Introduction to Shakespeare’s World and to King Lear Secondary V A. Krespil
<ul><li>4 Humours   </li></ul><ul><li>Great Chain of Being </li></ul>Dominant World Views
4 Humours
Introspective, sentimental, gluttonous  Sallow, thin Earth Black bile (gall bladder) Melancholic Sluggish, pallid, cowardl...
Great Chain   of Being <ul><ul><li>Belief structure from middle ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical system with G...
<ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Angels </li></ul><ul><li>Humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </l...
Subgroups <ul><li>Each category on the chain was broken down into subgroups.  Each subgroup had its own “primate” – the hi...
God <ul><li>At the top of the chain </li></ul><ul><li>Like humans, God possessed the spiritual attributes of love, reason,...
Angels <ul><li>Made of pure spirit </li></ul><ul><li>No physical body </li></ul><ul><li>Share in the same spiritual attrib...
Humanity <ul><li>Humans were considered to be the link between the spiritual world and the physical world.  </li></ul>
Humanity <ul><li>Spiritual Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination </li>...
Animals <ul><li>Lack spiritual attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Purely physical </li></ul><ul><li>Limited intelligence </li></...
Mammalian Primate Or
Avian Primate
Piscine Primate Or
Plant Primate
Mineral Primates
Literary Ramifications <ul><li>Artists and writers made full use of these symbols in their works. the hierarchies used in ...
Moral Ramifications <ul><li>It is imperative for each creature on the chain to know his place and not attempt to rise abov...
Political Ramifications <ul><li>Believed that monarchy was ordained by God </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion was considered a si...
So what does this mean? <ul><ul><li>System of Order corresponds with the belief in  predestination;  God has a plan for wo...
King Lear
<ul><li>Shakespeare’s 28 th   play! </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Written in 1608 </li></ul><ul><li>Setting:...
Issues to look forward to… <ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Betrayal </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Madness </l...
Plot <ul><li>King Lear of Britain has decided to divide his kingdom into three parts, and to hand over the responsibilitie...
 
 
Parallel Plots <ul><li>Each family centers on an aging father (patriarch) </li></ul><ul><li>Lear: imperious tyrant </li></...
 
 
 
 
 
&quot;Is man no more than this?&quot;   Man can be either a King, a Fool or a Madman... or all three at once. The figure i...
Can you measure love?
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Shakespeare's World and King Lear

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Shakespeare's World and King Lear

  1. 1. Introduction to Shakespeare’s World and to King Lear Secondary V A. Krespil
  2. 2. <ul><li>4 Humours </li></ul><ul><li>Great Chain of Being </li></ul>Dominant World Views
  3. 3. 4 Humours
  4. 4. Introspective, sentimental, gluttonous Sallow, thin Earth Black bile (gall bladder) Melancholic Sluggish, pallid, cowardly Corpulent Water Phlegm (lungs) Phlegmatic Violent, vengeful, short-tempered, ambitious Red-haired, thin Fire Yellow bile (spleen) Choleric Amorous, happy, generous, optimistic, irresponsible Red-cheeked, corpulent Air Blood (liver) Sanguine Personality Complexion/Body Type Element Substance Humour
  5. 5. Great Chain of Being <ul><ul><li>Belief structure from middle ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical system with God and angels above, man in the middle, and animals, plants, minerals on the bottom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within each species there is a similar hierarchy: King on the top, then nobles, moneyed middle-class, then peasants </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Angels </li></ul><ul><li>Humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Subgroups <ul><li>Each category on the chain was broken down into subgroups. Each subgroup had its own “primate” – the highest level of that category. </li></ul>
  8. 8. God <ul><li>At the top of the chain </li></ul><ul><li>Like humans, God possessed the spiritual attributes of love, reason, and imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Omnipotent and omniscient </li></ul>
  9. 9. Angels <ul><li>Made of pure spirit </li></ul><ul><li>No physical body </li></ul><ul><li>Share in the same spiritual attributes as God and humans, but are not omnipotent or omniscient </li></ul><ul><li>Primate: Seraph </li></ul>
  10. 10. Humanity <ul><li>Humans were considered to be the link between the spiritual world and the physical world. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Humanity <ul><li>Spiritual Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to passions </li></ul><ul><li>Mortal </li></ul><ul><li>Senses limited to the physical (sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing) </li></ul>Primate: King
  12. 12. Animals <ul><li>Lack spiritual attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Purely physical </li></ul><ul><li>Limited intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Sub divided into further categories, each with its own primate </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mammalian Primate Or
  14. 14. Avian Primate
  15. 15. Piscine Primate Or
  16. 16. Plant Primate
  17. 17. Mineral Primates
  18. 18. Literary Ramifications <ul><li>Artists and writers made full use of these symbols in their works. the hierarchies used in metaphoric language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>king associated with sun, lion, head, air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antagonist associated with moon, snake, feet, earth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex 1: If Shakespeare compares a woman to a vine and her husband to an oak, he is emphasizing her subordination to him in the Chain of Being. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex 2: If 2 characters are fighting for the throne, one compared to a lion and the other to a boar, this comparison implies something about which one has a legitimate claim. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Moral Ramifications <ul><li>It is imperative for each creature on the chain to know his place and not attempt to rise above it or sink beneath it. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex 1: a man who is as gluttonous as a pig has allowed to lower, bestial instincts in his nature to supersede his divine capability of reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex 2: A peasant who attempts to rise above his status is guilty of defying his natural order in the Great Chain of Being. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Political Ramifications <ul><li>Believed that monarchy was ordained by God </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion was considered a sin not only against the state but against heaven </li></ul><ul><li>The King has a moral responsibility toward God and towards his people </li></ul><ul><li>Abusing this authority disrupts the divine order </li></ul>
  21. 21. So what does this mean? <ul><ul><li>System of Order corresponds with the belief in predestination; God has a plan for world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order can be thrown into chaos if hierarchy not adhered to, if subjects rebel against monarch, sons against fathers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests everyone has purpose or role in life, should use reason and/or to find and fulfill purpose </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. King Lear
  23. 23. <ul><li>Shakespeare’s 28 th play! </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Written in 1608 </li></ul><ul><li>Setting: Mythical England </li></ul>
  24. 24. Issues to look forward to… <ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Betrayal </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Madness </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Human Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Greed </li></ul>
  25. 25. Plot <ul><li>King Lear of Britain has decided to divide his kingdom into three parts, and to hand over the responsibilities of ruling to his three daughters. The two oldest daughters, Goneril and Regan, flatter their father insincerely, and are rewarded. Cordelia, the youngest, sincerely loves her father, but she cannot match her sisters' skill at false adulation, so Lear takes away her portion of the kingdom, despite the pleadings of some of his most loyal nobles. It is not long before Goneril and Regan reveal their deep ingratitude, and soon the old king finds himself in a confusing and desperate position </li></ul>
  26. 28. Parallel Plots <ul><li>Each family centers on an aging father (patriarch) </li></ul><ul><li>Lear: imperious tyrant </li></ul><ul><li>Gloucester: gullible </li></ul><ul><li>Each sees his children through a distorted lens, turning against the child who truly loves him, unleashing in the other children greed, lust, ambition. </li></ul>
  27. 34. &quot;Is man no more than this?&quot; Man can be either a King, a Fool or a Madman... or all three at once. The figure is therefore shown as a single entity, identical in its division of these three aspects.
  28. 35. Can you measure love?

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