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Chapter 1, Section World History: Connection to Today 
Chapter 1 
Toward Civilization 
(Prehistory–3000 B.C.) 
Copyright ©...
Chapter 1, Section 
World History: Connection to Today 
Chapter 1: Toward Civilization 
(Prehistory–3000 B.C.) 
Section 1:...
Chapter 1, Section 
1 
Understanding Our Past 
• How are geography and history linked? 
• How do anthropologists and archa...
Chapter 1, Section 
1 
Geography and History 
• Geography is the study 
of people, their 
environments, and the 
resources...
Chapter 1, Section 
1 
The Five Themes of Geography 
Place 
Region 
The Human 
Story 
Human-environment 
interaction 
Move...
1 
Chapter 1, Section 
Anthropologists & Archaeologists 
Anthropology is the study of the origins and development 
of peop...
Chapter 1, Section
1 
Chapter 1, Section 
How Do Historians Reconstruct the Past? 
• Historians rely primarily on written evidence 
to determ...
1 
Chapter 1, Section 
Section 1 Assessment 
Which of the following is not an example of an artifact? 
a) clothing 
b) wea...
Chapter 1, Section 1 
Section 1 Assessment 
Which of the following is not an example of an artifact? 
a) clothing 
b) weap...
Chapter 1, Section 
The Dawn of History 
• What advances did people 
make during the Old Stone 
Age? 
• How can we learn a...
Chapter 1, Section 
Prehistory 
• The time period before writing was 
invented is known as Prehistory. 
• History is the t...
Chapter 1, Section 
2 
The Dawn of History 
During the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic era, people lived as 
nomads, in small...
Chapter 1, Section
Chapter 1, Section 
The Dawn of History 
Early people left evidence of their belief in a spiritual world. 
Animism is the ...
Chapter 1, Section 
2 
The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution 
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was the change from nomadi...
Chapter 1, Section 
Neolithic 
• In the Neolithic era or New Stone Age 
people built civilizations near rivers. 
– Why? 
–...
2 
Chapter 1, Section 
Section 2 Assessment 
Which of the following suggests that early people held religious 
beliefs? 
a...
Chapter 1, Section 2 
Section 2 Assessment 
Which of the following suggests that early people held religious 
beliefs? 
a)...
Chapter 1, Section 
3 
Beginnings of Civilization 
• How did the first cities emerge? 
• What are the basic features of ci...
Chapter 1, Section
Chapter 1, Section 
What Are the Basic Features of Civilizations? 
Farmers began cultivating lands along river valleys 
an...
Chapter 1, Section 
A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order. 
Historians distinguish eight basic featur...
Chapter 1, Section
Chapter 1, Section 
Civilizations Spread and Change 
Civilizations spread when ancient 
rulers gained more power and 
conq...
3 
Chapter 1, Section 
Section 3 Assessment 
Which of the following is not a feature of early civilizations? a) 
cities b)...
Chapter 1, Section 3 
Section 3 Assessment 
Which of the following is not a feature of early civilizations? a) 
cities b) ...
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Stone age

