Plagiarism and citation Spring 2012 APA

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  • There is so much information out there. You can find anything on the internet and it’s not attributed to anyone.Ask the students to first write down then discuss their thoughts on the quote and plagiarism. Why don’t people seem to think it’s that bad to copy someone? What about downloading music? How does this relate to math?
  • There is so much information out there. You can find anything on the internet and it’s not attributed to anyone.Ask the students to first write down then discuss their thoughts on the quote and plagiarism. Why don’t people seem to think it’s that bad to copy someone? What about downloading music? How does this relate to math?
  • Not only is this a topic that is discussed in the “real world” but it is also an important issue on campus.Emphasizing the professor’s approach to plagiarism, while also pointing out that this is of concern to the entire TU/academic community.We now have a system where if a student is sanctioned for plagiarism by a professor, that is not the end of the matter. The professor can report the student centrally. If there is a “strike 2” the student has to go before Judicial Affairs and face further consequences: the student may be suspended from TU.Bob Giordani: 100 cases a year reported. (Imagine how many go unreported!)1-3 repeat offenders a year. These go to Judicial Affairs for penalties up to and including suspension from TU.There has been about one suspension each year.
  • Also just helps you stay organized
  • Example A is plagiarized. Problems:Word-for-word from the source, without quotation marks.No in-text (parenthetical) citation to Hearst.Citing in Works Cited at end of paper is not enough—we need to know which specific information/idea/text/graphic etc. came from where as we are reading.To fix: Legitmate paraphrase (rewording) of source + in-text citation (keep citation on Reference list as well).OR Use quotation marks to show what is an exact quote (when omitting words from quote, use ellipsis (…)+ in-text citation+ keep entry in Reference list at end of paper.
  • Example A is plagiarized. Problems:Word-for-word from the source, without quotation marks.No in-text (parenthetical) citation to Hearst.Citing in Works Cited at end of paper is not enough—we need to know which specific information/idea/text/graphic etc. came from where as we are reading.To fix: Legitmate paraphrase (rewording) of source + in-text citation (keep citation on Reference list as well).OR Use quotation marks to show what is an exact quote (when omitting words from quote, use ellipsis (…)+ in-text citation+ keep entry in Reference list at end of paper.
  • Example B is plagiarized. This is an example of paraphrase plagiarism.Many student are not aware that this is plagiarism, but it can get you in trouble!!Problems:Student paper follows original source too closely. Rewording is light; sentences follow identical structure as source. In-text citation to Hearst does not solve this—in doing so we acknowledge Hearst’s idea, but not his wording, which this passage exploits.To fix this:If the phrasing of the source merits this, QUOTE exact words used, using quotation marks+ keep the in-text citation to Hearst+ keep the entry in References list.How many words in a row are ok to keep?You may hear “rules of thumb” such as the “three word rule”: quote and cite if you are using more than three words in a row from the source. There is no hard-and-fast rule. Three, two, or even one word might be distinctive enough to be quoted and cited, depending on the context.For instance, Ed Tenner wrote of the “plagiosphere” in Technology Review.This word, coined by Tenner, refers to the notion that everything has been said and is out there somewhere on the World Wide Web. (Interesting article by the way!)If I were to write about this concept and to use the word, I would want to cite Tenner. Otherwise, it would appear that I myself had made up the word and the concept it represents. The first time I used the word “plagiosphere” I could put it in quotes, add an in-text citation, and include a works cited entry at the end of my paper. Additional uses of the word in the paper would not need to be quoted, but if I used ideas from Tenner’s articles, those would require in-text citations in the body of the paper.
  • Example B is plagiarized. This is an example of paraphrase plagiarism.Many student are not aware that this is plagiarism, but it can get you in trouble!!Problems:Student paper follows original source too closely. Rewording is light; sentences follow identical structure as source. In-text citation to Hearst does not solve this—in doing so we acknowledge Hearst’s idea, but not his wording, which this passage exploits.To fix this:If the phrasing of the source merits this, QUOTE exact words used, using quotation marks+ keep the in-text citation to Hearst+ keep the entry in References list.How many words in a row are ok to keep?You may hear “rules of thumb” such as the “three word rule”: quote and cite if you are using more than three words in a row from the source. There is no hard-and-fast rule. Three, two, or even one word might be distinctive enough to be quoted and cited, depending on the context.For instance, Ed Tenner wrote of the “plagiosphere” in Technology Review.This word, coined by Tenner, refers to the notion that everything has been said and is out there somewhere on the World Wide Web. (Interesting article by the way!)If I were to write about this concept and to use the word, I would want to cite Tenner. Otherwise, it would appear that I myself had made up the word and the concept it represents. The first time I used the word “plagiosphere” I could put it in quotes, add an in-text citation, and include a works cited entry at the end of my paper. Additional uses of the word in the paper would not need to be quoted, but if I used ideas from Tenner’s articles, those would require in-text citations in the body of the paper.
