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Obesity in children in Trinidad and Tobago


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Health promotion perspective

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Obesity in children in Trinidad and Tobago

  1. 1. OBESITY IN CHILDREN IN TRINIDAD Presented by: Anuradha Boodoo-Balliram Natherly Ferguson Shomuela Griffith Terry Lawrence
  2. 2. WHAT IS OBESITY? •Overweight and Obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. (WHO, 2013) •Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/ or increased health problems.
  3. 3. WHAT IS CHILDHOOD OBESITY? •Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. It occurs when a child is well above the normal weight for his or her age and height
  4. 4. STATISTICS (children ages 3-12) •In Trinidad and Tobago, research has shown that a quarter (25%) of school-aged children (5 – 18years) is overweight or obese. •One in four children is overweight. One third of our children so far have a cholesterol level over 200.(WHO 2013) •This country is the fifth fattest nation in the world, according to a recent report from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO).
  5. 5. •According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) 2010 figures, about 43 million children under age five are overweight. •According to research done in 2009/2011 by the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute •23% of primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago were overweight/obese •25% of students overweight/obese at secondary school were •14% of the children in secondary schools had been underweight. •In the last ten years in this country, obesity levels have tripled.
  6. 6. DETERMINANTS •Lifestyle •Working moms •Availability of fast food •Technology
  7. 7. Determinants •Genetics •Inherited genes •Hormonal causes
  8. 8. Determinants •Importation of Culture •Foreign cable advertisements and T.V shows
  9. 9. EFFECTS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY •Physiological: ( Type II diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea…) •Psychological: (low self-esteem, social discrimination…)
  11. 11. Primary prevention is an action designed to prevent/reduce probability of disease occurring. Methods: • Teaching: Nurses should educate parents, children on healthy life styles. • Physical education : enforced in schools. “School children stay inside and play games instead of participating in P.E activities.” (Fuad Khan,2011)
  12. 12. Practice Recommendations Nurses promote healthy eating and physical activity throughout the lifecycle but beginning at an early age by educating parents , importantly if parents are obese putting emphasis on Childhood obesity, associated health risks, ( chronic and acute) risk and protective factors
  13. 13. Nurses promote healthy eating using Food Guide to Healthy Eating and focus on: •Using age-appropriate portion sizes; •Emphasizing fruits and vegetables; •Limiting sugar containing beverages (e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices); •Limiting consumption of energy-dense snack foods high in sugar and fat (e.g. potato chips, french fries, candy) •Breakfast consumption
  14. 14. Nurses promote increased physical activity based on Guides for Children and Youth using interventions with one or more of the following components: •Behaviour modification. • •Leisure activity of low intensity that is gradually increased to recommended levels. •Sustained, repeated interventions.
  15. 15. Nurses promote a decrease in sedentary activities with emphasis on reducing the amount of time clients spend watching TV, playing video games, and engaging in recreational computer use.
  16. 16. Secondary Prevention Methods
  17. 17. Secondary prevention aims to halt or slow the progress of disease (if possible) in its earliest stages. Methods: • Height/Weight (BMI), Blood Sugar, Cholesterol and Blood Pressure screening for children – (available at Community health Center). • Children at Childhood Healthy Lifestyle Clinic (Wendy Fitzwilliams Paediatric Hospital) screened.
  18. 18. Practice Reommendations Nurses work with school communities to implement school-based strategies for the prevention of obesity using a multi-component approach including: •Integrating healthy lifestyle messages into curriculum •Advocating for and supporting implementation of quality daily physical •Education taught education teachers; by specialist the physical
  19. 19. • Advocating for and supporting the implementation of quality daily physical activity (including vigorous physical activity) • Using youth driven approaches with information and advocacy component. an • Offering healthy choices in cafeterias and vending machines; • Increasing physical activity opportunities at recess and during lunch breaks • Forming community coalitions. partnerships and
  20. 20. •Nurses support a family-centred approach to promote healthy eating and physical activity. •Nurses assess physical growth and development of children and adolescents which includes: •Discussing and documenting basic dietary patterns •Discussing and documenting physical activity patterns including sedentary activity (e.g., television and computer time)
  21. 21. •Identifying individual and factors for childhood obesity family risk •Accurately measuring and recording height and weight •Calculating Body Mass Index (BMI) for children two years of age and older
  22. 22. TERTIARY PREVENTION METHODS Tertiary prevention aims to prevent further physical deterioration and maximize quality of life. Methods: • The Ministry of Health conducted a Childhood Healthy Lifestyle Camp, 'The Wee Fit Camp' at Mount Hope Hospital.
  23. 23. About The WEE FIT CAMP • Participants in the Wee Fit Camp are currently enrolled in the Childhood Healthy Lifestyle Clinic at the Wendy Fitzwilliams Paediatric Hospital. • Camp held for (50) children aged 7-12 years old from primary schools in St. George East County. • Children are screened and assessed as overweight or obese by school nurses of the St. George East County
  24. 24. WeeFit Camp is geared towards promoting healthy lifestyles . The objectives of the camp were: • Promote healthy nutrition by focusing on making healthy food choices, using correct portion sizes, and eating fruit and vegetables daily. • Promote active lifestyles through the use of fun, and physical activities. • Promote and improve self confidence and self esteem in the children.