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The Role of intelligence in national security

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The Role of intelligence in national security

  1. 2. The Role of Intelligence in National Security
  2. 3. Introduction Definition Intelligence services of different nations Intelligence collection disciplines The Intelligence Process Legal and Ethical issues involving intelligence Covert action Videos and bibliography Conclusion SUMMARY
  3. 4. <ul><li>Security is a fundamental goal of all states in contemporary world affairs. To support that search for security, all states collect intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of intelligence has been recognized for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>The information available and the means to collect and analyze it, has changed dramatically in the Information Age… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) What is intelligence ? What does it serve ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) What are the disciplines of intelligence ? How does it work ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) What is the contemporary security condition ? What about terrorism ? </li></ul></ul></ul>FOCUS ON… INTRODUCTION
  4. 5. DEFINITION The terms intelligence refers to the collection, analysis, production, and utilisation of information about potentially hostile states, groups, individuals, or activities.
  5. 7. Intelligence COLLECTION disciplines (1) <ul><li>There are two main types of disciplines: </li></ul><ul><li>Human intelligence collection or humint </li></ul><ul><li>Technical intelligence collection or techint </li></ul><ul><li>HUMINT </li></ul><ul><li>The use of spies is the oldest such </li></ul><ul><li>discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>The methods used by these spies </li></ul><ul><li>have changed over the centuries but </li></ul><ul><li>the goal has always been the same: </li></ul><ul><li>to gain advantage over an opponent </li></ul><ul><li>by accessing his secrets , usually </li></ul><ul><li>through stealthy observation or by </li></ul><ul><li>intercepting written messages carried </li></ul><ul><li>by couriers. </li></ul> Representation of spies FOCUS ON…
  6. 8. 2. TECHINT Until the Second World War, technical intelligence referred to intelligence regarding an enemy’s weapons systems. Today the term is used to describe virtually all intelligence collected through technical means. Techint developed in response to scientific advances in electronic communications. Intelligence COLLECTION disciplines (2) FOCUS ON…  Afghanistan imagery intelligence
  7. 9. 3. OTHERS DISCIPLINES Intelligence COLLECTION disciplines (3)
  8. 10. <ul><li>Prioritization stage : which intelligence disciplines will be used to collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Collection stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material in foreign languages needs to be translated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photograph must be interpreted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coded communication need to be decoded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All collected and processed information are analyzed into historical context and analysts try to separate the valid information from the disinformation. (raw or unfinished intelligence) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis is put into some finished form and sent to decisions makers as an intelligence product (ex: intelligence estimates) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Final stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a dissemination or delivery of information by medias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At this stage, intelligence theoretically adds value to the decision making process. </li></ul></ul>The Intelligence PROCESS (1) 1. STAGE
  9. 11. 2. INTELLIGENCE FAILURES <ul><li>Intelligence failures may occur in every stages of the intelligence process : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when decision makers do not know which questions to ask to the units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when a bad evaluation occur at the prioritization stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>during the processing and collecting stages (ex: spy planes may be shot down, intelligence agents may be caught…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when analysts emphasize an unimportant data or ignore an important one. </li></ul></ul>The Intelligence PROCESS (2)
  10. 12. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES INVOLVING INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>The ubiquity of intelligence activities suggest that nations do not consider it to be in violation of their own domestic law to support such activities. </li></ul><ul><li>International law is largely silent on the legality of intelligence and do not interfere at all to protect sovereignty of other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The laws of all nations prohibit their own citizens from revealing state secrets to other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually discussions of the ethics of intelligence collection deal with 2 mains aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ends justify the means… but how far do they go ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The respect of the citizens of each countries. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. COVERT ACTION OR SPECIALS ACTIVITIES (1) <ul><li>Covert Action (CA), or Special Activities refers to activities carried out by one state to alter politic or economic developments in another state while disguising the source of that influence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: CIA attempts to assassination of Fidel Castro in the mid-1960s but they failed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CA operations may support groups involved in civil conflicts, secretly provide weapons, lead “coup d’état” or even attempt assassinations . </li></ul><ul><li>Most covert action assassinations in the 20th century was led by Soviet and Israeli intelligence agencies. </li></ul>Who poisoned Yushchenko ? Covert Actions ?
  12. 14. CAN COVERT ACTION BE JUSTIFIED ? (2) <ul><li>To justify covert actions and make it more ethically acceptable, </li></ul><ul><li>there are 2 main theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gap theory of Covert Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles from Just War Theory (evaluation of the ethicality of CA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Essentiality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Feasibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Last resort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Legitimacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Commensurability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Popular support </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Alexandre Litvinenko, ex-FSB spy was poisoned with thallium on the november, 1st, 2006.
  14. 16. <ul><li>Intelligence is a way like another to compete with the balance of power in a less “violent” way. </li></ul><ul><li>Cinema romanticize intelligence and especially Covert Actions that not deserve to be romanticized. And usually, the spies’ life are far away from what you can see on TV. </li></ul><ul><li>More and more, the basic defence trade is replaced by more diplomatic or “vicious” ways like intelligence. (use of videos camera in streets, web spyiers…) </li></ul><ul><li>h ow far would they go on behalf of security ? </li></ul><ul><li>a nd what about our individual freedom ? </li></ul>CONCLUSION
  15. 17. <ul><li>VIDEOS: </li></ul><ul><li>http://edition.cnn.com/video/#/video/politics/2007/08/15/arena.spy.sats.affl </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =rEOecRtBU7U  conspiracy 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// uk.youtube.com/watch?v =9QYZBMIBOck  propaganda against CIA part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// uk.youtube.com/watch?v =kKq6L9U3hTw&mode= related&search  propaganda against CIA part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// uk.youtube.com/watch?v =kKq6L9U3hTw&mode= related&search  The enemy agent and You – Counterespionage film 1960’s </li></ul>
  16. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>BOOK </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary security studies, Alan Collins </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNET RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.espionageinfo.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.worldsecurityinstitute.org/?gclid=CKXz7ezP1I4CFQ08XgodsEJ3Ag </li></ul><ul><li>http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Security_Agency </li></ul><ul><li>http://daggerandcloak.blogspot.com/2007/07/national-security-agency-role-and.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.insaonline.org/?page=research-advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/nationalsecurity/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/intelam/intams.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/427/427lect01.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.intelligenceonline.fr/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/numbers/3/478.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/intelligence-role.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.arte.tv/static/c1/031008_cia/fr/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>

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