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Inventors who changed the World.pdf

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Anna Sz.

Cooperative work outcome of eTwinning project Inventors who saved the Word' 2022

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Inventors who changed the World
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Contents:
1. Baird John Logie, Scotland (UK) (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 9 im. M. Kopernika,
Dzierżoniów)
2. Banič Štefan, Slovakia ( Private primary school, Ružomberok, Slovakia)
3. Bożek Józef, Poland (Szkołą Podstawowa im. Józefa Wybickiego w Janówku)
4. Da Vinci Leonardo, Italy (Szkoła Podstawowa Nr 3 w Czechowicach-
Dziedzicach)
5. Edison Thomas , USA (Szkoła Podstawowa im. Bronisława Malinowskiego w
Bystrzycy)
6. Gayetty Joseph, USA (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 w Bydgoszczy)
7. Goldmark Peter Carl, Hungary/USA (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 im. Jana
Brzechwy w Swarzędzu)
8. Łukasiewicz Ignacy, Poland (Publiczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. Jana Pawła II
w Krościenku Wyżnym)
9. Łukasiewicz Ignacy, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa im. Wspólnej Europy w
Zalesiu Górnym)
10.Magnuski Henryk , Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 im. Jana Brzechwy w
Swarzędzu)
11.Murgaš Jozef, Slovakia ( Private primary school, Ružomberok, Slovakia)
12.Newton Isaac, Great Britain (Niepubliczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. I.
Newtona w Przemyślu)
13.Prószyński Kazimierz, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 16 z Oddziałami
Dwujęzycznymi w Mysłowicach)
14.Rubik Ernő, Hungary (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 9 im. M. Kopernika w
Dzierżoniowie)
15.Sendzimir Tadeusz, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa im. Wspólnej Europy w
Zalesiu Górnym)
16.Stephenson George, Great Britain (Niepubliczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. I.
Newtona w Przemyślu)
17.Żegleń Kazimierz, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 39 im. S. Moniuszki w
Kielcach)
3
Baird John Logie
John Logie Baird was born in 1888 in Helensburgh, Scotland, in Argyll. He was the
engineer who invented the first working television system and night vision. He
studied at Larchfield Academy, Glasgow and gow but did not complete his studies
before World War I. In 1924, using an old hat box, scissors, a few needles, bicycle
lighting lenses, a box for tea and wax and glue, he constructed the first working
monochrome television. In 1925, he sent the first television picture which looked
like this:
4
He died in 1946 in Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex Until now, people underestimate him, but
they should. He changed the whole world through televisions, people still perfect
his works despite not knowing about the original pattern.
5
Štefan Banič
* 23.11.1870, Neštich (today Smolenice) near Trnava
† 2.1.1941, Neštich (today Smolenice) near Trnava
Štefan Banič was a Slovak inventor who patented an early parachute design.
He worked as an agricultural worker and later as a mason.
In 1907, poverty drove him to the United States.
In 1912, he witnessed a tragic accident. She shook him to such an extent then he
began to think about the parachute structure. In 1913 the U.S. Bureau submitted
a design for a parachute design for consideration. The principle of this parachute
was a telescopic umbrella-type construction which is not a fabric cover.The
parachute was attached with body straps to the chest below the shoulders.
The design which was radically different from others - it was a kind of umbrella
attached to the body - but it is sometimes claimed that he successfully tested it in
Washington, D.C. jumping first from a 15-storey building and subsequently from
an airplane in 1914 He donated his patent to the U.S. Army - but there is no
evidence that it was ever used.
After World War I Banič returned to Czechoslovakia where he helped to explore
the Driny karst cave in the foothills of the Little Carpathian Mountains, close to his
hometown of Smolenice.
6
In 2006, Slovak military paratroopers installed a memorial plaque at his birthplace
in Smolenice.
Trnava - Boleráz airport, near Smolenice, carries Banič's name.
