, disciplines and traditions Assessment The testing of a body of knowledge to ensure students have developed epistemological competence The testing of skills and competencies for the work place supported by a body of knowledge The examination of skills and knowledge in a context that may have been learned out of context The opportunity to demonstrate an integrated understanding of skills and personal and propositional knowledge across disciplines Open-ended and flexible Savin-Baden, 2000, p.126 PBL Models
  • 15. Online Problem-Based Learning Experience Pre-discussion of a complex, ill-structured problem (i.e., brainstorm) in the tutorial group meeting. Formulation of learning issues in the tutorial group meeting Individual self- directed learning (SDL) activities Sharing and critically evaluating the literature findings in the subsequent tutorial group meeting Loyens, Kirschner, & Paas, 2012, p.404 with modifications 1 Students are presented with an ill-structured problem through web-based material including text, videos, and simulations (Savin- Baden, 2006). Group synchronous and asynchronous discussions are fostered in a wide variety of Web 2.0 environments such as chat rooms, discussion boards, forums, wikis and blog. These Web 2.0 environments are either built within learning management systems, such as Blackboard, or in exterior Internet platforms, such as Wikispaces or Blogger (Duncan et al., 2013; Loyens et al., 2012). Synchronous tutorials are held in web- conferencing environments, such as Adobe Connect. Synchronous tutorials are held in web- conferencing environments, such as Adobe Connect. PBL ClassicalModelOnlinePBL 2 3 4
  • 16. Discussion about Project Team Building Project Part 1 Peer Feedback Instructor Formative Feedback Project Part 1 Revision Project Part 2 Peer Feedback Instructor Formative Feedback Project Part 2 Revision Project Part 3 Peer Feedback Instructor Formative Feedback Project Part 3 Revision Instructor Summative Feedback Project Done with All Parts Team Evaluation Team Evaluation PBL Project & Feedback Loops
  • 17. Discussion about Project Team Building Project Part 1 Needs assessment: identification of trouble areas and competencies to be developed Project Part 1 Revision Project Part 2 Project Part 2 Revision Project Part 3 Project Part 3 Revision Instructor Summative Feedback Project Done with All Parts Team Evaluation Team Evaluation PBL Project Phases Evaluation: creation of formative and summative instruments Learning material: production of learning program material
  • 18. Online Interactions: 4 Possibilities 11:16 AM 08:26 PM Same Place Different Place Synchronous Asynchronous
  • 19. Course structure 12 modules 1.Problem-based learning videos posted on YouTube 2.One hour of compulsory synchronous group tutorial activities in Adobe Connect (for any time zone) 3.One hour devoted to asynchronous online activities such as forum discussions, self-directed learning activities, etc. Technologies used Google Docs Prezi Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Instagram Reddit YouTube Adobe Connect BlackBoard Wikispaces Skype Email Dropbox Designed for the mobile learning culture anywhere, anytime, through any device
  • 20. Three overarching PBL Scenarios Students will solve these problems through interacting in social media and reading about concepts and principles of digital communication technologies. Commerce: Someone has a business that is going down the drain. The competition is high and the competitors are tackling the market from all perspectives. They have a strong online presence and their publicity is targeted directly towards the customer. Education: Someone who has a language school is trying to expand his/her business beyond the brick and mortar school. The issue is that he/she needs to change the pedagogy and needs to make decisions regarding the technologies through which this will happen. Professions: Someone who is new to Canada needs to find employment. He/she has a wealth of experience in his/her country of origin, but the job market here in Canada is different. Licenses and accreditations are not the same, people search for jobs online and much of the job market is invisible.
  • 22. Week 1: Introduction Week 2: Breaking traditional communication models Week 3: Environments, netiquette and PBL scenarios Week 4: Online presence and online identity management Week 5: Networking yourself Week 6: Commerce Week 7: Liberal professions Week 8: Education Week 9: Aggregate, filter, connect Week 10: Working in collaboration (group work and CoPs) Week 11: Society Week 12: Synthesis of the course and presentation of the model
  • 23. Harry! That’s me! I’m Harry. I need to get my business online and I don’t know how. If I can do it for Harry, I can do it for myself. Or vice versa. I realized I was Ricardo and I really wanted to solve his problem. I associated a lot with Mary. Not that I had a language school or anything like that. But I am going through a transition. At my school, I have to use technologies and I really don’t know where to start. It was nice to see someone else had the same problem. I liked having the help of my classmates to solve her problem.
  • 24. Reflective analysis Instructor #1 Planning: designing the learner experience, finding relevant/authentic problems, finding a way to design a course in collaboration with another instructor Doing: providing feedback without correcting content, facilitating discussions, encouraging social media interactions, managing group work Challenges: student knowledge, group work, managing tensions without being present Benefits: development of relevant 21st century skills, increased creativity
  • 25. Reflective analysis Instructor #2 Planning: designing a course with no content, designing assignments for students coming from different backgrounds and taking the course for different reasons Doing: being present on social media platforms, participating to students’ discussions, being available for questions and for formative feedback on different platforms Challenges: facilitating discussion in tutorials instead of lecturing, encouraging students to participate in discussions, dealing with outsiders and left behind students Benefits: teaching within a growing community, having new knowledge continuously pushed towards you, reflecting on this new knowledge and using it
  • 26. Conclusion Was it worth the trouble? Absolutely! Would we do it again? Yes! Did the students benefit from the experience? The are demanding more! What would we do differently? Assignments: simplifying steps Feedback loop: providing templates for students • • • • • •