Renewable energy solar PV technology acloutier 2011 c physics copyright

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Solar Power and understanding the basics of photovoltaic technology in preparation for the "Ray Catcher Car Race"

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Renewable energy solar PV technology acloutier 2011 c physics copyright

  1. 1. Solar Energy * PV Photo Voltaic Conceptual Physics 2011 cloutier copyright
  2. 2. Discovery and History of Solar <ul><li>First solar behavior was discovered in 1839 by French physicist Edmund Becquerel who was able to make voltage appear when he illuminated a metal electrode in a weak electrolyte solution (he was 19 years old) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Fritts coated one of the first PV with a thin layer of gold over selenium making a p-n junction 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein published E = mc² paper explaining the photovoltaic effect on 1904 ( won Noble Prize) </li></ul><ul><li>Jan Czorchralski developed a method to grow perfect silicon crystals needed for construction of the ultimate PV </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  3. 3. electrons are tiny particles with power acloutier copyright 2011
  4. 4. Two types of PV systems <ul><li>Flat plate PV system </li></ul><ul><li>Solar concentrator PV system </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  5. 5. We measure the power output of a solar array in watts or kilowatts. <ul><li>The electricity generated from a solar panel is fed into the electricity grid using inverters. </li></ul><ul><li>System that stand alone use a battery to store energy not immediately used </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  6. 6. Energy Work Power <ul><li>Energy is a quantity that measures the amount of work that can be performed by a force. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of energy are : </li></ul><ul><li>light, sound, heat, mechanical, chemical and electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Work is the amount of energy that is transferred from one system to another. </li></ul><ul><li>SI definition of work is the joule ( J ) </li></ul><ul><li>(which is the work done by a force of one Newton over a distance of one meter) </li></ul><ul><li>Work ( J) = Force ( Newtons ) x Distance ( meters) </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  7. 7. POWER <ul><li>Is the rate at which work is performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Power can be obtained using the following relationship: </li></ul><ul><li>Power ( watts) = Work ( J > joules) / time (seconds) </li></ul><ul><li>W = J / s </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  8. 8. Photons an elementary particle that is the basic unit of light, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. acloutier copyright 2011 I will protect the Earth with my photon gun
  9. 9. Band gap an energy in a solid where no electron states exist. The amount of energy required to free an outer shell electron from its orbit to a free state. <ul><li>when a photon hits a piece of silicon, it can either be absorbed by the silicon, can reflect off the surface, or pass through the silicon. </li></ul><ul><li>*this depends upon if the photon energy is higher or lower than the band gap. </li></ul><ul><li>each type of material ( element or compounds) has a different “band gap” which means it absorbs different wavelengths of energy </li></ul><ul><li>using two or more layers of different materials improves PV efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>these are called multi-junction cells </li></ul><ul><li>Multi junction </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  10. 10. Elements important to PV PhotoVoltaics >B,C,N,O,Al,Si,P,S,Cu,Zn.Ga,Ge,As,Se,Ag,Cd,In,Sn.Sb,Te acloutier copyright 2011
  11. 11. Band gap process acloutier copyright 2011
  12. 12. Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell of an atom <ul><li>Valence electrons are important because they determine how an electron reacts chemically with other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Of there are few valence electrons in the outermost shell, then the atom will be more likely to react </li></ul><ul><li>If the valence electron shell is full , then the atom is less likely to react with other atoms </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  13. 13. Electromagnetic Spectrum is made up of many different wavelengths = many different energy levels acloutier copyright 2011
  14. 14. Color and wavelengths acloutier copyright 2011
  15. 15. 1 volt (1 joule / 1 coulomb) multiply by the electric charge (1.602 x 10-19 coulomb) <ul><li>the coulomb ( C ) is the SI unit of electric charge transported in one second by a current of 1 amphere ( A ) </li></ul><ul><li>In order to generate as much electricity as possible: </li></ul><ul><li>the electrons need to flow from one side of the cell to another </li></ul><ul><li>the bottom and top are covered with metal, however, a large portion of it can not be covered because the photons need to flow through the material in order to generate the electric current </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  16. 16. P-n p type silicon> low type concentration of silicon n type silicon > high concentration of electrons <ul><li>when energy is added to pure silicon a few of the electrons break free creating a hole </li></ul><ul><li>Free electrons try to become more stable by looking for another hole </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon material can be “doped” with boron or phosphorous </li></ul><ul><li>Doped electrons allow enough electrons to move and this motion creates a conducting current </li></ul><ul><li>electrons I the n-type electrode are repelled by the negative electrode and can be attracted to the p-type electrode </li></ul><ul><li>the holes in the p-type material move the opposite way </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  17. 17. Changing the voltage boost electrons out of the holes <ul><li>free moving electrons make current </li></ul>acloutier copyright 2011
  18. 18. Batteries acloutier copyright 2011
  19. 19. The end of global warming Drake Community of solar renewable energy = independence from fossil fuels produces 90 % of system needs for heating and hot water 1.5 mega watts created by solar energy > located in Okotoks , Alberta Canada acloutier copyright 2011

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