Picture 1 Picture 2
Source:
Picture 1: http://mmeuro2003.szm.com/s_banic_t.htm
Picture 2: https://smolenice.com/navstevnik/osobnosti/stefan-banic/

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Inventors who changed the World.pdf

  • 1. Inventors who changed the World eTwinning project 2022
  • 2. 2 Contents: 1. Baird John Logie, Scotland (UK) (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 9 im. M. Kopernika, Dzierżoniów) 2. Banič Štefan, Slovakia ( Private primary school, Ružomberok, Slovakia) 3. Bożek Józef, Poland (Szkołą Podstawowa im. Józefa Wybickiego w Janówku) 4. Da Vinci Leonardo, Italy (Szkoła Podstawowa Nr 3 w Czechowicach- Dziedzicach) 5. Edison Thomas , USA (Szkoła Podstawowa im. Bronisława Malinowskiego w Bystrzycy) 6. Gayetty Joseph, USA (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 w Bydgoszczy) 7. Goldmark Peter Carl, Hungary/USA (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 im. Jana Brzechwy w Swarzędzu) 8. Łukasiewicz Ignacy, Poland (Publiczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. Jana Pawła II w Krościenku Wyżnym) 9. Łukasiewicz Ignacy, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa im. Wspólnej Europy w Zalesiu Górnym) 10.Magnuski Henryk , Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 4 im. Jana Brzechwy w Swarzędzu) 11.Murgaš Jozef, Slovakia ( Private primary school, Ružomberok, Slovakia) 12.Newton Isaac, Great Britain (Niepubliczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. I. Newtona w Przemyślu) 13.Prószyński Kazimierz, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 16 z Oddziałami Dwujęzycznymi w Mysłowicach) 14.Rubik Ernő, Hungary (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 9 im. M. Kopernika w Dzierżoniowie) 15.Sendzimir Tadeusz, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa im. Wspólnej Europy w Zalesiu Górnym) 16.Stephenson George, Great Britain (Niepubliczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. I. Newtona w Przemyślu) 17.Żegleń Kazimierz, Poland (Szkoła Podstawowa nr 39 im. S. Moniuszki w Kielcach)
  • 3. 3 Baird John Logie John Logie Baird was born in 1888 in Helensburgh, Scotland, in Argyll. He was the engineer who invented the first working television system and night vision. He studied at Larchfield Academy, Glasgow and gow but did not complete his studies before World War I. In 1924, using an old hat box, scissors, a few needles, bicycle lighting lenses, a box for tea and wax and glue, he constructed the first working monochrome television. In 1925, he sent the first television picture which looked like this:
  • 4. 4 He died in 1946 in Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex Until now, people underestimate him, but they should. He changed the whole world through televisions, people still perfect his works despite not knowing about the original pattern.
  • 5. 5 Štefan Banič * 23.11.1870, Neštich (today Smolenice) near Trnava † 2.1.1941, Neštich (today Smolenice) near Trnava Štefan Banič was a Slovak inventor who patented an early parachute design. He worked as an agricultural worker and later as a mason. In 1907, poverty drove him to the United States. In 1912, he witnessed a tragic accident. She shook him to such an extent then he began to think about the parachute structure. In 1913 the U.S. Bureau submitted a design for a parachute design for consideration. The principle of this parachute was a telescopic umbrella-type construction which is not a fabric cover.The parachute was attached with body straps to the chest below the shoulders. The design which was radically different from others - it was a kind of umbrella attached to the body - but it is sometimes claimed that he successfully tested it in Washington, D.C. jumping first from a 15-storey building and subsequently from an airplane in 1914 He donated his patent to the U.S. Army - but there is no evidence that it was ever used. After World War I Banič returned to Czechoslovakia where he helped to explore the Driny karst cave in the foothills of the Little Carpathian Mountains, close to his hometown of Smolenice.
  • 6. 6 In 2006, Slovak military paratroopers installed a memorial plaque at his birthplace in Smolenice. Trnava - Boleráz airport, near Smolenice, carries Banič's name. Picture 1 Picture 2 Source: Picture 1: http://mmeuro2003.szm.com/s_banic_t.htm Picture 2: https://smolenice.com/navstevnik/osobnosti/stefan-banic/
  • 7. 7 JÓZEF BOŻEK’S BIOGRAPHY Józef Bożek was born on February 28, 1782. in Biery, a village placed in Śląsk Cieszyński. In Polish literature he is called the "Polish-Czech Stephenson", even though he was a Pole. However, in the Czech Republic he is appreciated more. His parents - Mikołaj and Maria who was from the house of Duda, and they were Christians, due to that Józef was baptised in the church in Grodziec. The father was not delighted with the boy's love of machine building, he was even disappointed that his son did not want to engage in the family's milling business. In 1799 thanks to the help of Fr. Leopold Szersznik was admitted to the philological gymnasium in Cieszyn. In the register of Fr. Szersznik there are saved 29 of his discoveries. 29 of his discoveries have been saved in the register belonging to Fr. Leopold Szersznik. In the years 1803- 1805 he studied mechanics and mathematics in the city of Brno, after that he was a student of the Philosophy Faculty of the University of Prague. In Praga he not only started his job as an inventor, but Praga is where he created most of his creations, i.e., a precise clock for the Astronomical Institute (his greatest watchmaking work), a cloth trimmer, an automatic weaving workshop he also made prosthetists arms and legs, he made one of such prosthetics in 1814 for a Russian officer Daniluk. Despite his talent, he wasn’t lucky, during a show in 1817, his piggy bank was stolen, as a result of which he couldn’t pay off his loans and he became bankrupt. He had attacks of madness, which resulted in the destruction of machines, e.g., a steam powered car, boat, and tearing of construction plans. The inventor died on 21st of October 1835. He was alone and in poverty because the city he lived in had no way of supporting his work. He was treated for gastric poisoning, and he had pneumonia which was a big mistake made by doctors
