Inquiry
“History and the cheeseburger”
It is all about
perspectives and
interpretations
http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/201...
A nutritionist studying a
cheeseburger
 Might be concerned with calories, animal
fats, processed cheese and then investig...
An economist studying a
cheeseburger
 Could be investigating pricing, supply &
demand, jobs.
http://www.foxnews.com/leisu...
An advertiser studying a
cheeseburger
 Is likely to care about investigating colours,
shapes, slogans, impacts on target ...
History of Americanisation
 Concerned with tracing the history of
Americanisation and inquiring why/ how it impacts
on Au...
History of ideologies
 Concerned with investigating the cheeseburger
as a symbol of capitalism (still banned in some
coun...
History of human development
 Cheese: the combination of milk and rennet, was
a prehistoric creation in the Middle East
a...
History fact – trivia and trivial
A McDonald‟s cheeseburger dates from 1940, with
the first restaurant opened by siblings...
The point?
 Inquiry, history and learning is more than the
facts.
 History is an inquiry into the past that
develops stu...
Edmund Barton Not „History‟
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Barton
The „Edmund Barton Syndrome‟
 History is more than facts.
 Yet many people are only interested teaching in
the facts.
 ...
History is contested
 Most people familiar with the story of the D-day beach
landings in 1944 can describe the overall pr...
The Australian Curriculum: History
aims to ensure that students
develop:
 interest in, and enjoyment of, historical study...
The knowledge bit
 “knowledge, understanding and appreciation
of the past and the forces that shape
societies, including ...
http://www.slideshare.net/mbrownz/the-return-of-king-kong-a-journey-to-scull-island-and-beyond
 Uzanne, 1894: “With the coming of the new
media the need for print on paper will rapidly
diminish. The day will soon arr...
http://www.slideshare.net/mbrownz/the-return-of-king-kong-a-journey-to-scull-island-and-beyond
How online learning is usually used –
replication of offline dump and pump model
http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au...
http://www.mud.com/gag/ive-made-a-huge-
mistake
http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
Change who does the work.
http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
Students need to be creators.
http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
Historical Inquiry
 The process of historical inquiry develops
transferable skills, such as:
 the ability to ask relevan...
Inquiry
 Taylor and Young (2003) point out that the challenge in
teaching history is to have students “do” history rather...
Beyond Testing: Using Inquiry Skills to Enhance
Education: Russ Fisher-Ives at TEDxABQED
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
Significance of the process
• Research has identified a need for variety in teaching
and learning activities (Gilbert and ...
Phases In The Inquiry Process - Model
1.Engaging, C
hallenging, Fr
aming
focus
questions
2. Locating,
organising,
interpre...
A Simple Model of An
Inquiry Process
Think like a year 8…Write down 5 questions that come to
mind from examining this sour...
Questioning framework
1. Students create their own questions
about the topic
2. Students reflect on and improve their
ques...
Frank Hurley‟s photo of the Western Front
“THE VCE exam body has
apologised and promised no
students will be
disadvantaged after a
doctored image depicting a
giant ...
Working with sources – Taylor & Young, 2003
 Eight-year-olds can make inferences from
sources, determine the likelihood o...
How to get students to think critically
about sources?
 We know students go online
to research first and we know
they onl...
Fox news
edited
images of
politicians.
The real
image is on
the left.
http://mediamatter
s.org/research/200
8/07/02/fox-ne...
Should I be careful with Wikipedia?
Killing all of humanity?
Hmmm…seems legit.
Yet multiple studies have repeatedly demons...
The nature of „facts‟
 All knowledge constructed by humanity and only
passes as „fact‟ when it has been accepted.
 Wikip...
English Prime Minister Winston Churchill
“History will be kind to me for I intend to write it”
Churchill wrote
a history o...
“We create reality”
“The journalist said, 'Look, don't you think history warns
you that Iraq is going to be a tricky count...
Source analysis questions
 Reliability – can we trust the source? Why?
 Representativeness – which perspective is given?...
Asking the right questions
 Two ways of doing this
1/ Hit the top end of Bloom‟s taxonomy. Get
students to Evaluate, Comp...
Examples of development of
assessment questions
2010: To what extent did living conditions influence
daily life in Europea...
Examples of development of
assessment questions
2011: Compare and contrast religion and feudalism
in European Medieval soc...
Assessment design verbs
 Judge
 Decide
 Justify
 Debate
 Argue
 Analyse
 Defend
 Evaluate
 Critique
 Examine
 C...
http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2011/09/blooms-taxonomy-21st-century-
How to guide students through
research?
 Provide templates that step students through the
process of asking questions, of...
