Open DataThe idea that certain data should be● freely available to everyone to use● and republish as they wish,● without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.
Open Data● Open Data could be textual just like Wikipedia.● Or non-textual, such as maps, genomes, connectomes, chemical compounds, mathematical and scientific formulae, medical data and practice, bioscience and biodiversity.
Open Data● "Data belong to the human race".● Public money was used to fund the work and so it should be universally available.● Facts cannot legally be copyrighted.● In scientific research, the rate of discovery is accelerated by better access to data.
Open Data / The "Open" Concept● Open access● Open research/Open science/Open science data● Open knowledge● Open Source
Open Data / In Government● data.gov● data.gov.uk (Hail to Sir Tim Berners Lee)● data.govt.nz● opengovdata.ru
Open Data Institute● Established by Tim Berners-Lee & Prof. Nigel Shadbolt.● Catalyses the evolution of an open data culture to create economic, environmental, and social value.
Crowdsourcing● Genesis of crowdsourcing can be taken as the start of open source movement.● The new media: Content is created by amateurs.● People come together to perform tasks, usually for little or no money.
Crowdsourcing● Not a product of an economist or management consultant or marketing guru.● Arose out of the uncoordinated actions of people, who were doing things that people like to do, in the companionship of other people.
Crowdsourcing● Labor can be organized more efficiently in communities than corporations. "The best person to do a job is the one who wants to do it most."● "Given the right set of conditions, the crowd will always outperform any number of employees." (Jeff Howe, Crowdsourcing, 2009)
Crowdsourcing● Contrary to the general opinion that the internet isolates people from each other, crowdsourcing uses this medium for collaboration and sharing between people from any background in any geographical location.● Contrary to conventional wisdom, people do not always behave in self-interested patterns.
Crowdsourcing● Companies abandon their tech-support departments and replace them with user forums.● CNN, BBC, Gannett, Reuters, etc. have started to crowdsource local events internationally instead of assigning professionally trained journalists.● Crowdsourcing is not cheap labour nor a free ride! All successful crowdsourcing efforts share deep commitment from the user base.
CrowdsourcingIt is the mechanism by which such talent and knowledge is matched to those in need of it.
Crowdsourcing Reliability of crowdsourcing?corienb, female from dani4ever92, female from murtaza88, male from the Netherlands the Netherlands France The crowd is self-moderated!
Map A map is the scaled, symbolizedrepresentation of a region of the Earth projected onto a planar surface. Image: Map of Piri Reis
OpenStreetMap● 2004, Steve Coast (University College London)● Influenced by the success of Wikipedia and the access restrictions to the British Ordnance Survey archives.● Is basically a large spatial database operating on ODBL (Open Database License)● First users and contributors were mainly bikers tracking their biking routes.
OpenStreetMapwww.openstreetmap.org● OpenLayers-based slippy user interface.● Maps are displayed as tiles generated by Mapnik rendering engine.
OpenStreetMapDATA SOURCES:● Field Surveys ○ GPS tracks, personal local knowledge● Open Public Data ○ U.S.A., Canada, Great Britain● Open Private Sector Data ○ Yahoo, Microsoft (Bing Images)
OpenStreetMapBe careful about your data sources!!!● Copyright infringement must be avoided when contributing to OpenStreetMap. ○ Using data sources which are not provided in OSM editors (JOSM, Potlatch, etc.) should be avoided.● e.g.: Legal terms of Google does not allow data production using Google Maps and Google Earth. ○ Trap streets!!
OpenStreetMapWorldwide:● More than 1 million registered OSMappers since January, 13th.
OpenStreetMapHumanitarian OSM Team● Launched in 2009 ○ Aim to connect humanitarian actors and open mapping communities ○ Remote data creation during crises ○ Promote crowdsourcing and simple web standards for data sharing● Also in association with:
OpenStreetMapOSM Turkey / Van Earthquake● After Van Earthquake, HOT and People from Van mapped the Erciş● A social media crowdsourcing work
OpenStreetMapWhy Weak in Turkey?● Conception of "free!"● Monopolistic behavior "I want to own and control the data."● Most people still believe in myths & conspiracy, such as "free and open source is not secure".