  • 8. 8 Leonardo Da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452. He was an illegitimate child. His father's name was Piera da Vinci and his mother's name is still unknown. However, his mother did not play an important role in his life because at the age of five he was taken by his father and raised by his grandparents. He attended a village school. He spent a lot of time outside, fascinated by nature. He was very close to his uncle Francesco. It was he and his grandparents who helped him learn to write and read. Paper in those days was very expensive, so he practiced on wooden tablets. Then Leonardo made paints, which were usually made of plaster or clay. A few years later, exactly in 1469, he lived and worked with his teacher Verocchia. In the years 1473-1475, together with his teacher, he painted "The Baptism of Christ". Over time, Leonardo became known and the Italian princes began to strive for him to paint for them. On January 10, 1478, he established his own studio. In mid-March, he went to Venice, where he met the artists. In 1503, the most famous of his works, the painting "Mona Lisa", was created.
  • 9. 9 In later years, the artist began to create occasional costume designs or architectural sketches because his right hand was crippled. His last architectural project was the castle in Romorantin. In the following years, apart from making diary sketches, he did nothing, only went for long walks on sunny days. Leonardo died on May 2, 1519. at Cloux Castle. The artist's funeral took place on August 12 of the same year. Parachute design The vitruvian man
  • 10. 10 Thomas Edison Thomas Edison - an American inventor, businessman and engineer born on 11 February 1847 in the USA. He developed many devices in fields such as electric, mass communication and power generation. Father of landmark inventions including modern light bulb, an electrical grid and motion pictures. The phonograph - in 1878 Thomas Edison established the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company. He suggested other uses for phonograph, such as letter writing and dictation, and phonographic books for blind people. Hubert klasa 7b SP w Bystrzycy
  • 11. 11 Joseph C. Gayetty We do not know exactly what was the beginning of Joseph C. Gayetti. His first signature is the 1850 census in the US. It included information: -about the date of birth - 1817. -place of birth - Pennsylvania -place of residence - New York -marital status - husband of Margaret Louis Borgat. He and his family, containing a daughter, 4 sons and a wife, owned a personal servant and a small fortune of 1,000 dollars. The census says he was born in Pennsylvania, but the records do not identify the date or place of his birth. The date and place of Joseph's death have also never been established. In 1850 Joseph Gayetti worked in a brothel. However, almost ten years later he began his toilet paper business. He was the producer of "healing paper". In 1857 he came up with idea of producing soft paper to wipe. At first, he sold it in pharmacy as “medical paper for hemorrhoids”. To encourage people to buy his product crafty Joseph spread rumor that formation of hemorrhoids is caused by using printed newspaper and more precisely harmful ink. His delicate aloe paper from banana fiber was supposed to work as medicine.
  • 12. 12 His youngest son, Henry K. Gayetta, took over the business after his father's death until 1891. https://wielkahistoria.pl/kto-i-kiedy-wynalazl-papier-toaletowy-nastapilo-to- znacznie-wczesniej-niz-myslisz/ https://pl.wikiqd.com/721644-joseph-gayetty-FGQODR
  • 13. 13 Goldmark Peter Carl Peter Carl Goldmark urodził się 2 grudnia 1906 r. w Budapeszcie (Węgry), a zmarł 7 grudnia 1977 r. w hrabstwie Westchester w USA. Był on węgiersko-amerykańskim inżynierem, który opracował pierwszy komercyjny kolor telewizyjny systemu i odegrał kluczową rolę w opracowaniu długogrającej płyty fonograficznej z mikrorowkiem 331⁄3 rpm, standardu umieszczania wielu lub długich nagranych utworów na jednej płycie przez dwa pokolenia . która zrewolucjonizowała branżę fonograficzną . Goldmark dołączył do Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) Laboratories w 1936 roku. Tam rozpoczął pracę nad systemem telewizji kolorowej, który został po raz pierwszy zademonstrowany w 1940 roku. W oparciu o obracający się, trójkolorowy dysk, jego system sekwencyjny został ulepszony po 2 wojnie światowej i zatwierdzony do użytku komercyjnego przez Federalną Komisję Łączności w 1950 roku. Chociaż wkrótce zastąpiono go całkowicie elektronicznymi systemami kolorowymi, które były kompatybilne z transmisją czarno-białą, jego system znalazł szerokie zastosowanie w telewizji przemysłowej, w przemyśle, placówkach medycznych i szkołach, ponieważ jego kolorowa kamera jest znacznie mniejsza, lżejsze i łatwiejsze w utrzymaniu i obsłudze niż kamery używane w telewizji komercyjnej.