  • The rewording in the Student Paper for Example C is fine--see how different the words and sentences are from the original source. Paraphrasing can work!BUT in neglecting to add an in-text citation, this went over the line to IDEA PLAGIARISM. If Hearst is in the Works Cited list, this doesn’t let the writer off the hook. How is the reader to know where the individual idea comes from if the writer doesn’t include a proper in-text citation?To fix: in-text citation + keep in References list.
  • The rewording in the Student Paper for Example C is fine--see how different the words and sentences are from the original source. Paraphrasing can work!BUT in neglecting to add an in-text citation, this went over the line to IDEA PLAGIARISM. If Hearst is in the Works Cited list, this doesn’t let the writer off the hook. How is the reader to know where the individual idea comes from if the writer doesn’t include a proper in-text citation?To fix: in-text citation + keep in References list.
  • Example D is fine—NOT plagiarized. Hooray.Very few words shared—not a problem.When the writer wanted to quote, quotation marks used appropriately.The in-text citation need only include the page number, as Hearst has already clearly been noted in the same sentence. “Hearst describes” is an example of what is called a signal phrase. It eliminates the need to indicate Hearst again in the parentheses.That wasn’t so bad, was it?
  • Example D is fine—NOT plagiarized. Hooray.Very few words shared—not a problem.When the writer wanted to quote, quotation marks used appropriately.The in-text citation need only include the page number, as Hearst has already clearly been noted in the same sentence. “Hearst describes” is an example of what is called a signal phrase. It eliminates the need to indicate Hearst again in the parentheses.That wasn’t so bad, was it?
  • If you use an online source without permanent page numbers (that is, anything other than a PDF), count off your paragraphs and use that in place of a page number. (Smith, para. 5 = Smith, paragraph 5. Smith 35 means page 35 of Smith).
  • First is a screenshot of how the article looks from the results list of an Ebsco database (Business Source Premier in this case).Below are examples of how in-text citations to this article can be integrated.
  • Don’t forget the References entry at the end of the paper! Here’s an example for the same article.Don’t copy & paste the info straight from a database into your References list—you can see it looks quite different in MLA!If you can, consult the PDF copy instead of the HTML copy, you would be able to include the exact page range and to cite specific pages (rather than paragraphs) in your in-text citations.
  • Plagiarism and citation Spring 2012 APA

    1. 1. COSC 111 : Plagiarism andProper CitationLaksamee Putnam – Research & InstructionLibrarian
    2. 2. First… Laksamee Putnam lputnam@towson.edu Cook Library Reference: ◦ 410.704.2462. ◦ IM/email Phone: 410.704.3746. Twitter: @CookLibraryofTU Albert S. Cook facebook profile
    3. 3. On the side…
    4. 4. Agenda Define plagiarism Real world examples and discussion Towson Policy – Academic Integrity APA citation style
    5. 5. How do you defineplagiarism? http://icanhascheezburger.com/2007/09/12/copy-cat/
    6. 6. How do you defineplagiarism?
    7. 7. How do you defineplagiarism? ◦ Using someone’s ideas or expression of those ideas (words, pictures, music, etc) ◦ Without giving proper credit
    8. 8. An interesting side story A quote attributed to Martin Luther King Jr. went viral after the death of Osama bin Laden But part of it was never said or written by him http://www.theatlantic.com/national/arc hive/2011/05/anatomy-of-a-fake- quotation/238257/ What’s the big deal?
