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An introduction to copyright for librarians that focuses on situations and scenarios that are particularly applicable to work in the health sciences.

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  1. 1. Copyright for Health Sciences Librarians OHSLA April 2011 Anne Gilliland, MLS, JD Copyright Management Office [email_address] Information from the Copyright Management Office is not legal advice, nor is the CMO legal counsel to OSU or any members of MLA.
  2. 2. Why Copyright in the Health Sciences? Image courtesy of Plutor http://www.flickr.com/photos/plutor/1808872014/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)
  3. 3. Property Need Not be Tangible Image courtesy of elandil (Nicholas Hinsinger) http://www.flickr.com/photos/elandil/371380032/ Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0)
  4. 4. Thumbnail History of Copyright Photo courtesy of lawgeek http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdawg/4505745536/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/deed.en <ul><li>Statute of Anne </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteenth Century American “Piracy” </li></ul><ul><li>1976 Copyright Act </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intellectual Property is the Coin of the Realm Image courtesy of mwanasimba http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwanasimba/5424868822/ Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) <ul><li>Important for any business, whether commercial or nonprofit </li></ul><ul><li>Information is expensive and highly-prized </li></ul><ul><li>Health sciences both produce and consume intellectual property </li></ul>
  6. 6. Copyright Protects Creative Expression Image by smemon87 http://www.flickr.com/photos/smemon/4436909284/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>When fixed in tangible form </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t include ideas, facts, or useful objects </li></ul><ul><li>But does include a wide variety of media and subjects </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Else is Outside of Copyright? Image courtesy of Sausyn http://www.flickr.com/photos/sausyn/1243546482/ Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) <ul><li>Public domain material </li></ul><ul><li>Most governmental material </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of “thin” copyright </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other Unusual Situations Image courtesy of MikeBlogs http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikeblogs/3020966268/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>International copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-1972 sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of different copyright acts </li></ul>
  9. 9. Copyright Holder ’s Bundle of Rights Photo by uteart http://www.flickr.com/photos/uteart/4309590712/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Publication </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul><ul><li>Making derivative Works </li></ul><ul><li>Making digital audio transmissions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Moral Rights Image courtesy of Xavier Fargas http://www.flickr.com/photos/xfp/2417672363/ Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) <ul><li>Of importance to artists </li></ul><ul><li>In this country, only exist in the visual arts </li></ul><ul><li>How does it interact with fair use? </li></ul><ul><li>Feature of international copyright </li></ul>
  11. 11. Parts of the Bundle Can be Unpacked Image by Florian http://www.flickr.com/photos/fboyd/2156630044/ Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0)
  12. 12. When You Can ’t Claim a Copyright Exception: Licenses and Permissions Photo by Eric Conrad <ul><li>Need to seek permission </li></ul><ul><li>License is usually for a particular use and length of time </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy to other licenses—to drive a car, practice law, be a cosmetologist </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory licenses </li></ul>
  13. 13. First Exercise: Are these in copyright? <ul><li>1966 photograph </li></ul><ul><li>Book published 1911, new printing with illustrations, 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>X-ray, date unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Medline Plus database </li></ul>
  14. 14. Copyright is About Balance David Purbrick http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimpurbrick/468393606/ Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0) <ul><li>Fair use and use in education </li></ul><ul><li>Some copying is good for research and for society </li></ul><ul><li>We create and consume copyrighted work </li></ul><ul><li>(Image courtesy of David Maisel) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Four Factors of Fair Use Image by cygnus http://www.flickr.com/photos/cygnus921/2678359760/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>Purpose & character of use, including commerciality </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the work </li></ul><ul><li>Amount and substantiality of part used </li></ul><ul><li>Effect on the market or on the work ’s value </li></ul>
  16. 16. Transformation and Fair Use dogwelder, http://www.flickr.com/photos/dogwelder/36933239/sizes/m/in/photostream/ Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY_NC 2.0) <ul><li>Recent emphasis of the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the First Factor: Purpose & character of the use </li></ul><ul><li>Most common in art, but also in scholarship </li></ul>
  17. 17. E-Reserves—What is Fair Use? Image courtesy of kire http://www.flickr.com/photos/kire/777725639/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/deed.en <ul><li>Different institutions have different policies </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of best practices is gaining ground </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia State Case </li></ul>
  18. 18. Second Exercise: Is this Fair Use? <ul><li>Radiology Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Digitized book portion for dental lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Two illustrations from nursing journals </li></ul>
  19. 19. Face to Face Teaching Exceptions Image courtesy of shareski <ul><li>Nonprofit educational institution </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Lawfully made copy </li></ul><ul><li>Distance learning allowed if copy not kept beyond class time </li></ul><ul><li>No circumvention </li></ul><ul><li>Brevity, spontaneity, cumulative effect </li></ul>