  • 14. 14 Goldmark Peter Carl Peter Carl Goldmark was born in December 1906 in Budapest. The Hungarian inventor invented “Colour Television System Development” and vinyl. Goldmark was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1969. He received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 1970. He died in a car accident in 1977 and in that year he was awarded the National Medal of Science. Bartek 7d SP4 Swarzędz
  • 15. 15 Ignacy Łukasiewicz Ignacy Łukasiewicz was born on March 8, 1822 in Zaduszniki. He was a Polish pharmacist, founder of the first oil mine in the world and the inventor of the kerosene lamp. He was coming from a poor noble family. His father’s name was Joseph Łukasiewicz, and his mother was Apolonia (maiden name Świetlik). He had two sisters: Mary and Emilly, and two brothers: Aleksander and Franciszek. Łukasiewicz was the first person in the world to distil petroleum in Poland and use it for lighting. His invention led to the creation of a street lamp in 1853. In 1854, together with Tytus Trzecieski and Karol Klobassa-Zrencki, Ignacy- a modest pharmacist- founded the first oil company in Bóbrka in the Podkarpacie region.
  • 16. 16 Recipient of the Order of St. Gregory the Great, papal chamberlain, member of the Diet of Galicia and Lodomeria. He was an honorary member of many societies. He gave financial support to the poor. He died on 7 January 1882 in Chorkówka and he was buried in the parish cemetery in Zręcin near Krosno. Źródła/Source: https://bobrka.pl/en/about-lukasiewicz/ https://pixabay.com/pl/illustrations/ Patryk, Publiczna Szkoła Podstawowa im. Jana Pawła II w Krościenku Wyżnym, kl. 4 c
  • 17. 17 Henryk Magnuski i jego walkie-talkie Henryk Magnuski urodził się w Warszawie w stolicy Polski. W 1926 zdał maturę w gimnazjum im. Stanisława Staszica w Warszawie w 1934 roku ukończył studia na Politechnice Warszawskiej i rozpoczął pracę w Państwowych Zakładach Tele i Radiotechnicznych. W czerwcu 1939 został wysłany na szkolenie do Nowego Jorku. Wybuch II wojny światowej uniemożliwił mu powrót do kraju. Tam w 1940 rozpoczął pracę w Motoroli (do 1947 firma nazywała się Galvin Manufacturing Corporation). Opracował m.in. projekt radia Walkie-Talkie Motoroli SCR-300. SCR-300 – pierwsza na świecie plecakowa radiostacja z manualnie ustawianą częstotliwością FM zaprojektowana w czasie II wojny światowej przez zespół inżynierów firmy Motorola. Radiostacja była powszechnie używana przez amerykańskie siły zbrojne w Europie i podczas walk na Pacyfiku z Japończykami pod
  • 18. 18 popularną nazwą walkie-talkie Ciężar tej mieszczącej się w plecaku radiostacji wynosił 17 kg. Urządzenie mające zasięg blisko 15 km, umożliwiało komunikację piechoty, artylerii oraz broni pancernych. Stabilność częstotliwości SCR-300 była duża, przy czym istniała możliwość dostrajania radiostacji do różnych częstotliwości. Przez blisko dwa lata – od 1943 roku do końca wojny – firma Motorola wyprodukowała 43 tys. urządzeń. Był autorem wielu publikacji w języku angielskim dotyczących techniki telekomunikacyjnej, autor 30 patentów USA z tej dziedziny. Wniósł duży wkład w dziedzinę łączności wojskowej, techniki radiowej i telekomunikacji. Był członkiem IEEE. Zmarł na raka w swoim domu w Glenview w stanie Illinois. Henryk Magnuski Henryk Władysław Magnuski was a Polish telecommunications engineer who worked for Motorola in Chicago. He was a primary contributor in the development of one of the first Walkie-Talkie radios, the Motorola SCR-300, and influenced the company's success in the field of radio communication. Magnuski was born on January 30, 1909, in Warsaw. In June 1939 he was sent by his company to New York in order to study the latest American projects of radio transmitters. Being there the War started. After the war he did not return to Poland and stayed in the USA. He died on May 4, 1978. The Henry Magnuski Electrical and Computer Engineering professorship at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is named in his honour.