Create Communities of Practice
 Have and use an online community e.g. Moodle –
create shared courses for all staff and st...
Pod and Vodcasting
 One common approach to supporting Inquiry
learning is to swap or flip where the content
delivery take...
Pod and Vodcasting
 Why create your own?
Personalised, connected, directed, powerful, specifi
c. Students can watch/ rewa...
Need to know
 It takes time - will not save you time initially
 Expect student resistance - many students will
have been...
Library points of support
 Pathfinders – collections of quality resources that lead
students through an inquiry
 How to ...
Library points of support
 Concept mapping – helping students visualise
their thinking
 Thesis building – providing fram...
Library points of support
 Communicate with your teachers – What units are
they doing? What kinds of resources do they
ne...
Library points of support
 Find and how teachers how to use amazing
resources to support/ challenge/ extend their
student...
Inquiry based learning resources
 http://eduwebinar.com.au/web-tools-to-support-
inquiry-based-learning
Western Australian Department of
Education
 http://det.wa.edu.au/cur
riculumsupport/schoollib
rarysupport/detcms/navi
gat...
Be leaders
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fW8amMCVAJ
Q
Bibliography
 Fisher-Ives, R. (2013, February 2). Beyond Testing: Using Inquiry Skills
to Enhance Education: Russ Fisher-...
Simon Corvan
Contact points
corvans@allhallows.qld.edu.au
(07) 3230 9529
http://www.linkedin.com/pub/simon-
corvan/75/175/...
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School
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Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School

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This was a presentation organised by the Brisbane Subcommittee of the School Library Association of QLD at St Rita's College in Brisbane, on August 8th. It looks at the nature of History inquiry in the Australian Curriculum and how teacher-librarians can support this.

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Inquiry "History and the Cheeseburger" by Simon Corvan, All Hallows' School

  1. 1. Inquiry “History and the cheeseburger” It is all about perspectives and interpretations http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  2. 2. A nutritionist studying a cheeseburger  Might be concerned with calories, animal fats, processed cheese and then investigate these. http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  3. 3. An economist studying a cheeseburger  Could be investigating pricing, supply & demand, jobs. http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  4. 4. An advertiser studying a cheeseburger  Is likely to care about investigating colours, shapes, slogans, impacts on target audience. http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  5. 5. History of Americanisation  Concerned with tracing the history of Americanisation and inquiring why/ how it impacts on Australia.  Could then extend to an investigation of the global history of trade, a springboard for a discussion of European colonialism. http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  6. 6. History of ideologies  Concerned with investigating the cheeseburger as a symbol of capitalism (still banned in some countries around the world!). http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  7. 7. History of human development  Cheese: the combination of milk and rennet, was a prehistoric creation in the Middle East approximately 9000years ago. Originally it was made using goat or sheep milk that was stored inside a dead animal‟s stomach.  Pickles (vinegar and cucumber): are originally Indian but were first pickled in Mesopotamia (the Middle East) around 4500yrs ago. Vinegar (to make the pickles) is the result of fermenting grapes and other fruits. Vinegar began as a byproduct of ancient wine production. It has been around for approximately 7000yrs and possibly originated in China.http://www.foxnews.com/leisure/2012/08/20/mcdonald- paypal-join-forces-for-mobile-payment-test/
  8. 8. History fact – trivia and trivial A McDonald‟s cheeseburger dates from 1940, with the first restaurant opened by siblings Dick and Mac McDonald in San Bernardino, California, USA Nice to know but who cares? http://einsteinsdesk.wordpress.com/2011 /06/ http://momsla.com/2012/07/from-connecticut-to-california-a- muslim-moms-cross-country-move/
  9. 9. The point?  Inquiry, history and learning is more than the facts.  History is an inquiry into the past that develops students' curiosity and imagination.  Awareness of history is an essential characteristic of any society, and historical knowledge is fundamental to understanding ourselves and others.  It promotes the understanding of societies, events, movements and developments that have shaped humanity from earliest times. It helps students appreciate how the world and its people have changed, as well as the
  10. 10. Edmund Barton Not „History‟ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Barton
  11. 11. The „Edmund Barton Syndrome‟  History is more than facts.  Yet many people are only interested teaching in the facts.  We often find arguments around what students “ought to know” which are narrowly based on facts that are „important‟ to one group of people.  This is known as the „Edmund Barton Syndrome‟  This is not „History‟
  12. 12. History is contested  Most people familiar with the story of the D-day beach landings in 1944 can describe the overall progress and impact of these landings, but are they familiar with this comment from a US veteran? Each one of us had our own little battlefield. It was maybe forty-five yards wide. You might talk to a guy who pulled up right beside of me, within fifty feet of me, and he got an entirely different picture of D-day.  On D-day, every surviving soldier from the five divisions of Allied forces which landed on five different beaches would each have had a different story to tell.  To help explain what happened before, during and after the landings, author Stephen Ambrose interviewed 1,400 veterans of the landings and used secondary texts. He then compressed those interviews into one account. (Taylor & Young, 2003, p2)
  13. 13. The Australian Curriculum: History aims to ensure that students develop:  interest in, and enjoyment of, historical study for lifelong learning and work, including their capacity and willingness to be informed and active citizens  knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the past and the forces that shape societies, including Australian society  understanding and use of historical concepts, such as evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability  capacity to undertake historical inquiry, including skills in the analysis and use of sources, and in explanation and communication.