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Stone age

  1. 1. Chapter 1, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 1 Toward Civilization (Prehistory–3000 B.C.) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Chapter 1, Section World History: Connection to Today Chapter 1: Toward Civilization (Prehistory–3000 B.C.) Section 1: Understanding Our Past Section 2: The Dawn of History Section 3: Beginnings of Civilization Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Chapter 1, Section 1 Understanding Our Past • How are geography and history linked? • How do anthropologists and archaeologists find out about early peoples? • How do historians try to reconstruct the past?
  4. 4. Chapter 1, Section 1 Geography and History • Geography is the study of people, their environments, and the resources available to them. • History uses written evidence to tell us how people lived in the past. By showing how people lived in different times and places, geographers have added to our knowledge of human history.
  5. 5. Chapter 1, Section 1 The Five Themes of Geography Place Region The Human Story Human-environment interaction Movement Location
  6. 6. 1 Chapter 1, Section Anthropologists & Archaeologists Anthropology is the study of the origins and development of people and their societies. Archaeology is a specialized branch of anthropology. – They study past people and cultures Archaeologists study artifacts, objects made by human beings. – By looking at artifacts they can see how people developed technology, the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs.
  7. 7. Chapter 1, Section
  8. 8. 1 Chapter 1, Section How Do Historians Reconstruct the Past? • Historians rely primarily on written evidence to determine how people lived in the past. • Recorded history began about 5,000 years ago, when people began to keep written records. • Historians are like detectives • Sometimes they come to different conclusions.
  9. 9. 1 Chapter 1, Section Section 1 Assessment Which of the following is not an example of an artifact? a) clothing b) weapons c) rivers d) tools What do historians look at to learn how people lived in the past? a) They focus on the environments in which early people lived. b) They primarily look at written records. c) They primarily dig for artifacts. d) They primarily look at landforms. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
  10. 10. Chapter 1, Section 1 Section 1 Assessment Which of the following is not an example of an artifact? a) clothing b) weapons c) rivers d) tools What do historians look at to learn how people lived in the past? a) They focus on the environments in which early people lived. b) They primarily look at written records. c) They primarily dig for artifacts. d) They primarily look at landforms. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
  11. 11. Chapter 1, Section The Dawn of History • What advances did people make during the Old Stone Age? • How can we learn about the religious beliefs of early people? • Why was the Neolithic agricultural revolution a turning point in history? 2
  12. 12. Chapter 1, Section Prehistory • The time period before writing was invented is known as Prehistory. • History is the time period after writing was invented. • Prehistory is also known as the Stone Age. – The Stone Age has two parts: • Old Stone Age or Paleolithic • New Stone Age or Neolithic
  13. 13. Chapter 1, Section 2 The Dawn of History During the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic era, people lived as nomads, in small hunting and food gathering groups. These people • made simple tools and weapons out of stone, bone, or wood; • developed a spoken language; – How did this change life? • invented clothing; • used caves and rocky overhangs for shelter; • learned to build fires – for warmth, cooking, light, and ceremonies.
  14. 14. Chapter 1, Section
  15. 15. Chapter 1, Section The Dawn of History Early people left evidence of their belief in a spiritual world. Animism is the belief that the world Is full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams. Cave paintings may have been part of animist religious rituals. Stone statues are believed to have had religious meaning. Statues of pregnant women suggest that early people worshiped earth-mother goddesses. Early people began burying their dead with care, suggesting a belief in life after death. They provided the dead with tools and weapons for the afterlife. 2
  16. 16. Chapter 1, Section 2 The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was the change from nomadic to farming life. PEOPLE BEFORE PEOPLE AFTER Learned to farm and were able to produce their own food. Settled into permanent villages. Learned to domesticate, or tame, animals. This provided a dependable source of meat. Relied on hunting and gathering. Nomads lived in small hunting and food-gathering groups. Waited for migrating animals to return each year. This led to the development of civilization
  17. 17. Chapter 1, Section Neolithic • In the Neolithic era or New Stone Age people built civilizations near rivers. – Why? – Advantages? – Disadvantages?
  18. 18. 2 Chapter 1, Section Section 2 Assessment Which of the following suggests that early people held religious beliefs? a) They buried their dead with tools, weapons, and other items needed in the afterlife. b) They learned to produce their own food. c) They developed a spoken language. d) They lived in caves or under rocky overhangs. Which was an advance of the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution? a) Early people learned to gather nuts and berries. b) Early people learned to hunt. c) Early people learned to produce their own food. d) Early people became nomads. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
  19. 19. Chapter 1, Section 2 Section 2 Assessment Which of the following suggests that early people held religious beliefs? a) They buried their dead with tools, weapons, and other items needed in the afterlife. b) They learned to produce their own food. c) They developed a spoken language. d) They lived in caves or under rocky overhangs. Which was an advance of the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution? a) Early people learned to gather nuts and berries. b) Early people learned to hunt. c) Early people learned to produce their own food. d) Early people became nomads. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
  20. 20. Chapter 1, Section 3 Beginnings of Civilization • How did the first cities emerge? • What are the basic features of civilizations? • How do cultures spread and change?
  21. 21. Chapter 1, Section
  22. 22. Chapter 1, Section What Are the Basic Features of Civilizations? Farmers began cultivating lands along river valleys and producing surplus, or extra, food. Surpluses helped populations expand. As populations grew, some villages swelled into cities. 3
  23. 23. Chapter 1, Section A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order. Historians distinguish eight basic features found in most early civilizations: 1. Cities 2. Well-organized central governments 3. Complex religions-Most were polytheistic, they believed in many gods. 4. Job specialization 5. Social classes 6. Arts and architecture 7. Public works 8. Writing-developed pictograms 3 What Are the Basic Features of Civilizations?
  24. 24. Chapter 1, Section
  25. 25. Chapter 1, Section Civilizations Spread and Change Civilizations spread when ancient rulers gained more power and conquered territories beyond the boundaries of their cities. Interactions among people also cause cultures to change. Powerful rulers created city-states and empires. Civilizations change when the physical environment changes. 3 A city-state included a city and its surrounding lands and villages. An empire is a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler. Example: A tremendous volcano may have wiped out Minoan civilization. Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. Cultural diffusion occurred through migration, trade, and warfare.
  26. 26. 3 Chapter 1, Section Section 3 Assessment Which of the following is not a feature of early civilizations? a) cities b) well-organized central government c) cultural diffusion d) public works Cultural diffusion occurs through a) hunting and gathering. b) migration, civilization, and warfare. c) migration, trade, and warfare. d) religion, trade, and warfare. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.
  27. 27. Chapter 1, Section 3 Section 3 Assessment Which of the following is not a feature of early civilizations? a) cities b) well-organized central government c) cultural diffusion d) public works Cultural diffusion occurs through a) hunting and gathering. b) migration, civilization, and warfare. c) migration, trade, and warfare. d) religion, trade, and warfare. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.

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