  • 19. 19 Josef Murgaš * 17. február 1864, Tajov † 11. máj 1929, Wilkes Barre, Pensylvánia, USA) Jozef Murgaš was born in Tajov, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire (now Slovakia). He studied theology in Prešporok (Pressburg, present Bratislava -1880– 82), Esztergom (Ostrihom) (1882–84) and in Banská Bystrica, where he graduated in 1888. From his youth he was bright, skillful and good at painting and electrotechnology. Murgaš had to emigrate to the United States in 1896, where he was assigned a Slovak parish in the city of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Having no possibility for painting, he started to deal with natural sciences again, especially electrotechnology. He established a laboratory in Wilkes-Barre, in which he primarily investigated radiotelegraphy. His article in the Tovaryšstvo magazine of 1900 shows that his radiotelegraphy studies had achieved a high level. In 1904, he received his first two US patents: the Apparatus for wireless telegraphy and The way of transmitted messages by wireless telegraphy. Further 15 patents followed between 1907 and 1916. When the United States entered World War I, private radiotelegraphy stations were prohibited which put an end to Murgaš's pioneer work in this field. After the creation of Czechoslovakia, he returned to Slovakia in 1920, where he taught electrotechnology at a high school but since he did not find appropriate understanding by the Ministry of Education in Prague, he returned to Wilkes-Barre four months later. He was nominated to be a member of the Federal Radio
  • 20. 20 Commission of the United States in 1925. Murgaš died in Wilkes-Barre four years later. Murgash´s most famous attempt was a radio link between the mayors of Scranton and Wikes-Barre, 30 miles apart. The transfer was successful, as confirmed by both mayors. Him radio successfully connected to a distance of 200 kilometers, inBrooklyn. The experiment was successful thanks to Universal Aether Telegraph Co., which they fouded in Philadelphia precisely becouse of Murgash´s inventions. Togheder with him, they could practically use them. For this experiment, they built two stations- a test and transmission station, which had sixty- meter antenna masts. The most important patents · "Wireless-telegraph apparatus" (1904) · "The way of transmitted messages by wireless telegraphy" (1904) · "Constructing Antennas for Wireless Telegraphy" (July 16, 1907). picture 1 picture 2 Source: picture 1: https://www.startitup.sk/jozef-murgas-slovensky-vynalezca- knaz-ktory-prispek-vzniku-wifi/ picture 2: https://www.startitup.sk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/adj-towers- 1.jpg?x85532
  • 21. 21 Isaac Newton Isaac Newton, an English physicist, mathematician and astronomer who invented the reflecting telescope in 1668. A new type of telescope, he presented to his colleagues in England’s Royal Society in January 1672. Instead of glass lenses, Newton’s telescope used two polished metal mirrors. Telescope has a 2.54-m diameter primary mirror. The telescope sends an image to the back of the tube and then reflects it off an angled mirror back up the tube. The image then goes into an eyepiece and into the person's eye. The eyepiece uses one or more lenses that are used to make the image larger. His design, called a Newtonian telescope, is still in common use today. The Isaac Newton Telescope was a very large telescope for its day, and the largest in England. Today, the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) sits proudly at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma. Filip, NSP im. I. Newtona, Przemyśl A short biography of Isaac Newton by Kuba, NSP im. I. Newtona, Przemyśl Isaac Newton was educated at Grantham Free Grammar School, where he showed no aptitude for study. His mother removed him from school and gave him the task of managing her estate, but at this, he also proved unfortunately inept. He was allowed to return to school, and he must have improved his study habits, for his mother was persuaded to allow him to enter university at Trinity College, Cambridge. Newton intended to study law, but his taste quickly turned to mathematics. He received his
  • 22. 22 bachelor's degree in the spring of 1665, but then an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close, and Newton returned to his Lincolnshire home. It was during this time of retreat that the famous incident of a falling apple gave Newton the first glimmerings of the ideas he later developed into his study of gravitational forces. More information on Newton here. Michał, NSP im. I. Newtona, Przemyśl activity