  14. 14. The knowledge bit  “knowledge, understanding and appreciation of the past and the forces that shape societies, including Australian society”  Within the aims of the National Curriculum knowledge is mentioned just once - what are the implications of this?
  15. 15. http://www.slideshare.net/mbrownz/the-return-of-king-kong-a-journey-to-scull-island-and-beyond
  16. 16.  Uzanne, 1894: “With the coming of the new media the need for print on paper will rapidly diminish. The day will soon arrive when the world's literature will be available from The Automatic Library at the mere pressing of a button”  Most educational technology initiatives reinforce traditional outcomes. The dump and pump model of digital learning still dominates  The old transmissional mode of education dominates
  17. 17. http://www.slideshare.net/mbrownz/the-return-of-king-kong-a-journey-to-scull-island-and-beyond
  18. 18. How online learning is usually used – replication of offline dump and pump model http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
  19. 19. http://www.mud.com/gag/ive-made-a-huge- mistake
  20. 20. http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
  21. 21. Change who does the work. http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
  22. 22. Students need to be creators. http://www.slideshare.net/NetSpot/moot-au13masterclassdrex
  23. 23. Historical Inquiry  The process of historical inquiry develops transferable skills, such as:  the ability to ask relevant questions  critically analyse and interpret sources  consider context; respect and explain different perspectives  develop and substantiate interpretations  and communicate effectively.
  24. 24. Inquiry  Taylor and Young (2003) point out that the challenge in teaching history is to have students “do” history rather than to passively have the subject done to them.  There is a need to actively engage students in deep learning.  The inquiry approach can be based upon a number of models with similar characteristics. (See Marsh and Hart, 2011, p.144)… it‟s a “robust network of skills”…Generally, the approach involves:  Planned activities based upon student questioning and gathering of information.  The development of skills in which students unlock and organise new information.  Provision for students to demonstrate what they have learnt (including skills)  The application of knowledge, skills and values to new problems and contexts.
  25. 25. Beyond Testing: Using Inquiry Skills to Enhance Education: Russ Fisher-Ives at TEDxABQED  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jr63RDHI-DM
  26. 26. Significance of the process • Research has identified a need for variety in teaching and learning activities (Gilbert and Hoepper, 2011 p.201). The inquiry process can integrate and make meaningful this variety. Some considerations: • Purpose / aims / objectives of your lesson. • Variety of student learning styles (such as Howard Gardner 1983 - and others). • Promote interest, keep focus / prevent boredom, motivation. • “Authentic learning in history is a disciplinary-based approach to understanding the past that challenges students to „do‟ and „make‟ history in a manner that resembles the historians craft… (This pedagogy includes) representing history as a form of inquiry built around sources, evidence and conflicting” perspectives or accounts. (Taylor and Young, 2003, p.8) • This has implications for the design of units of work,
  27. 27. Phases In The Inquiry Process - Model 1.Engaging, C hallenging, Fr aming focus questions 2. Locating, organising, interpreting and analysing evidence and information 3. Evaluating, synthesisin g, making decisions and choices 4. Communicati ng findings, reporting back, contributing to debate (and taking action?) 5. Reflecting, r econsidering and connecting Consider Bloom’s taxonomy of levels of thinking / questioning (Cognitive domain only shown here. Also affective and psycho- motor domains) Asking Reflecting Discussing and Connecting the topic to the learner Investigatin Student centred
  28. 28. A Simple Model of An Inquiry Process Think like a year 8…Write down 5 questions that come to mind from examining this source. ASKING An Australian poster from 1915. What do you see in this image that you know or that you can research? What should we find out next? Where can we find it out? Has the image been altered / modified / manipulated? INVESTIGATING How are ANZACs perceived in the community today? Is this source an accurate representation of how ANZACs were viewed in the community at the time? Did other nations share this view? Why / why not? How has this ANZAC images transformed into a sense of being Australian? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this image? Who has been excluded from this construct of Australian identity? Why? Oral, written, electr onic? Paragraphs, essay s? Assessment items? Criteria in syllabi to be demonstrated? DISCUSSING Feedback, new understandings , spiralling curriculum, new questions: The nature of Australian identity? REFLECTING
