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Disaster and Disaster Risk
Introduction:
• Every year, millions of people around the world are affected
by either human-caused or natural disasters. Disasters take
different forms, like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flood,
hurricanes, tornados, or fires.
• In a disaster, people face the danger of death or physical
injury. They may also lose their home, possessions, and
community where they live in. Disasters can cause a full
range of mental and physical reactions. Those affected may
also react to problems that occur after the event, as well as
to triggers or reminders of the trauma.
Terminologies:
HAZARD
-Is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may
cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of
livelihood & services, social & economic disruption or environmental damage...
-Could be a potentially damaging phenomenon
-It could be natural or human-induced.
Terminologies:
EXPOSURE
- The degree to which the element at risk are likely to experience hazard events of
different magnitude
Terminologies:
VULNERABILITY
- Is the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset
that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.
-This may arise from various physical, social, economic & environmental
factors.
Terminologies:
CAPACITY
- Is the combination of all strengths and resources available within the community,
society or organization that can reduce the level of risk or effects of a disaster.

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Disaster-Meaning.pptx

  • 2. Introduction: • Every year, millions of people around the world are affected by either human-caused or natural disasters. Disasters take different forms, like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flood, hurricanes, tornados, or fires. • In a disaster, people face the danger of death or physical injury. They may also lose their home, possessions, and community where they live in. Disasters can cause a full range of mental and physical reactions. Those affected may also react to problems that occur after the event, as well as to triggers or reminders of the trauma.
  • 3. Terminologies: HAZARD -Is a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood & services, social & economic disruption or environmental damage... -Could be a potentially damaging phenomenon -It could be natural or human-induced.
  • 4. Terminologies: EXPOSURE - The degree to which the element at risk are likely to experience hazard events of different magnitude
  • 5. Terminologies: VULNERABILITY - Is the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. -This may arise from various physical, social, economic & environmental factors.
  • 6. Terminologies: CAPACITY - Is the combination of all strengths and resources available within the community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk or effects of a disaster.
  • 7. Terminologies: RISK - Is the combination of Probability of an event to happen and its negative consequences... . R = HAZARD x VULNERABILITY (exposure) CAPACITY
  • 8. What is Disaster? Disaster Risk? • Disaster - is defined as “a sudden, calamitous event, bringing great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to life and property”. - its origin can be natural, such as earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes, or of human origin, such as explosions, nuclear accidents and terrorist acts. • Disaster Risk - is defined as “the probability that a community’s structure or geographic area is to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a particular hazard, on account of its nature, construction and proximity to a hazardous area”.
  • 9. Types of Disasters • Natural disasters - these originates from the different “forces” of nature (geological, meteorological, hydrometeorological and biological.  Agricultural diseases and pests  Storm Surge  Drought and water shortage – El Niño  Earthquakes  Hurricanes and tropical storms  Landslides and debris flow  Tornadoes  Tsunamis
  • 10. Types of Disasters • Human-made and Technological Types of Disasters - these disasters occur due to people’s actions against human, material and environment. These include transport and industrial accidents  Hazardous materials  Power service disruption and blackout  Nuclear power plant and nuclear blast  Radiological emergencies  Chemical threat and biological weapons  Cyber attack  Explosions  Civil unrest
  • 11. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters A number of factors make it more likely that those affected will have more severe or longer- lasting stress reactions after disasters.
  • 12. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters Severity of exposure - the amount of exposure to the disaster is highly related to risk of future mental problems. - at higher risk are those that go through the disaster themselves. -next are those in close contact with victims. - at lower risk of lasting impact are those who only had indirect exposure, such as news of the severe damage.
  • 13. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters Gender and family - Almost always, women or girls suffer more negative effects than do men or boys. - Disaster recovery is more stressful when children are present in the home. - Women with spouses also experience more distress during recovery.
  • 14. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters Age - adults who are in the age range of 40-60 are likely to be more distressed after disasters. - the thinking is that if one is in that age range, he/she has more demands from job and family. - in general, children show more severe distress after disasters than do adults. Higher stress in the parents is related to worse recovery in children.
  • 15. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters Developing countries - there is a strong body of evidence that these risk factors can be made worse if the disaster occurs in a developing country. - disasters in developing countries, like the Philippines, have more severe mental health impact than do disasters in developed countries.
  • 16. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters Low or negative social support - the support of others can be both a risk and a resilience factor. Social support can weaken after disasters. This may be due to stress and the need for members of the support network to get on with their own lives.
  • 17. Effects of Natural Disasters on Human Life Displaced populations Health risks Food scarcity Emotional aftershocks -PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder)