Technology, HigherEducation and OpenAccess Anne Arendt
Public Domain• Public domain items are available for anyone to use for any purpose.• Property rights are held by the public at large• Not controlled or owned by anyone• Consider: http://www.gutenberg.org/
What we normally doFirst let’s talk about what we normally do: • Google search • Wikipedia • Advanced search (maybe) • Other?
What we normally doNow let’s talk about the results we get:•Google search http://www.google.com (but lets throw in someboolean stuff)•Wikipedia http://www.wikipedia.org/ (look at what their licenseis and let’s try an edit)•Advanced search such ashttp://www.google.ca/advanced_search orhttp://scholar.google.com/
Considering OER The open educational resources movement consists of freely accessible electronic access to course materials, but it also involves other aspects such as open access to books and library materials, and access to modules of educational information instead of complete courses. It may also include educational communication tools or implementation resources as well (International Institute, 2005).
OEREssentially, it is teaching, learning, and research resources,content or otherwise, which reside in the public domainor have been released under an intellectual-propertylicense that permits their free use or repurposing byothers. This may include learning content, tools such assoftware, or implementation resources such as methodsor principles (Smith & Casserly, 2006; Stover, 2005;Trenin, 2007).
OERLets look a moment at: Open eLearning Content ObservatoryServices at http://www.olcos.org/Their intention, overall, is to foster learning and the acquisitionof competencies in both teachers and learners (OpeneLearning, 2007).
OERLet’s look a moment at the Open eLearning ContentRepositories they list athttp://wikieducator.org/Exemplary_Collection_of_Open_eLearning_C
OERLet’s try one: http://www.merlot.org/Huh! Free and actually accessible (without alogin or fees) multimedia based educationalresources. Novel!
OERSo is that the only one? Absolutely not! Here are somegood places to start:•http://www.oercommons.org/•http://www.ocwfinder.org/•http://www.google.com/cse/home?cx=000793406067725335231%3
Learning ObjectsLearning objects are small, reusable pieces of instructionalmaterial•http://academicearth.org/•http://www.khanacademy.org/•http://cnx.org/•http://www.merlot.org/
OpenCourseWareThe OpenCourseWare (OCW) aspect of the open learninginitiative was dedicated to the development of freely available,stand-alone college-level online course and teaching materials
MIT OCW• MIT has perhaps the most well known OCW project known to date at http://ocw.mit.edu/• The MIT OCW initiative has made content from all of their approximately 1800 courses available on the Internet at no cost for non-commercial purposes (Matkin, 2005; Carson, 2006)
MIT OCWMIT’s OCW is visited over 1.2 million times per month fromindividuals around the globe with the help of nearly 80 mirrorsites on university campuses around the world including 54 inAfrica and 10 in East Asia (Carson, 2006).
MIT OCWOf the visitors of the MIT OCW,49% are self-directed learners,32% are students, and16% are educators from around the world, with61% of OCW use originating from outside the United States(Carson, 2006).
MIT OCWSelf-directed learner uses include:•(a) enhancing personal knowledge (56%),•(b) keeping current in the field (16%), and•(c) planning future study (14%).
MIT OCWStudent uses include:•(a) complementing a course (38%),•(b) enhancing personal knowledge (34%), and•(c) planning course of study (16%).
MIT OCWEducator uses include:•(a) planning a course (26%),•(b) preparing to teach a class (22%), and•(c) enhancing personal knowledge (19%) (Carson, 2006).
OCW ConsortiumAn OCW consortium is found athttp://www.ocwconsortium.org/•MIT OCW: http://ocw.mit.edu/•Yale OCW: http://oyc.yale.edu/•Berkeley: http://webcast.berkeley.edu/
Reference Materials & ResourceRepositories• http://books.google.com/ http://www.loc.gov/• http://www.nasa.gov/• http://www.edlproject.eu/• http://www.jorum.ac.uk/And some we have already looked at:• http://www.wikipedia.org/• http://www.oercommons.org
Creative Commons & CC LearnCreative Commons which frees materials fromautomatically applied copyright restrictions byproviding free, easy-to-use, flexible licenses forcreators to place on their digital materials thatpermit the originator to grant rights as they see fithttp://creativecommons.orgccLearn focuses specifically on open learning andopen educational resourceshttp://learn.creativecommons.org
Creative CommonsLarry Lessig of Stanford is pursuing somethingcalled the Creative Commons which freesmaterials from automatically applied copyrightrestrictions by providing free, easy-to-use,flexible licenses for creators to place on theirdigital materials that permit the originator togrant rights as they see fit (Fitzergerald, 2007;Smith & Casserly, 2006)
Creative CommonsA summary video can be found athttp://creativecommons.org/videos/ that explains CC well.
Creative CommonsSix major licenses of Creative Commons:•Attribution (CC-BY)•Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA)•Attribution No Derivatives (CC-BY-ND)•Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC)•Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike (CC-BY-NC-SA)•Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND)http://creativecommons.org/about/licenses/
Creative Commons• There is one last one – CC0• No rights reserved• In contrast to CC’s licenses that allow copyright holders to choose from a range of permissions while retaining their copyright, CC0 empowers yet another choice altogether – the choice to opt out of copyright and the exclusive rights it automatically grants to creators – the “no rights reserved” alternative to our licenses.• http://creativecommons.org/about/cc0
Creative CommonsIndividuals place Creative Commons licenses onindividual items. Thus, there is no fool-proof way tosearch all items with some type of CC release on them.Resources to gets you started:•http://search.creativecommons.org/•http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Content_Curators
Creative CommonsEqually, there are a number of area-specific methods ofsearching for creative commons released items.Images•http://images.google.com/advanced_image_search?hl=en•http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Pictures_and_images•http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
CcLearn• A development stemming from Creative Commons is ccLearn (July 2007) focused specifically on open learning and open educational resources. It emphasizes diminishing legal, technical, & social barriers.• A primary goal of ccLearn is to build a comprehensive directory of open educational resources with the assistance of Google with encourages their discovery and subsequent use (Atkins et al., 2007; Bissell, 2007; Brantley, 2007).• Learn more about ccLearn and the Open Education Community at http://learn.creativecommons.org/
ClosingAs Smith & Casserly note,we are aware that all creators ofknowledge need a place to put theirmaterials and that flow of knowledgeshould be multidirectional and adaptableto the local learning environment (2006).