  29. 29. Questioning framework 1. Students create their own questions about the topic 2. Students reflect on and improve their questions 3. Students prioritize their questions 4. Students and teachers collaborate on the questions
  30. 30. Frank Hurley‟s photo of the Western Front
  31. 31. “THE VCE exam body has apologised and promised no students will be disadvantaged after a doctored image depicting a giant robot assisting socialist revolutionaries in 1917 was accidentally used in a history exam… The exam, which was sat by almost 6000 students, featured a doctored version of the artwork, in which a large robot - rather like BattleTech Marauder - appeared in the background of the artwork depicting events during the Russian Revolution. History Teachers Association of Victoria acting executive officer Ingrid Purnell said it was disappointing the image hadFull story
  32. 32. Working with sources – Taylor & Young, 2003  Eight-year-olds can make inferences from sources, determine the likelihood of these inferences, argue a position, engage in historical problem-solving and appreciate the perspectives of people in the past, albeit in a naive manner.  Adolescents can locate and interrogate sources, and assemble evidence to construct explanations and accounts of past events and circumstances. They can thus work effectively with multiple and different types of sources, make inferences about human nature and events and are able to defend their „hunches‟ with reference to evidence. Adolescents can understand that historical accounts differ because people select and use evidence in different ways for
  33. 33. How to get students to think critically about sources?  We know students go online to research first and we know they only click on the first couple of websites.  Studies such as the one from Optify on the right clearly show this lack of discernment. (Goodwin, 2011)
  34. 34. Fox news edited images of politicians. The real image is on the left. http://mediamatter s.org/research/200 8/07/02/fox-news- airs-altered- photos-of-ny- times- report/143921
  35. 35. Should I be careful with Wikipedia? Killing all of humanity? Hmmm…seems legit. Yet multiple studies have repeatedly demonstrated the overall reliability of Wikipedia and 60% of UK academics admit going there first when they research.
  36. 36. The nature of „facts‟  All knowledge constructed by humanity and only passes as „fact‟ when it has been accepted.  Wikipedia is a brilliant example of constructed knowledge.  YouTube as a repository of human knowledge – it is now the second largest search engine in the world (behind Google). 48 hours worth of content is uploaded every minute.
  37. 37. English Prime Minister Winston Churchill “History will be kind to me for I intend to write it” Churchill wrote a history of his life and time as Prime Minister during WWII
  38. 38. “We create reality” “The journalist said, 'Look, don't you think history warns you that Iraq is going to be a tricky country?' And this un-named White House official said with supreme confidence, he said, 'You people don't understand. The past doesn't matter. We make history. We create reality.' He said, 'One day you people can write about it.‟” NOTE: This extract comes from historian Margaret MacMillan‟s work „Dangerous Games‟, in it she suggests that this White House official was Karl Rove (former US president George Bush‟s political advisor).
  39. 39. Source analysis questions  Reliability – can we trust the source? Why?  Representativeness – which perspective is given? How does this affect the source?  Accuracy – are the facts true? Can they be checked? Corroborated?  Bias, values and motives of the source – why was the source created? How is it biased in favour of one side?  Time period and historical context of the source – how does the time and context effect the source?  Background of the author. Biographers sensationalize, poets embellish, historians check their facts. Are they experts on the topic?
  40. 40. Asking the right questions  Two ways of doing this 1/ Hit the top end of Bloom‟s taxonomy. Get students to Evaluate, Compare, Analyse, Justify 2/ Get students to create their own questions for the inquiry
  41. 41. Examples of development of assessment questions 2010: To what extent did living conditions influence daily life in European Medieval society?  Sets up a descriptive response: peasants lived in huts while kings lived in castles.  Led to simplistic responses in which all peasants lived horrible lives and kings lived wonderful lives.  Research is limited to „living conditions‟  Again, there is no „issue‟ and no meaty argument to be uncovered/ debated/ discussed and analysed.
