Who Plays? All people, many animals including mammals, marsupials and birds.Purpose of Play The act of playing engenders trust, builds social groups, teaches communication and other skills and alleviates stress.Fair Play & Survival According to Marc Berkoff, animals that play fair are more likely to survive in the wild.
Types of PlayToysTools for discovery.Unorganized stimulation.SimulationInvestigative and exploratoryGameGoal-oriented, player choice
Puzzles & Board games: Monopoly, MousetrapPhysical games: kickball, skating, tennisHobbies: microscope, drawing, painting, frogs & bugs & turtlesPretending: Group invented games: create the story, layout the environment, collect the props: spies, explorers, etc. renegade teachers, teens, mothers, doctors, builders, Miss America, brides, veterinarians Doll houses, train sets, cars & trucks
Puzzles & Board games: STRATEGYPhysical games: PROWESSHobbies: CREATIVITY, INNOVATION & EXPLORATIONPretending: Group invented games: create the story, layout the environment, collect the props (ROLE PLAYING): spies, explorers, etc. EXPLORATION of external world renegade teachers, teens, mothers, doctors, builders, Miss America, brides, veterinarians MIMICRY Doll houses, train sets, cars & trucks SIMULATIONS
Computer, video, mobile, andalternative reality games We are still playing the same games BUT the lines have blurred between types of play and blend differing genres in one form. Technology & market forces create a fruit ﬂy lab for discoveries of successful play characteristics.
Fruit ﬂy lab—key characteristics Magic circle Flow Exploratory Experiential Sandbox On-demand & in-time learning Well order problems Repetition Cycle of expertise Pervasiveness of practice
Game Systems:Engagement & Participation Central conﬂict or challenge Goals: clear win-lose state Player roles Rules Multiple pathways to goal Levels of difﬁculty and achievement Balance difﬁculty against time (frustrating vs boring) Incorporate “toys” Rewards matched to difﬁculty
Rules keep the game balancedDifﬁculty must be weighted against time to completion and adequate rewards.
“But the power of video game resides not just in their presentinstantiations, but in the promises the technologies by whichthey are made hold out for the future.”“Game designers can make worlds where people can havemeaningful new experiences, experiences that their places in lifewould never allow them to have or even experiences no humanbeing has ever had before. These experiences have the potentialto make people smarter and more thoughtful.” —James Paul Gee, “Learning by Design: Good Video Games as Learning Machines”