Surface water & Ground water 2013 acloutier

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Surface water, ground water, river development for high school

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Surface water & Ground water 2013 acloutier

  1. 1. Surface Water & Ground WaterAnn C. Cloutier Earth & Space Sciences 9th grade copyright 2013 Surface water movement Stream development Lakes & freshwater Wetlands
  2. 2. Hydrologic cycle never ending journey of water molecules Earth water supply is  the pathways water moves through recycled in a continuous creating clouds, rain, snow, glaciers, fill lakes oceans and water process called the hydrologic spends some of the cycle as cycle consumed in the food web as cells Evaporation or as water soluble nutrients by living organisms Condensation  Radiation from our Sun Precipitation initiates the hydrologic cycle transforming the liquid Engine * Sun molecule into a gas or solid Sun’s energy powers the evaporation and  GRAVITY is the force condensation processes acloutier 2012 copyright
  3. 3. acloutier 2012 copyright
  4. 4. Runoff Ground water Runoff is water  Water that seeps into running downslope Earth’s surfaces along the surfaces of becomes Earth groundwater. Impermeability, or the  Porosity of the soil lack of pores to allow will determine how water to seep into the much water will enter ground, will make the the ground water move down slope and could form a stream acloutier 2012 copyright
  5. 5. Runoff wateracloutier 2012 copyright
  6. 6. Vegetation Soil composition Rate of rainfall Soil composition  Vegetation allows more The physical and chemical water to enter the ground composition of soil also by slowing the rain drops effects the water holding on the leaves and letting capacity of soil gently drop to the ground Humus>decayed leaves, roots, organic matter and minerals creates pores  Rate of precipitation Sand, clay and silt have  A light gentle precipitation different size pores infiltrates dry ground  Heavy rainfall does not allow happens too fast and can not soak into ground and will runoff acloutier 2012 copyright
  7. 7. Vegetation plants can stop land erosion acloutier 2012 copyright
  8. 8. Slowing down coastal erosion acloutier 2012 copyright
  9. 9. Kudzu vinetaking over native species of plant life acloutier 2012 copyright
  10. 10. Slope is the angle of incline Less of a slope allows the water to be absorbed into the ground The steeper the slope the less chance water has to be slowed down enough to be absorbed Steeper the slope , the more likely erosion will be with runoff acloutier 2012 copyright
  11. 11. Slope and velocity acloutier 2012 copyright
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  14. 14. Stream Systems Runoff channels can turn into streams if there is enough volume Some streams flow into lakes Some streams join together and form tributaries or river systems A large stream is called a river Small streams are called brooks and creeks acloutier 2012 copyright
  15. 15. acloutier 2012 copyright
  16. 16. Lake Ocean acloutier 2012 copyright
  17. 17. Alluvial fan Delta Mississippi River acloutier 2012 copyright
  18. 18. Alluvial fan forms off mountains acloutier 2012 copyright
  19. 19. Indus River India delta acloutier 2012 copyright
  20. 20. Watershed is composed of all land that contributesto the area whose water drains into it also called a drainage basin Stream load is all the  Living component materials a stream would be fish, carries microscopic life forms and plants  Non-living would be rocks, sediments, dissolved solids, dissolved atmospheric gases acloutier 2012 copyright
  21. 21. Solution, suspension & bed load Materials carried in solution after being dissolved in a stream of soluble minerals Calcium carbonates from limestone is an example and magnesium minerals Often expressed as ppm parts per million Knowing this ppm helps us understand water quality acloutier 2012 copyright
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  24. 24. Which stream will have the greater carrying capacity ? A. B. acloutier 2012 copyright
  25. 25. •Suspension Bed load All particles small  All particles consisting of enough to be held up sand, pebbles, and cobbles in suspension by the that the streams water can turbulence of the roll and tumble along the bed of the stream are stream’s called the bed load moving water are said to be in suspension  As particles move, they P articles of clay, sand, rub and grind up against silt are part of the each other , abrasion stream’s suspended process wearing away the load solid river bed and each Rapid moving water other can carry larger particles than slower moving wateracloutier 2012 copyright
  26. 26. Velocity & Carrying Capacitydischarge is expressed as cubic meters per second ( m³ / s ) to calculate the discharge of a stream discharge = width x depth x velocity (m³ / s ) = m x m x (m / s) * the Mississippi has a discharge average of 173,600 m ³/ s acloutier 2012 copyright
  27. 27. Floodplains A flood occurs when the water spills over the sides of a stream’s bank onto the adjacent land The broad flat area that extends out from a stream’s bank and that gets covered by the excess water is called a floodplain Floods are a natural occurrence, about every two years on average, rivers over flow their banks Living in a flood zone is not a good idea acloutier 2012 copyright
  28. 28. Flood plains  acloutier 2012 copyright
  29. 29. V- shaped valleys are carved by water V - shape valleys are narrow because they are gorged out by narrow rivers Rivers and streams want to reach the lowest elevation called base level The Colorado is still doing this for millions of years at the Grand Canyon acloutier 2012 copyright
  30. 30. V shaped valleys acloutier 2012 copyright
  31. 31. One of the Seven Wonders of the World acloutier 2012 copyright
  32. 32. Meandering Streams A bend or curve in a stream channel caused by moving water is called a meander Water moves more slowly here because of less volume and the flat surface it travels through The outside part of the stream erodes the sides ,called cutbanks where as the inside builds up sandbars by depositing sands and gravel called point bars acloutier 2012 copyright
  33. 33. Meandering streams and rivers acloutier 2012 copyright
  34. 34. :1. Maximum velocity of a river or stream is in the middle of it. 2. Where sediments are dropped at the a fan shaped deposit will form called an alluvial fanalluvial fans are sloping depositional featuresformed at the base of slopes and composed of mostly sand and gravel3. A delta is a triangular deposit that forms as a stream enters a body of water. ∆ Delta deposits usually consist of clay and silt acloutier 2012 copyright
  35. 35. Young , Old and Mature acloutier 2012 copyright
  36. 36. Oxbowacloutier 2012 copyright
  37. 37. Eutrophication of a lakeLakes are temporary water-holding sitesEventually they fill in with sediments over hundreds of thousands of years and become part of the terrestrial landscapeThrough the process of Eutrophication and using the Sun’s radiant energy, photosynthesis , plants add oxygen and waste to the lake water.Once dissolved oxygen is used up, the lake can no longer support aquatic life.Natural nutrients enriching processes can be sped up when humans add fertilizers, detergents or sewerage to the water acloutier 2012 copyright
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  39. 39. Wetlands Are low lying areas that are periodically saturated with water and support specific plant species. They can include bogs, swamps and marshes acloutier 2012 copyright
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