  • 23. 23 Ernő Rubik Ernő Rubik (Hungarian: [ˈrubik ˈɛrnøː]) was born in Budapest, Hungary, 13 July 1944, during World War II, and has lived all his life in Hungary. His father, Ernő Rubik, was a flight engineer at the Esztergom aircraft factory, and his mother, Magdolna Szántó, was a poet. He has stated in almost every interview that he got his inspiration from his father. Ernő Rubik is a Hungarian inventor, architect and professor of architecture. He is best known for the invention of mechanical puzzles including the Rubik's Cube (1974), Rubik's Magic, Rubik's Magic: Master Edition, and Rubik's Snake. Rubik studied sculpture at the Academy of Applied Arts and Design in Budapest and architecture at the Technical University, also in Budapest. While a professor of design at the academy, he pursued his hobby of building geometric models. One of these was a prototype of his cube, made of 27 wooden blocks; it took Rubik a month to solve the problem of the cube. Almost all of us have had to deal with Rubik's cube, called by the Hungarians the magic cube (bűvös kocka). The standard consists of 26 squares in six different
  • 24. 24 colors. The challenge is to arrange them so that there are squares of the same color on each wall. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernő_Rubik Pola, SP9 Dzierżoniów
  • 25. 25 TADEUSZ SENDZIMIR Polish mechanical engineer, metallurgist, inventor, industrialist. In metallurgy, he made a revolution similar to Nicolaus Copernicus. His discoveries and inventions were used all over the world and revolutionized the methods of metal processing. Calendar On July 15, 1894 he was born in Lviv 1918–29 he ran a factory for screws, nails and wire in Shanghai 1933 the Z rolling mill was launched in Huta "Pokój" in Nowy Bytom, he created a line of continuous cold rolling and galvanizing of steel sheet in Kostuchno near Katowice 1939 moved to the USA 1945 founded his own company, Armzen, in Waterbury, Connecticut 1977 designed the first spiral looper in the USA On September 1, 1989, he died in Jupiter near Palm Beach (Florida) Interesting facts: ● Sendzimir has obtained a total of around 120 patents (73 of them in the US) in a wide variety of fields. They mainly relate to plastic processing methods, but also, for example, anti-corrosion coatings of metals and heat shields, which have been used, among others, in spacecraft, and even such surprising ideas as floating artificial islands for fishermen participating in deep-sea fishing. ● The Sendzimir Foundation was established to counteract environmental degradation resulting from the development of industry and human activity. At the end of the 1980s, when the scale of the devastation of the environment in the countries of the Eastern Bloc was revealed, he decided to set up a foundation to support sustainable development in Poland.
  • 26. 26 KAZIMIERZ PRÓSZYŃSKI Kazimierz Prószyński (ur. 4 kwietnia 1875 w Warszawie, zm. 13 marca 1945 w obozie Mauthausen-Gusen) – polski przedsiębiorca, operator filmowy, reżyser, inżynier jak również wynalazca. Konstruktor pionierskich aparatów kinematograficznych oraz kamer filmowych. Pionier polskiej oraz światowej kinematografii. Kazimierz Prószyński edukację swoją rozpoczął w Warszawie, tam też ukończył gimnazjum. Rodzice, widząc jego zainteresowanie naukami ścisłymi, wysłali go na politechnikę w Liège w Belgii. Tam już jako student dał się poznać jako utalentowany wynalazca, konstruując w 1894 roku swój pierwszy aparat do rejestracji i odtwarzania filmów – pleograf. Urządzenie to robiło ok. 50 fotografii na sekundę co powodowało płynność ruchu. W tym czasie inne istniejące urządzenia robiły 16 lub 25 zdjęć na sekundę – ruch był spowolniony, a obraz przeskakiwał. Podstawą pleografu było urządzenie do przesuwania taśmy filmowej w środku - aby przesuwała się z odpowiednią prędkością i niezawodnością. Musiał skonstruować każdy drobny element: chwytaki, korbki itd. Sam pleograf nie działał jeszcze idealnie i wymagał dalszych udoskonaleń. W 1914 r. Kazimierz poślubił Angielkę, Dorothy Abrey, z którą miał dwoje dzieci, syna Kazimierza i córkę Irenę. Jego rodzina przeżyła wojnę. Podczas okupacji Polski podjął działalność konspiracyjną. 22 sierpnia 1944 roku wywieziony został do obozu koncentracyjnego w Gross-Rosen. Zmarł jako więzień numer 129957 w wieku 70 lat w hitlerowskim obozie koncentracyjnym Mauthausen-Gusen.