  42. 42. Examples of development of assessment questions 2011: Compare and contrast religion and feudalism in European Medieval society - decide which had the greater influence on daily life and justify your answer.  Sets up a decision making response with justification of concept  Forces students not to be narrative/ descriptive.  Cannot find the answer on Google (consistent parent comment at interviews) – consider this an excellent situation!  There are multiple opinions on the topic.  Links really well to discussions of power in the
  43. 43. Assessment design verbs  Judge  Decide  Justify  Debate  Argue  Analyse  Defend  Evaluate  Critique  Examine  Compare  Contrast  Investigate  Explain
  44. 44. http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2011/09/blooms-taxonomy-21st-century-
  45. 45. How to guide students through research?  Provide templates that step students through the process of asking questions, of finding and sorting through information  Provide examples of research, of questions, of synthesis. QSA has great examples of this for the senior histories - http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/2055.html#assessment  Physical documents vs E-documents (e.g.
  46. 46. Create Communities of Practice  Have and use an online community e.g. Moodle – create shared courses for all staff and students to work from.  Have and use a shared network for all teachers to access and use.  Emailing and sharing of resources – collaborate, innovate and explore.  Benefits for teaching and learning
  47. 47. Pod and Vodcasting  One common approach to supporting Inquiry learning is to swap or flip where the content delivery takes place – the „flipped classroom model‟.  This is where the teacher makes the material available outside of classtime for students to access.  Classtime is then devoted to questions, problems, projects, collaboration, disc ussions and inquiring.  Pod and Vodcasting are tools that allow teachers to shift their content by creating their own e- lessons.
  48. 48. Pod and Vodcasting  Why create your own? Personalised, connected, directed, powerful, specifi c. Students can watch/ rewatch/ skip/ self pace. Absent students are still facilitated.  How to? Lots of free programs that very quickly and easily create these. Podcasts – Audacity Vodcasts – Screencast-o-matic, Screenr, Jing or (if you have some cash) go with Camtasia
  49. 49. Need to know  It takes time - will not save you time initially  Expect student resistance - many students will have been sitting passively for years and will not want to take ownership.  Plan how you will use the extra class time - you will have lots of extra time for students to inquire!
  50. 50. Library points of support  Pathfinders – collections of quality resources that lead students through an inquiry  How to search effectively? – online, databases, library  How to record research? – help teachers develop templates that prompt thinking and questioning  Issues of trust – which websites and information can I rely on?  Referencing and bibliographies – how do I reference?
  51. 51. Library points of support  Concept mapping – helping students visualise their thinking  Thesis building – providing frameworks and Socratic questioning techniques to help students reflect and develop their lines of thinking and arguments  Get teachers engaged with the Visible Thinking Project – Harvard‟s approach to questioning, reflecting an requestioning.  Vod and Podcasting training for your teachers
  52. 52. Library points of support  Communicate with your teachers – What units are they doing? What kinds of resources do they need?  Challenge your teachers – Challenge and support them to create even more engaging/ interesting learning experiences.
  53. 53. Library points of support  Find and how teachers how to use amazing resources to support/ challenge/ extend their students e.g. Padlet (Wallwisher) http://padlet.com/  Help teachers understand how to curate their digital resources with digital curation tools like: http://www.scoop.it/ https://delicious.com/ https://pinterest.com/
  54. 54. Inquiry based learning resources  http://eduwebinar.com.au/web-tools-to-support- inquiry-based-learning
  55. 55. Western Australian Department of Education  http://det.wa.edu.au/cur riculumsupport/schoollib rarysupport/detcms/navi gation/supporting- learning/information- literacy/?oid=Category- id-11910393
  56. 56. Be leaders  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fW8amMCVAJ Q
  57. 57. Bibliography  Fisher-Ives, R. (2013, February 2). Beyond Testing: Using Inquiry Skills to Enhance Education: Russ Fisher-Ives at TEDxABQED. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from TED - Ideas Worth Spreading: http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Beyond-Testing-Using-Inquiry-Sk  Gilbert, Rob 2011 'Studies of society and environment in the Australian curriculum’ In : Teaching society and environment / edited by Rob Gilbert and Brian Hoepper. 4th ed. South Melbourne, Vic. : Cengage Learning, 2011. Chapter 1, pp. 2-19  Goodwin, D (2011) http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2049695/Top- Google-Result-Gets-36.4-of-Clicks-Study  Marsh, C., & Hart, C. (2011). Teaching the Social Sciences and Humanities in an Australian Curriculum (6 ed.). NSW: Pearson.  Taylor, T., & Young, C. (2003). Making History: A Guide for the Teaching and Learning of History in Australian Schools. Carlton South, Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.  Whiteley, M. (2012). Big Ideas: A Close Look at the Australian History Curriculum From a Primary Teacher's Perspective. Agora, 47(1), 41-45.  Wineburg, S. (2000). „Making historical sense‟, in Knowing Teaching
  58. 58. Simon Corvan Contact points corvans@allhallows.qld.edu.au (07) 3230 9529 http://www.linkedin.com/pub/simon- corvan/75/175/b98

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