    9. 9. It’s out there, why not reusewww.msnbc.msn.com/id/32657885 it? Gabriel, Trip. “Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in theImage by Duane Hoffmann Digital Age.” nytimes.com. The New York Times, 1 Aug 2010. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/02/education /02cheat.html> ―If you are not so worried about presenting yourself as absolutely unique, then it’s O.K. …if you say other people’s words, it’s O.K. if you say things you don’t believe, …it’s O.K. if you write papers you couldn’t care less about because they accomplish the task, which is turning something in and getting a grade … and it’s O.K. if you put words out there without getting any credit.‖ ~Susan D. Blum anthropologist at The University of Notre Dame, author of ―My Word!: Plagiarism and College Culture‖ on student attitudes toward plagiarism
    10. 10. It’s out there, why not reuseit? Discussion on the article: • Your thoughts on plagiarism • Why don’t some people seem to think it’s bad to copy? • Why do people who know it’s wrong still do it? • Does downloading music count? • Is their plagiarism in business?
    11. 11. Why does it matter? Discussion on the article • Why is it important to attribute information to a source? • Why is anecdotal information so compelling? • What does this have to do with you? In real life? In school?
    12. 12. Common KnowledgeQuandary ―I’ve heard that common knowledge doesn’t have to be cited. What is common knowledge?‖ Some examples: ◦ Waste not, want not. ◦ George Washington was the first president of the US ◦ College students like pizza… When in doubt, cite it.
    13. 13. The point is… No matter where you are, you will constantly need to assess the information around you In order to be an informed consumer you should know how to evaluate the information you acquire In order to support your own arguments you should know how to research your question and cite your sources
    14. 14. A more serious example The German Defense Minister resigned and his PhD was taken away because it was found that his thesis was plagiarized http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world- europe-12608083
    15. 15. What is the policy at Towson? Policy for Academic Integrity: ◦ http://www.towson.edu/studentaffairs/polic ies/academicintegrity.asp Two Strike System 100 reported cases a year One suspension a year
    16. 16. Why is it important to cite yoursources?
    17. 17. Why is it important to cite yoursources? Allows your readers to verify and identify your information ◦ Support your argument Gives credit to the owners of the ideas ◦ Not plagiarizing Get credit for your ideas! Required for your assignment!
    18. 18. What needs to be cited?
    19. 19. What needs to be cited? Books Examples: images from Web, Web Pages statistical tables Magazine articles Graphics VHS,DVD, audio, etc. Government reports Statistics Encyclopedia articles Any source of information!
    20. 20. Example A Original:  Student: Dont look for one of these tech  Googles approach may win out heavyweights to knock out the over the long term. In the early other. Yet if history is any guide, 1980s Apple lost its lead in the Googles approach may win out PC market as Microsoft enlisted over the long term. Recall that in the aid of hordes of software the early 1980s Apple lost its developers and dozens of PC lead in the PC market when manufacturers. Microsoft enlisted the aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    21. 21. Example A Original:  Student: Dont look for one of these tech  Googles approach may win out heavyweights to knock out the over the long term. In the early other. Yet if history is any guide, 1980s Apple lost its lead in the Googles approach may win out PC market as Microsoft enlisted over the long term. Recall that in the aid of hordes of software the early 1980s Apple lost its developers and dozens of PC lead in the PC market when manufacturers. Microsoft enlisted the aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    22. 22. Example B Original:  Student: Dont look for one of these tech  History tells us that Googles heavyweights to knock out the approach may be successful over other. Yet if history is any guide, the long term. In the early 1980s Googles approach may win out Apple lagged in the PC market as over the long term. Recall that in Microsoft collaborated with the early 1980s Apple lost its software developers and dozens lead in the PC market when of PC manufacturers. Now, if Microsoft enlisted the aid of Google would only summon a hordes of software developers united front, Apple could again and dozens of PC manufacturers. be swamped by the collective Now, if Google can marshal such innovations (Burrows, 2009). a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    23. 23. Example B Original:  Student: Dont look for one of these tech  History tells us that Googles heavyweights to knock out the approach may be successful over other. Yet if history is any guide, the long term. In the early 1980s Googles approach may win out Apple lagged in the PC market as over the long term. Recall that in Microsoft collaborated with the early 1980s Apple lost its software developers and dozens lead in the PC market when of PC manufacturers. Now, if Microsoft enlisted the aid of Google would only summon a hordes of software developers united front, Apple could again and dozens of PC manufacturers. be swamped by the collective Now, if Google can marshal such innovations (Burrows, 2009). a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    24. 