Anatomy and Physiology: Volume 1, Issue 1 Newsletter DateCFS: Inside this issue:The entire surface of Inside Story 2the central nerv- lateral ventricles.ous system is 2) Foramen of Monro third Inside Story 2bathed by a clear, ventricle Inside Story 2colorless fluid 3) Aqueduct of Sylviuscalled cerebrospi- Inside Story 3nal fluid (CFS). 4) Fourth ventricle 4The CFS is con- 5) Foramina of Magendie Inside Storytained within a Inside Story 5system of fluid- 6) And Luschkafilled cavities Inside Story 6 7) Subarachnoid spacecalled ventricles. over brain and spinalCSF Circulation: cord1) Starts at the 8) Reabsorption into ve- Special points of interest:The Three Meninges: Briefly highlight your point of interest here.The brain is protected by the Dura mater: Toughest of the arachnoid space which isskull, cushioned by the CSF, membranes that surround the filled with CSF and contains Briefly highlight yourprotected by the blood-brain brain. In several places the the largest blood vessels point of interest here.barrier, and also by the menin- dura mater extends inward to serving the brain. Briefly highlight yourges - 3 connective tissue mem- anchor brain to skull and limit point of interest here.branes on the outer surface of excessive movement in the Pia mater: Composed ofthe brain and spinal cord. The cranium. delicate connective tissue. Briefly highlight yourthree meninges are the dura Clings tightly to brain, fol- point of interest here. Arachnoid mater: Forms ameter, arachnoid, and the pia lows every convolution. loose brain covering. Beneathmeter. the membrane is the sub-
Structure and Function of the SpinalCord:Major reflex center: spinal the body regions they serve.Thereflexes are initiated and cord has two obvious enlargementscompleted at the spinal (cervical and lumbar) where thecord level. nerves serving the upper and lowerPathway for nerve impuls- limbs arise. The lumbar and sacrales to and from the brain. spinal nerve roots angle sharplySpinal cord is protected by down ward and travel inferiorlybone, CSF, and meninges. through the vertebral column for31 pairs of spinal nerves some distance before reaching theirarise from the cord by foramina. The nerve roots at the in-paired roots and exit the ferior end are called the cauda equi-column via the interverte- na (horses tail). In cross section,bral foramen to travel to gray matter appears in a shape of a butterfly (consists of neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated axons, and dendrites) and white matter is exteri- or (myelinated axons of tracts). Place text here that describes any company policies or disclaimers. For example: “Each office independently owned and operated.”
The brainstem isthe part of the brainthat contains themidbrain, pons, andmedulla oblongataThe cerebellum isthe second largestpart of the humanbrain and is respon-sible for the produc-tion of normalmovementsThe diencephalonis the part of thebrain between thecerebral hemi-spheres and themidbrain.
The thalamus is themass of gray matterlocated just above thehypothalamus. Ithelps produce sensa-tions and associatessensations with emo-tions.The hypothalamus isan important auto-nomic and neuroen-docrine control centerlocated inferior to thethalamus in the brain.
Sympathetic Nervous System Belongs to autonomic nervous system. Starts from the spinal column running towards the middle part of the spinal cord in the lateral horn Originates at the spinal cord’s first thoracic segment and extends to the third lumbar segment. Primary function of this nervous system is mobilization of the body’s nervous system due to fight or flight response. Parasympathetic Nervous System Division od the human autonomic nervous system Innervates the smooth muscle and glands and cardiac muscle and regulates the automatic reflexes and automatic activities Composed of 4 cranial nerves that originate from the brain stem Most involved nerve in PNS activity is the vagus system.