  • 27. 27 Gayetty Joseph (c. 1817-1827 – c. 1890s) was an American inventor credited with the invention of commercial toilet paper. It was the first and remained only one of the few commercial toilet papers from 1857 to 1890 remaining in common use until the invention of splinter-free toilet paper in 1935 by the Northern Tissue Company. Alicja, SP4 Bydgoszcz
  • 28. 28 George Stephenson Urodził się 9 VI 1781 w Wylam koło Newcastle upon Tyne. Pochodził z ubogiej rodziny górniczej, a wyrósł na jednego z głównych twórców podstaw nowoczesnej techniki — jego biografia stanowi przykład wielkiej kariery uzdolnionego przedstawiciela nizin społecznych.Bieda zmusiła go do zarobkowania, zanim skończył dziesięć lat. Najpierw pasał krowy, potem poganiał konie w kopalni. Z czasem awansował na pomocnika mechanika i zaznajomiwszy się z funkcjonowaniem rozmaitych urządzeń, szybko nauczył się nie tylko je obsługiwać, ale i naprawiać. Jako siedemnastolatek zawiadywał już samodzielnie maszyną parową Newcomena. Dopiero wtedy w szkole wieczorowej nauczył się czytać, pisać i liczyć. W 1812 nastąpił pomyślny zwrot w jego życiu — doceniono jego fachowość i zatrudniono jako mechanika w miejscowej kopalni High Pit z zawrotną w stosunku do dotychczasowych zarobków pensją — 100 funtów rocznie. Mając zapewniony byt, zajął się realizacją swoich pomysłów.W 1829 roku zorganizowano publiczny konkurs parowozów na równinie Rainhill. Rywalizację tę zdecydowanie wygrała zaprojektowana przez Stephensona, zbudowana w Newcastle lokomotywa The Rocket, osiągając momentami prędkość dochodzącą do 48 km/h. Wydarzenie to przekonało opinię publiczną, że przyszłość należy do koni mechanicznych. A dla powstającej kolei zamówiono w wytwórni Stephensona 8 parowozów.
  • 29. 29 Rakieta Stephensona (The Rocket) – parowóz będący pierwszym, który w 1829 roku zbudowali George i Robert Stephensonowie. Jego konstrukcją kierował jedyny syn Stephensona, Robert (1803–59).Jemu zawdzięczano większość udoskonaleń wprowadzanych tam wówczas do konstrukcji parowozów.„Rakieta” była pierwszym „nowoczesnym” parowozem, w którym użyto płomieniówkowego (wielorurowego) kotła.Maksymalna prędkość tej maszyny wynosiła 48 km/h. „Rakieta” Stephensona wciąż istnieje i na stałe jest eksponowana w Science Museum w Londynie w znacznie zmodyfikowanej formie w porównaniu do jej stanu z Rainhill Trials. W 1979 została zbudowana przez Enterprises Locomotion replika „Rakiety”. Max, NSP im. I. Newtona w Przemyślu
  • 30. 30 George Stephenson George was born in Wylam, Northumberland, 9.3 miles (15 km) west of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was the second child of working-class parents – Robert and Mabel. Both his parents were illiterate and they did not have enough money to send George to school. However, George was keen to get an education and so devoted his evenings to learning to read and write. ɪɴ 1821, sᴛᴇᴘʜᴇɴsᴏɴ ᴡᴀs ᴀᴘᴘᴏɪɴᴛᴇᴅ ᴇɴɢɪɴᴇᴇʀ ғᴏʀ ᴛʜᴇ ᴄᴏɴsᴛʀᴜᴄᴛɪᴏɴ ᴏғ ᴛʜᴇ sᴛᴏᴄᴋᴛᴏɴ ᴀɴᴅ ᴅᴀʀʟɪɴɢᴛᴏɴ ʀᴀɪʟᴡᴀʏ. ɪᴛ ᴏᴘᴇɴᴇᴅ ɪɴ 1825 ᴀɴᴅ ᴡᴀs ᴛʜᴇ ғɪʀsᴛ ᴘᴜʙʟɪᴄ ʀᴀɪʟᴡᴀʏ. ᴛʜᴇ ғᴏʟʟᴏᴡɪɴɢ ʏᴇᴀʀ sᴛᴇᴘʜᴇɴsᴏɴ ᴡᴀs ᴍᴀᴅᴇ ᴇɴɢɪɴᴇᴇʀ ғᴏʀ ᴛʜᴇ ʟɪᴠᴇʀᴘᴏᴏʟ ᴛᴏ ᴍᴀɴᴄʜᴇsᴛᴇʀ ʀᴀɪʟᴡᴀʏ. ɪɴ ᴏᴄᴛᴏʙᴇʀ 1829, ᴛʜᴇ ʀᴀɪʟᴡᴀʏ’s ᴏᴡɴᴇʀs sᴛᴀɢᴇᴅ ᴀ ᴄᴏᴍᴘᴇᴛɪᴛɪᴏɴ ᴀᴛ ʀᴀɪɴʜɪʟʟ ᴛᴏ ғɪɴᴅ ᴛʜᴇ ʙᴇsᴛ ᴋɪɴᴅ ᴏғ ʟᴏᴄᴏᴍᴏᴛɪᴠᴇ ᴛᴏ ᴘᴜʟʟ ʜᴇᴀᴠʏ ʟᴏᴀᴅs ᴏᴠᴇʀ ʟᴏɴɢ ᴅɪsᴛᴀɴᴄᴇs. ᴛʜᴏᴜsᴀɴᴅs ᴄᴀᴍᴇ ᴛᴏ ᴡᴀᴛᴄʜ. sᴛᴇᴘʜᴇɴsᴏɴ’s ʟᴏᴄᴏᴍᴏᴛɪᴠᴇ ‘ʀᴏᴄᴋᴇᴛ’ ᴡᴀs ᴛʜᴇ ᴡɪɴɴᴇʀ, ᴀᴄʜɪᴇᴠɪɴɢ ᴀ ʀᴇᴄᴏʀᴅ sᴘᴇᴇᴅ ᴏғ 36 ᴍɪʟᴇs ᴘᴇʀ ʜᴏᴜʀ. Tymek, NSP im. I. Newtona, Przemyśl