24. Example C  Student: Original:  Google stands a chance of beating Dont look for one of these tech Apple if it can benefit from the heavyweights to knock out the pooled ideas of software developers other. Yet if history is any guide, and device manufacturers, following Googles approach may win out the strategy that Microsoft employed over the long term. Recall that in to Apple’s detriment in the early the early 1980s Apple lost its ‘80s. lead in the PC market when Microsoft enlisted the aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    25. 25. Example C  Student: Original:  Google stands a chance of beating Dont look for one of these tech Apple if it can benefit from the heavyweights to knock out the pooled ideas of software developers other. Yet if history is any guide, and device manufacturers, following Googles approach may win out the strategy that Microsoft employed over the long term. Recall that in to Apple’s detriment in the early the early 1980s Apple lost its ‘80s. lead in the PC market when Microsoft enlisted the aid of hordes of software developers and dozens of PC manufacturers. Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    26. 26. Example D Original:  Student: Dont look for one of these tech  Burrows suggests that in the heavyweights to knock out the battle of the “tech other. Yet if history is any guide, heavyweights” Google might Googles approach may win out eventually prevail over Apple if it over the long term. Recall that in follows the strategy that the early 1980s Apple lost its Microsoft employed to Apple’s lead in the PC market when detriment during the early ‘80s: Microsoft enlisted the aid of collaborating, and innovating, hordes of software developers with software developers and and dozens of PC manufacturers. manufacturers (2009, p. 25). Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    27. 27. Example D Original:  Student: Dont look for one of these tech  Burrows suggests that in the heavyweights to knock out the battle of the “tech other. Yet if history is any guide, heavyweights” Google might Googles approach may win out eventually prevail over Apple if it over the long term. Recall that in follows the strategy that the early 1980s Apple lost its Microsoft employed to Apple’s lead in the PC market when detriment during the early ‘80s: Microsoft enlisted the aid of collaborating, and innovating, hordes of software developers with software developers and and dozens of PC manufacturers. manufacturers (2009, p. 25). Now, if Google can marshal such a united front, Apple could again be swamped by the collective innovations.
    28. 28. Tips to avoid plagiarism Documentation - keep track of materials used for your working bibliography Quote carefully – color code or use quotes when taking notes. Beware cutting & pasting. Note key ideas then ―Shut the book‖ Try to boil down the info—summarize Proofread!
    29. 29. Style Manuals Different disciplines use different style manuals ◦ Social Sciences = American Psychological Association (APA) ◦ Humanities = MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (MLA)
    30. 30. Library Resources for APA
    31. 31. Citing correctly in APA – ExactQuote Every in-text 1. “x” citation should have a match in the 2. In-text citation bibliography (Smith, 2004, p. 35) 3. An entry in the References list (the bibliography) at the end of the paper
    32. 32. Citing correctly in APA - Paraphrase  1. Legitimate paraphrase  2. In-text citation (Smith, 2004)  3. An entry in the References list at the end of the paperAgain, every in-text citation should have a match inthe bibliography!
    33. 33. In-text Citation for an Article (HTML) from a Database (Business Source Complete) In-text: ◦ Mobile devices increase access to sensitive corporate data (Swartz, 2006, p. 25). In-text with signal phrase: ◦ Swartz points out that mobile devices increase access to sensitive corporate data (2006, p.25).
    34. 34. References Entry for an Article (HTML) from a Database (Business Source Premier)Swartz, N. (2006). Safeguarding corporate secrets. Information Management Journal, 40 (5), 24-30. Retrieved from http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journa ldescription.cws_home/505553/descripti on#description
    35. 35. Some ―for fun‖ citations Here is an interesting fact (Wolfensohn, 2011, p. 25) You may be surprised to learn this startling statistic (Association of Associations, 2009) Here is the way that researcher Beverly Santana frames the issue (2011, p. 110)
    36. 36. ReferencesAssociation of Associations. (2009, December). Surprising Statistics: A Study. Retrieved from: http://www.theassociation.org/statsSantana, B. (2011). Why is research so challenging? Journal of Puzzling Questions 22(4), 110-145. doi: 01.2345/jourquest.2011.22.4Wolfensohn, H.D. (2011). You will enjoy this book. Towson, MD: Towson Press.
    37. 37. Sample Paper in APA style Would you like to see how a sample paper in APA Style looks, headings, in- text citations, Works Cited list and all? If you need more than the resource guides on the library website ◦ Diane Hacker ◦ OWL
    38. 38. Questions? Feel free to contact me: ◦ Laksamee Putnam ◦ lputnam@towson.edu ◦ 410.704.3746. ◦ Twitter: @CookLibraryofTU Or any reference librarian: ◦ Visit Cook Library Reference Desk ◦ 410.704.2462. ◦ IM – tucookchat

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