  20. 20. Teaching Exceptions: Differences in Interpretation Image courtesy of James Sarmiento (old account) http://www.flickr.com/photos/ijames/112866960/sizes/o/ <ul><li>What is a classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a class? </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonable and limited parts </li></ul><ul><li>UCLA and streaming video </li></ul>
  21. 21. Exercise 3—Teaching Exception Scenarios <ul><li>Movies for medical school students </li></ul><ul><li>A pharmacy professor’s DVD </li></ul>
  22. 22. First Sale Doctrine Image courtesy of alexkerhead http://www.flickr.com/photos/alexkerhead/3677416298/sizes/o/ <ul><li>Important exception for libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Section 109 of the Copyright Act </li></ul><ul><li>Important point in the ebook reader debates </li></ul><ul><li>Costco v. Swatch—the decision—or not </li></ul>
  23. 23. Copyright Exceptions for Libraries and Archives Image courtesy of sifter http://www.flickr.com/photos/sifter/370775225/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/deed.en <ul><li>Specific and Detailed </li></ul><ul><li>Include Interlibrary Loan </li></ul>
  24. 24. Copyright Has Become More Complex Photo courtesy of TarynMarie http://www.flickr.com/photos/tarynmarie/218965633/sizes/z/in/photostream/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en <ul><li>Copying and display is easier </li></ul><ul><li>Not everything on the Internet is free </li></ul><ul><li>In the digital world, it is often necessary to seek permission </li></ul>
  25. 25. Culture of Remix and Social Media Images courtesy of Matt Hamm, http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthamm/2945559128/ Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0) <ul><li>Organizations using Facebook, YouTube, Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to advertise and communicate </li></ul><ul><li>What was once private may now be public </li></ul>
  26. 26. Lots of Platforms and Systems Image courtesy of iwfx http://www.flickr.com/photos/blackwind/1082297311/ Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)
  27. 27. Putting Someone Else’s Content on a Social Media Site Image bizbuzz media (Pierre Rattini) http://www.flickr.com/photos/bizbuzzmedia/5276552006/ Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-ND 2.0)
  28. 28. Putting Your Content on a Social Media Site Image ©Anne Gilliland, 2005 <ul><li>What are the terms of use? </li></ul><ul><li>What can the site do with your content? </li></ul><ul><li>What can others do with your content? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes if you take down the content? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Flickr Image courtesy of laihiu http://www.flickr.com/photos/laihiu/290630500/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>Standard terms of service and ways to report infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Provides more licensing alternatives to content owners at the time of upload. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Two Infringing Activities: Two Responses
  31. 31. What Does This Have to Do With Libraries? Photo courtesy of the Pale Side of Insomnia, http://www.flickr.com/photos/the_pale_side_of_insomnia/3062749043/ Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) <ul><li>Providers of information about publishing, communications, and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Creators of content </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers of content </li></ul>
  32. 32. Scenarios: Works for Hire Image courtesy of DoubleM2 http://www.flickr.com/photos/double-m2/4694311841/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>Putting presentations from in-service presenters on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Freelance illustrations for a patient brochure </li></ul><ul><li>Patent fact sheets you wrote </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer makes posters </li></ul>
  33. 33. Scenarios: Education & Conferences Image courtesy of Patrick J. Lynch http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrlynch/450142739/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>Articles staff have written up on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Photocopy articles for a conference </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint with a third party’s images up on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Show a DVD at work </li></ul>
  34. 34. Scenarios: Public Relations and Outreach Photo courtesy of Andreas http://www.flickr.com/photos/sheepies/4317027680/ Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) <ul><li>DVD showing for families and the community </li></ul><ul><li>Photos taken by kids in a program for at-risk youth </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures and images in Power Point presentations </li></ul>
  35. 35. Local Solutions Image courtesy of INTVGene http://www.flickr.com/photos/intvgene/370973576/ Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) <ul><li>Become part of national and global conversation on copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about your institution’s stance </li></ul><ul><li>Consider copyright part of your professional development </li></ul>
  36. 36. Alternatives <ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Open source licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of compulsory licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Open access publishing </li></ul>
  37. 37. Look for Terms of Use Image courtesy of Peter Forret http://www.flickr.com/photos/pforret/148700570/ Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0)
  38. 38. Seek Permission Image courtesy of duncan http://www.flickr.com/photos/duncan/251501490/ Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0)
  39. 39. All of Us at Participate in the World of Intellectual Property Photo courtesy of gurdonark (Robert Nunnally) http://www.flickr.com/photos/46183897@N00/2574549499/ Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0) <ul><li>Know your rights and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Stay informed so that you can inform others </li></ul>
  40. 40. Contact me if you have questions later! [email_address] Bain News Service, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ggbain.12880