  • 31. 31 Jan Boży Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz was born on March 8, 1822 in the village of Zaduszniki (now Mielec County, Podkarpackie Province) in an impoverished noble family as the son of Józef and Apolonia née Świetlik. In 1836, he graduated from the 4th grade of the Piarist Fathers' gymnasium in Rzeszów and due to the difficult material conditions in which his family found himself, he started working in a pharmacy in Łańcut, and later in Rzeszów. There he joined a secret patriotic organization and was arrested in 1846 on suspicion of illegal activities directed against the Austrian partitioner and stayed in prison until 1848. After his release from prison, he started working in the pharmacy "Pod Gwiazdą" by Piotr Mikolasch in Lviv. In the years 1850-1852 he studied pharmacy at the Universities of Krakow and Vienna. In 1852 in Vienna, he obtained a master's degree in pharmacy and returned to work in the pharmacy of Piotr Mikolasch, where he took the position of a commissioner. In the years 1852-1853, Ignacy Łukasiewicz, together with Jan Zeh, conducted research on crude oil in the back of the pharmacy. After cleaning this fluid, he obtained light kerosene. On July 31, 1853, kerosene lamps, made by Adam Bratkowski, a tinsmith from Lviv, designed by Łukasiewicz, were lit for the first time in the hospital in Łyczaków in Lviv. The date of July 31, 1853 is considered to be the date of the emergence of the Polish oil industry. At the turn of 1853/54, Łukasiewicz left Lviv and moved to the vicinity of oil-bearing areas - to Gorlice, where he leased a pharmacy. He has not stopped working on improving the process of obtaining kerosene. In 1854, together with Tytus Trzecieski, he founded the first oil company in the world, which started to extract and exploit crude oil in Bóbrka near Krosno. In 1856, as a result of obtaining significant amounts of crude oil, Łukasiewicz established the first crude oil distillery in Poland.
  • 32. 32 For his charity work, Pope Pius IX in 1873 awarded him the title of Papal Chamberlain and awarded him with the Order of St. Gregory. Ignacy Łukasiewicz died in Chorkówka on January 7, 1882 of pneumonia and was buried in the parish cemetery in Zręcin. Students from the Primary School Common Europe in Zalesie Górne
  • 33. 33 Kazimierz Żegleń SP 39 Kielce Kazimierz Żegleń was born on March 4, 1869. He was the son of Bartłomiej and Marianna. They lived in the village of Kaczanówka, near Tarnopol in Galicia. In 1890, at the age of 21, he left for the United States, where he took up the duties of sacristan at the Polish church of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in Chicago. At the beginning of the 20th century, he left the convent, got married and took up
  • 34. 34 business, establishing several companies producing vests and bulletproof materials. He founded three enterprises and factories. Until the end of his life (probably in 1910), he lived and worked in Chicago. Inventions of Kazimierz Żegleń 1. Tubeless and puncture-proof tires 2. A bulletproof armor plate 3. A bulletprof material