JUDGE: “Totoo bang hinawakan mo ang hita ng babaing ito?”NGONGO: “Hini po, hini po your honor!”JUDGE: “Pilosopo! Hinawakan o hinipo, pareho lang yun! Guilty!”
FALLACY . . . It comes from the Latin term fallere which means “to deceive.” It is an erroneous reasoning. It is a type of argument that may seem to be valid but which proves, upon examination, not be so.
INFORMAL FALLACY1. FALLACY OF LANGUAGE/AMBIGUITY - It expresses lack of preciseness in the words, phrases used to express thought.2. FALLACY OF RELEVANCE - It arises when something about an argument tempts us simply to overlook the fact that there really is no connection between the premises conclusion.
1.1 EQUIVOCATION Lapu-lapu is the killer of Magellan. Lapu-lapu is a fish. Therefore, a fish is the killer of Magellan. EMPLOYER TO A JOB APPLICANT: “In this job, we need someone who is responsible.” APPLICANT: “Then I’m the one you are looking for. In my last job, every time anything went wrong, they said I was responsible.”
Erap, Cory, and FVR were captured by the Abu Sayyaf. They were brought to an island and were informed that they were going to be executed one by one. Cory was the first in line, and she thought of a way to distract the rebels. When she was already at the center and was bout to be shot dead, she shouted, “EARTHQUAKE!” The rebels panicked. Cory took this chance to escape. The rebels, seeing that Cory had fled, decided that FVR be executed next. FVR did the same thing, and shouted, “TIDAL WAVE!” The rebels scampered, and FVR took the opportunity to flee. Realizing that he was the only hostage left, Erap thought of doing the same, and shouted, “FIRE!” After three seconds, he dropped dead.
1.2 AMPHIBOLYIwould like to buy a clock for my boyfriend with three hands. FOR RENT: Furnished room just right for a single lady with comfort room and free water.
1.3 ACCENT OR PROSODY You (Ikaw).I resent the letter. Free children below seven.
1.4 DIVISION The whole wedding package costs P500,000. Hence, the wedding cake costs P500,000. Human cells must be conscious beings because human beings are conscious.
1.5 COMPOSITION Mr.Manny Pangilinan is a millionaire. Mr. Pangilinan is a Filipino. Therefore, all Filipinos are millionaires. Our present Pope is a German; Thus, all Popes are Germans.
1.6 WORD CONSTRUCTION Peoplefrom Burma are called Burmese; People from China are called Chinese; Therefore, people from Egypt are called Egyptese. Responsible Adorable Incredible Loveable Perdible
1. . . . the universe is spherical in form. . . because all the constituent parts of the universe, that is the sun, moon, and the planets, appear in this form. (Nicolaus Copernicus)2. One Indian, two Indians; One bag, two bags; One child, two childs.3. The book of Dan Brown is expensive; Thus, every page of that book is very expensive4. No husbands please.5. JUDGE: “Did you say ‘no’?” ACCUSED: “Yes.”
(BEGGING THEQUESTION/CIRCULARARGUMENT) “Why are you late? Well, because I am not early.” Ice is cold; thus, it is not hot. Juan is insane; Juan is crazy.
2.2 ACCIDENT One has to tell the truth always. Thus, if a murderer confesses his crime to the priest, it is but proper for the priest to reveal the truth to the police authorities. We have to be generous to others. Thus, during examination we have to share our answers with our seatmate to show that we are generous.
2.3 FALSE CAUSE AnabelleDionisia got a perfect score in the Logic Final Exam because she took a bath during her menstrual period and jump five times. Diegoscratches his nose and tummy. After one minute, the volcano erupts. Hence, the scratching of Diego’s nose and tummy causes the eruption.
2.4 COMPLEX QUESTION Have you stopped beating your wife? Did you intentionally harass her?
2.5 FALSE DILEMMA If you love me, then you’ll make love with me. If you’re not with America, you’re with the terrorists. Kuwarto o kuwatro?
2.6 SLIPPERY SLOPE Whenever a tree falls down, it has 95% chance of knocking over another tree. Therefore, soon, a great many trees would fall.
2.7 NON-SEQUITUR(IRRELEVANT CONCLUSION) The Philippines is suffering economically now. Thus, Batista is gay. Life is a mix of positive and negative experiences. Thus, the 5 + 5 + 10.
2.8 ARGUMENTUM ADIGNORANTIAM Ifyou can’t prove me wrong, then I must be right.
2.9 ARGUMENTUM ADHOMINEM We can’t trust this person’s argument! He is an alcoholic! Don’t believe in him! He’s gay and odorous!
2.10 ARGUMENTUM ADPOPULUM Many people believed that the earth is flat. Thus, the earth is flat. Pres. GMA cheated in the 2004 elections according to the latest survey. Since this is what the majority of the Filipino think, then she must have really cheated.
2.11 ARGUMENTUM ADVERECUNDIAM These pills must be safe and effective. They have been endorsed by Justin Bieber, a famous American singer. Sleeping with you hair wet can make you blind. That is what Son Gohan said!
2.12 ARGUMENTUM ADMISERICORDIAMA student should be given a passing grade because he is soon to graduate, or because if he fails the subject, his parents would kill him. You honor, my client, John Santos, does not deserve to be imprisoned. He has five small children, and a wife suffering from breast cancer.