Copyright & Fair Use


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Presented as a guest lecturer for arts administration classes.

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Copyright & Fair Use

  1. 1. Copyright & Fair Use a quick introduction from your friendly Jen Library Reference Librarians
  2. 2. What is COPYRIGHT? <ul><li>The exclusive right to: </li></ul><ul><li>Produce copies or reproductions of a work and sell them </li></ul><ul><li>Import or export a work </li></ul><ul><li>Create derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>Perform or display a work publicly (aka performance rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Sell or assign these rights to others </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit or display a work by radio or video (aka broadcast rights) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is FAIR USE? <ul><li>§107 </li></ul><ul><li>“… the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship or research, is not an infringement of copyright.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. BIG questions
  5. 5. Question #1: Character of Use <ul><li>How is the material being used? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational reasons? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial use? Who’s profiting? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Question #2: Nature of Material <ul><li>How would you describe the work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpublished work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative: Art, music, novels, films, plays </li></ul></ul>Lean toward Fair Use Lean toward Copyright Infringement
  7. 7. <ul><li>How much of the work are you using? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Students must consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount used in relation to the entire work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it “the essence” of the work? </li></ul></ul>Question #3: The Amount a little more a little O R
  8. 8. Question #4: Effect on Market How will using this work affect its market value? Example : You copy or show a movie… Problems? Possible Solution : Limit access Sometimes the 4 th factor is not as important if the other Fair Use criteria are met
  9. 9. STUDENTS: TAKE NOTE! <ul><li>Copyright holders DO NOT need to prove that the use was NOT FAIR </li></ul><ul><li>YOU need to prove that your use was fair! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Educational use IS NOT automatically fair use… Remember, character or purpose is only 1 of the 4 factors!
  11. 11. Now for Technology & the Law <ul><li>Fair Use may not exactly transfer to the web… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Millennium Copyright Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was signed in 1998, but it is still being adapted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images used in class can not always be used on the web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permissions must be obtained for any multimedia materials that will be used over the unrestricted web! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Public Domain
  13. 13. Public Domain <ul><li>Special cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>And the list goes on… </li></ul>
  14. 14. More special considerations <ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An artist’s expression is protected, not the ideas behind it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX : Photographer holds rights to copy his photograph of trees BUT that doesn’t stop other artists from photographing trees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photographs/Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are entire works , so there is much less likelihood that they can be used without permission </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Questions about Fair Use? <ul><li>Copyright and Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford University Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Crash Course </li></ul><ul><li>University of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Checklist for Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Management Center—Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis </li></ul>
  16. 16. Need more information? <ul><li>US Copyright Office http:// / </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Out of Danvers, MA, they help with getting permissions when necessary </li></ul>
  17. 17. Just for Fun! <ul><li>Tales of the Public Domain: Bound by Law? (from Duke University) </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li>A Fair(ly) Use Tale (YouTube Video from Prof. Eric Faden of Bucknell University) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>